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Pharmacogenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050146/-metabolism-genes-and-pharmacogenetics-of-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants
#1
W Y Pang, X W Chen, Z G Zhai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047147/case-control-pharmacogenetic-study-of-hcn1-hcn2-variants-and-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#2
Shu-Zhi Wu, Hua Ye, Xiao-Guo Yang, Zhi-Li Lu, Qiang Qu, Jian Qu
Epilepsy is a common complex neurological disorder, and some forms are resistant to drug treatment. The HCN1/HCN2 genes encode hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, which play important roles in the electrophysiology of neurons. We investigated the association between HCN1/HCN2 variants and drug resistance or the risk of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs). We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to assess nine variants of HCN1/HCN2 in 284 healthy participants and 483 GGEs (279 drug-responsive, 204 drug-resistant)...
October 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040422/pharmacogenetics-a-general-review-on-progress-to-date
#3
Ann K Daly
Background: Pharmacogenetics is not a new subject area but its relevance to drug prescribing has become clearer in recent years due to developments in gene cloning and DNA genotyping and sequencing. Sources of data: There is a very extensive published literature concerned with a variety of different genes and drugs. Areas of agreement: There is general agreement that pharmacogenetic testing is essential for the safe use of drugs such as the thiopurines and abacavir...
October 11, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034839/pharmacogenetics-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#4
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Marilia Cardoso Smith, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: While the angiotensin-converting enzyme degrades amyloid-β, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) may slow cognitive decline by way of cholinergic effects, by increasing brain substance P and boosting the activity of neprilysin, and by modulating glucose homeostasis and augmenting the secretion of adipokines to enhance insulin sensitivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We aimed to investigate whether ACE gene polymorphisms rs1800764 and rs4291 are associated with cognitive and functional change in patients with AD, while also taking APOE haplotypes and anti-hypertensive treatment with ACEis into account for stratification...
October 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031912/the-association-of-%C3%AE-arrestin2-polymorphisms-with-response-to-antidepressant-treatment-in-depressed-patients
#5
Anne-Cécile Petit, Khalil El Asmar, Denis J David, Alain M Gardier, Laurent Becquemont, Bruno Fève, Céline Verstuyft, Emmanuelle Corruble
The study of genetic polymorphisms involved in antidepressants (AD) response is essential to provide a personalized medicine approach in the field of depression. β-arrestin 2 (ARRB2) is a candidate gene in the pharmacogenetics of AD as it is involved in the signaling cascade downstream of numerous neurotransmitter receptors. We investigated the association between five ARRB2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs1045280, rs2036657, rs4790694, rs3786047 and rs452246, and response to AD treatment in a sample of 569 patients with a major depressive episode treated for 6months...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031817/bcrp-abcg2-and-high-alert-medications-biochemical-pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic-and-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Daiki Hira, Tomohiro Terada
The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter that uses ATP hydrolysis to expel xenobiotics from cells, including anti-cancer medications. It is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, and brain endothelium. Thus, ABCG2 functions as a tissue barrier to drug transport that strongly influences the pharmacokinetics of substrate medications. Genetic polymorphisms of ABCG2 are closely related to inter-individual variations in therapeutic performance...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025271/psychotropic-drugs-and-cyp2d6-in-late-life-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders-what-do-we-know
#7
Davide Seripa, Madia Lozupone, Eleonora Stella, Giulia Paroni, Paola Bisceglia, Maddalena La Montagna, Grazia D'onofrio, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Maria Giovanna Priore, Angela Lamanna, Antonio Daniele, Antonello Bellomo, Giancarlo Logroscino, Antonio Greco, Francesco Panza
Late-life psychiatric and neurological disorders (LLPND) are interesting models to understand the potential role of pharmacogenetics in drug management, since several pharmacological approaches for treating LLPND have proven to be ineffective or deleterious, thus resulting in therapeutic failures (TF) and adverse drug reactions (ADR). Common variants in the genes encoding the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system, the 'engine room' of drug metabolism, together with well-known age-related increased polypharmacy also contributed to the prevalence of TF and ADR observed in these patients, also rising number and time of hospital readmissions and rate of institutionalizations...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020843/interview-about-the-gift-trial-pharmacogenetics-and-warfarin
#8
Brian F Gage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017764/dna-methylation-and-antipsychotic-treatment-mechanisms-in-schizophrenia-progress-and-future-directions
#9
REVIEW
Ellen S Ovenden, Nathaniel W McGregor, Robin A Emsley, Louise Warnich
Antipsychotic response in schizophrenia is a complex, multifactorial trait influenced by pharmacogenetic factors. With genetic studies thus far providing little biological insight or clinical utility, the field of pharmacoepigenomics has emerged to tackle the so-called "missing heritability" of drug response in disease. Research on psychiatric disorders has only recently started to assess the link between epigenetic alterations and treatment outcomes. DNA methylation, the best characterised epigenetic mechanism to date, is discussed here in the context of schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment outcomes...
October 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017379/hla-associated-drug-hypersensitivity-and-the-prediction-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#10
Simone Negrini, Laurent Becquemont
Adverse drug reactions are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and constitute the leading reason of drug withdrawal from the market. Besides classical reactions that are related to pharmacologic activity of the drug, some reactions are unpredictable, not dose dependent, and seem to occur in genetically predisposed individuals. The majority of this reaction is immunologically driven and they are referred to as hypersensitivity reactions. A growing number of studies provided evidences that specific HLA alleles increase the risk of developing hypersensitivity drug reactions...
October 11, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994452/comparison-of-the-guidelines-of-the-clinical-pharmacogenetics-implementation-consortium-and-the-dutch-pharmacogenetics-working-group
#11
REVIEW
Pcd Bank, K E Caudle, J J Swen, R S Gammal, M Whirl-Carrillo, T E Klein, M V Relling, H-J Guchelaar
Both the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group provide therapeutic recommendations for well-known gene-drug pairs. Published recommendations show a high rate of concordance. However, as a result of different guideline development methods used by these two consortia, differences between the published guidelines exist. The aim of this paper is to compare both initiatives and explore these differences, with the objective to achieve harmonization.
June 9, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994310/pharmacogenetic-considerations-for-hiv-treatment-in-different-ethnicities-an-update
#12
M Neary, A Owen
Variations in the human genome sequence sometimes play an important role in pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics. Previous studies have demonstrated a high degree of variation both between and within different ethnic populations. Areas Covered: This review sought to summarise key SNPs in CYP2B6, CYP3A enzymes, CYP2C enzymes, UGT2 enzymes, ABCB1, ABCC2, SLCO1B1, NR1I2 and NR1I3 that have previously been associated with variability in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics. Additionally, the impact of ethnicity in these pharmacogenetics studies is discussed and variation in findings between different ethnic groups is reviewed...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993837/gaba-receptors-and-the-pharmacology-of-sleep
#13
W Wisden, X Yu, N P Franks
Current GABAergic sleep-promoting medications were developed pragmatically, without making use of the immense diversity of GABAA receptors. Pharmacogenetic experiments are leading to an understanding of the circuit mechanisms in the hypothalamus by which zolpidem and similar compounds induce sleep at α2βγ2-type GABAA receptors. Drugs acting at more selective receptor types, for example, at receptors containing the α2 and/or α3 subunits expressed in hypothalamic and brain stem areas, could in principle be useful as hypnotics/anxiolytics...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992739/pharmacogenetic-and-pharmacogenomic-considerations-of-asthma-treatment
#14
Maria Gabriella Matera, Barbara Rinaldi, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola
Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic approaches are already utilized in some areas, such as oncology and cardiovascular disease, for selecting appropriate patients and/or establishing treatment and dosing guidelines. This is not true in asthma although many patients have different responses to drug treatment due to genetic factors. Areas covered: Several genetic factors that affect the pharmacotherapeutic responses to asthma medications, such as β2-AR agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene modifiers and could contribute to significant between-person variability in response are described...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992526/improved-efficacy-with-targeted-pharmacogenetic-guided-treatment-of-patients-with-depression-and-anxiety-a-randomized-clinical-trial-demonstrating-clinical-utility
#15
Paul Bradley, Michael Shiekh, Vishaal Mehra, Keith Vrbicky, Stacey Layle, Marilyn C Olson, Alejandra Maciel, Ali Cullors, Jorge A Garces, Andrew A Lukowiak
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pharmacogenetics-guided treatment on patients diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety, in a diverse set of clinical settings, as compared to the standard of care. The trial design followed a prospective, randomized, subject- and rater-blinded approach enrolling 685 patients from clinical providers specializing in Psychiatry, Internal Medicine, Obstetrics & Gynecology, and Family Medicine. The NeuroIDgenetix(®) test uses a genetic variant panel of ten genes, along with concomitant medications, to make medication management recommendations based on gene-drug and drug-drug interactions for over 40 medications used in the treatment of depression and anxiety...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991183/orexin-receptor-multimerization-versus-functional-interactions-neuropharmacological-implications-for-opioid-and-cannabinoid-signalling-and-pharmacogenetics
#16
Miles D Thompson, Takeshi Sakurai, Innocenzo Rainero, Mary C Maj, Jyrki P Kukkonen
Orexins/hypocretins are neuropeptides formed by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor peptide, which are produced by neurons found in the lateral hypothalamus. The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for these ligands, the OX₁ and OX₂ orexin receptors, are more widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. The orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in many pathways, and its dysregulation is under investigation in a number of diseases. Disorders in which orexinergic mechanisms are being investigated include narcolepsy, idiopathic sleep disorders, cluster headache and migraine...
October 8, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990639/pharmacogenomics-and-psychiatric-clinical-care
#17
Russell J Amato, Joseph Boland, Nicole Myer, Lauren Few, Daniel Dowd
Approximately one in five individuals in the United States experiences mental health issues in any given year, and these disorders are consistently among the leading causes of years lived with disability. Unfortunately, many mental illnesses are lifelong conditions that require medication and therapy to improve quality of life, yet clinical trial data show that many patients fail to achieve remission or require several pharmacological interventions prior to remission. These results indicate a need to address the variability among patients in their response to medication, in addition to developing treatment plans tailored to the individual...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989100/pleiotropic-genes-in-psychiatry-calcium-channels-and-the-stress-related-fkbp5-gene-in-antidepressant-resistance
#18
Chiara Fabbri, Filippo Corponi, Diego Albani, Ilaria Raimondi, Gianluigi Forloni, Koen Schruers, Siegfried Kasper, Alexander Kautzky, Joseph Zohar, Daniel Souery, Stuart Montgomery, Carlotta Pia Cristalli, Vilma Mantovani, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti
A candidate gene and a genome-wide approach were combined to study the pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response and resistance. Investigated genes were selected on the basis of pleiotropic effect across psychiatric phenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies and involvement in antidepressant response. Three samples with major depressive disorder (total=671) were genotyped for 44 SNPs in 8 candidate genes (CACNA1C, CACNB2, ANK3, GRM7, TCF4, ITIH3, SYNE1, FKBP5). Phenotypes were response/remission after 4weeks of treatment and treatment-resistant depression (TRD)...
October 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981537/an-ancestral-human-genetic-variant-linked-to-an-ancient-disease-a-novel-association-of-fmo2-polymorphisms-with-tuberculosis-tb-in-ethiopian-populations-provides-new-insight-into-the-differential-ethno-geographic-distribution-of-fmo2-1
#19
Ephrem Mekonnen, Endashaw Bekele
The human FMO2 (flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) gene has been shown to be involved in innate immunity against microbial infections, including tuberculosis (TB), via the modulation of oxidative stress levels. It has also been found to possess a curious loss-of-function mutation (FMO2*1/FMO2*2) that demonstrates a distinctive differentiation in expression, function and ethno-geographic distribution. However, despite evidences of ethnic-specific genetic associations in the inflammatory profile of TB, no studies were done to investigate whether these patterns of variations correlate with evidences for the involvement of FMO2 in antimicrobial immune responses and ethnic differences in the distribution of FMO2 polymorphisms except for some pharmacogenetic data that suggest a potentially deleterious role for the functional variant (FMO2*1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978660/meta-analysis-of-pharmacogenetic-interactions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-clinical-trials
#20
Ruben P A van Eijk, Ashley R Jones, William Sproviero, Aleksey Shatunov, Pamela J Shaw, P Nigel Leigh, Carolyn A Young, Christopher E Shaw, Gabriele Mora, Jessica Mandrioli, Giuseppe Borghero, Paolo Volanti, Frank P Diekstra, Wouter van Rheenen, Esther Verstraete, Marinus J C Eijkemans, Jan H Veldink, Adriano Chio, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Leonard H van den Berg, Michael A van Es
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether genetic subgroups in recent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) trials responded to treatment with lithium carbonate, but that the treatment effect was lost in a large cohort of nonresponders. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from 3 randomized trials investigating the efficacy of lithium carbonate. We matched clinical data with data regarding the UNC13A and C9orf72 genotype. Our primary outcome was survival at 12 months...
October 4, 2017: Neurology
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