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Oliver Dukes, Stijn Vansteelandt
G-estimation is a flexible, semiparametric approach for estimating exposure effects in epidemiologic studies. It has several under-appreciated advantages over other propensity score-based methods popular in epidemiology, which we review in this note. However, it is rarely used in practice, due to a lack of off-the-shelf software. To rectify this, we show a simple trick for obtaining G-estimators of causal risk ratios using existing generalized estimating equations software. We extend the procedure to more complex settings with time-varying confounders...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Kelly J Gambino-Shirley, Adiam Tesfai, Colin A Schwensohn, Cindy Burnett, Lori Smith, Jennifer M Wagner, Dana Eikmeier, Kirk Smith, Jolianne P Stone, Dawn Updike, Jonas Hines, Lauren N Shade, Beth Tolar, Tong-Jen Fu, Stelios Viazis, Sharon L Seelman, Kathryn Blackshear, Matthew E Wise, Karen P Neil
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Meal replacement products containing raw and 'superfood' ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers in recent years. In January 2016, we investigated a multistate outbreak of infections with a novel strain of Salmonella Virchow. Methods: Cases were defined using molecular subtyping procedures. Commonly reported exposures were compared with responses from healthy people interviewed in the 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jacopo Agagliate, Rüdiger Röttgers, Michael S Twardowski, David McKee
A flow cytometric (FC) method was developed to retrieve particle size distributions (PSDs) and real refractive index (nr ) information in natural waters. Geometry and signal response of the sensors within the flow cytometer (CytoSense, CytoBuoy b.v., Netherlands) were characterized to form a scattering inversion model based on Mie theory. The procedure produced a mesh of diameter and nr isolines where each particle is assigned the diameter and nr values of the closest node, producing PSDs and particle real refractive index distributions...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Ryusuke Ae, Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi, Yosikazu Nakamura, Masahito Yamada, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Ermias D Belay, Lawrence B Schonberger
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that, according to the most well accepted hypothesis (1), is caused by replicating, transmissible, abnormal forms of a host-encoded prion protein (prions). Most CJD cases occur spontaneously (sporadic CJD) or are inherited (genetic CJD). Iatrogenic CJD can occur after exposure to prion-contaminated instruments or products in medical/surgical settings. Cadaveric dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD) accounts for a common form of iatrogenic CJD...
March 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Donny W H Merkx, G T Sophie Hong, Alessia Ermacora, John P M van Duynhoven
Lipid oxidation is one of the most important reasons for the compromised shelf life of food emulsions. A major bottleneck in unravelling the underlying mechanisms is the lack of methods that provide a rapid, quantitative and comprehensive molecular view on lipid oxidation in these heterogeneous systems. In this study, the unbiased and quantitative nature of 1H NMR was exploited to assess lipid oxidation products in mayonnaise, a particularly oxidation-prone food emulsion. An efficient and robust procedure was implemented to produce samples where the 1H NMR signals of oxidation products could be observed in a well resolved and reproducible manner...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Nikolas Tsilimparis, Sebastian E Debus, Max Biehl, Konstantinos Spanos, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Sabine Wipper, Fiona Rohlffs, Tilo Kölbel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the immediate postoperative and midterm outcome of complex aortic aneurysm treatment necessitating four-vessel revascularization with either a total endovascular approach (fenestrated-branched stent graft [FBSG]) or a hybrid technique of visceral debranching plus stenting. METHODS: The clinical data of consecutively treated patients presenting with a complex aortic aneurysm that necessitated four-vessel revascularization between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Benedict Diederich, Rolf Wartmann, Harald Schadwinkel, Rainer Heintzmann
Cellphones equipped with high-quality cameras and powerful CPUs as well as GPUs are widespread. This opens new prospects to use such existing computational and imaging resources to perform medical diagnosis in developing countries at a very low cost. Many relevant samples, like biological cells or waterborn parasites, are almost fully transparent. As they do not exhibit absorption, but alter the light's phase only, they are almost invisible in brightfield microscopy. Expensive equipment and procedures for microscopic contrasting or sample staining often are not available...
2018: PloS One
Michael F Cameron, Kathryn J Frost, Jay M Ver Hoef, Greg A Breed, Alex V Whiting, John Goodwin, Peter L Boveng
The first year of life is typically the most critical to a pinniped's survival, especially for Arctic phocids which are weaned at only a few weeks of age and left to locate and capture prey on their own. Their seasonal movements and habitat selection are therefore important factors in their survival. During a cooperative effort between scientists and subsistence hunters in October 2004, 2005, and 2006, 13 female and 13 male young (i.e., age <2) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) were tagged with satellite-linked dive recorders (SDRs) in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska...
2018: PloS One
Andreas Schwaighofer, Julia Kuligowski, Guillermo Quintás, Helmut K Mayer, Bernhard Lendl
Analysis of proteins in bovine milk is usually tackled by time-consuming analytical approaches involving wet-chemical, multi-step sample clean-up procedures. The use of external cavity-quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) based IR spectroscopy was evaluated as an alternative screening tool for direct and simultaneous quantification of individual proteins (i.e. casein and β-lactoglobulin) and total protein content in commercial bovine milk samples. Mid-IR spectra of protein standard mixtures were used for building partial least squares (PLS) regression models...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Juan Aznar-Poveda, Jose Antonio Lopez-Pastor, Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez, Joan Garcia-Haro, Toribio Fernández Otero
Traditionally, electrochemical procedures aimed at determining substance concentrations have required a costly and cumbersome laboratory environment. Specialized equipment and personnel obtain precise results under complex and time-consuming settings. Innovative electrochemical-based sensors are emerging to alleviate this difficulty. However, they are generally scarce, proprietary hardware and/or software, and focused only on measuring a restricted range of substances. In this paper, we propose a portable, flexible, low-cost system, built from commercial off-the-shelf components and easily controlled, using open-source software...
February 10, 2018: Sensors
Michael A Marciano, Sini X Panicker, Garrett D Liddil, Danielle Lindgren, Kevin S Sweder
This study is the first to report the successful development of a method to extract opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) DNA from heroin samples. Determining of the source of an unknown heroin sample (forensic geosourcing) is vital to informing domestic and foreign policy related to counter-narcoterrorism. Current profiling methods focus on identifying process-related chemical impurities found in heroin samples. Changes to the geographically distinct processing methods may lead to difficulties in classifying and attributing heroin samples to a region/country...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leo Kobayashi, Xiao Chi Zhang, Scott A Collins, Naz Karim, Derek L Merck
Introduction: Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator) and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner). Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Methods: Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1) implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2) use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information...
January 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ralph J Mobbs, Wen JieChoy, Peter Wilson, Aidan McEvoy, Kevin Phan, William C H Parr
BACKGROUND: Spine surgery has the potential to benefit from Additive Manufacturing / 3-Dimensional (3D) printing (3DP) technology with complex anatomical pathologies requiring reconstruction, with the potential to customise surgery to reduce operative times, reduce blood loss, provide immediate stability and potentially improve fusion rates. We report a unique case of intraoperative trial placement of a custom Patient Specific Implant (PSI) versus final implantation of a customisable Off-The-Shelf (OTS) implant...
January 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Gregory J P Perry, Igor Larrosa
The beginning of the 21st century has seen tremendous growth in the field of decarboxylative activation. Benzoic acid derivatives are now recognised as atom-economic alternatives to traditional cross-coupling partners, and they also benefit from being inexpensive, readily available and shelf-stable reagents. In this microreview we discuss recent developments in the coupling of benzoic acid derivatives either with an arene or with a second benzoic acid derivative, a process often termed decarboxylative oxidative cross-coupling...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xiaolong Li, Yifu Yang, Jun Cai, Yun Deng, Junfeng Yang, Xinmin Zhou, Lina Tan
Reducing costs is a pragmatic method for promoting the widespread usage of indoor localization technology. Conventional indoor localization systems (ILSs) exploit relatively expensive wireless chips to measure received signal strength for positioning. Our work is based on a cheap and widely-used commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) wireless chip, i.e., the Nordic Semiconductor nRF24LE1, which has only several output power levels, and proposes a new power level based-ILS, called Plils. The localization procedure incorporates two phases: an offline training phase and an online localization phase...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
Jay M Taylor, Karla Perez-Toralla, Ruby Aispuro, Stephen A Morin
The lamination of mechanically stiff structures to elastic materials is prevalent in biological systems and popular in many emerging synthetic systems, such as soft robotics, microfluidics, stretchable electronics, and pop-up assemblies. The disparate mechanical and chemical properties of these materials have made it challenging to develop universal synthetic procedures capable of reliably adhering to these classes of materials together. Herein, a simple and scalable procedure is described that is capable of covalently laminating a variety of commodity ("off-the-shelf") thermoplastic sheets to silicone rubber films...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Kiattisak Hongku, Björn Sonesson, Katarina Björses, Jan Holst, Timothy Resch, Nuno V Dias
OBJECTIVE: To assess the mid-term outcomes and feasibility of branched endovascular repair (b-EVAR) of ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (rTAAAs). METHODS: All patients undergoing b-EVAR of rTAAAs between 2011 and 2016 were included. Pre-, intra and postoperative imaging was reviewed to assess technical success, outcomes, and feasibility of b-EVAR in the emergent setting. RESULTS: Eleven emergency b-EVAR of rTAAAs (10 aneurysms and 1 chronic dissection) were performed using off-the-shelf (OTS) branched stentgrafts...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
James C Rosser, Jeffrey P Fleming, Timothy B Legare, Katherine M Choi, Jamie Nakagiri, Elliot Griffith
OBJECTIVE: To design and develop a distance learning (DL) system for the transference of laparoscopic surgery knowledge and skill constructed from off-the-shelf materials and commercially available software. INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive surgery offers significant benefits over traditional surgical procedures, but adoption rates for many procedures are low. Skill and confidence deficits are two of the culprits. DL combined with simulation training and telementoring may address these issues with scale...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
Kya Shoar, Benjamin W Turney, Robin O Cleveland
Shock wave lithotripsy is a non-invasive procedure by which kidney stones are fragmented by thousands of shock waves. Currently, many shock waves are delivered to the body that do not impact the stone, but do result in tissue trauma. This motivates developing a monitoring system to locate kidney stones, with the goal of gating shock waves not aligned with the stone, and hence, reducing renal trauma during lithotripsy. The system consists of a circular array housing twenty-two 0.5 MHz transducers that can be mounted on a clinical lithotripter...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
O V Maslova, O V Senko, E N Efremenko
Organophosphorus pesticides (OP) are used to protect crops from pests. Treatment of plants and animals with pesticides can be done during their growth or creation of conditions necessary for the long-shelf life of the agricultural products. Currently, there are many remedies for prevention and removal of intoxication consequences developed under the action of OP in living organisms. The development of biologics for the degradation of OP and biotechnologies for their application in agriculture is relevant. New biologics based on the stabilized forms of such enzyme as hexahistidine-tagged organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH) in the form of nano-sized particles were tried for OP detoxification...
November 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
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