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post partum thyroid

Joachim Weitzel, Thorsten Viergutz, Dirk Albrecht, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Marion Schmicke, Armin Tuchscherer, Franziska Koch, Björn Kuhla
During the transition between late gestation and early lactation dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress as occurring with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
Shiqian Hu, Margaret P Rayman
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be the most common autoimmune disease. It is currently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and immune disorders contribute to its development. With regard to nutritional factors, evidence implicates high iodine intake and deficiencies of selenium and iron with a potential relevance of vitamin D status. To elucidate the role of nutritional factors in the risk, pathogenesis, and treatment of HT, PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for publications on iodine, iron, selenium, and vitamin D and risk/treatment of HT...
May 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Tsung-Chun Huang, Yu-Kai Cheng, Tsung-Wei Chen, Yung-Chang Hsu, En-Wei Liu, Hsin-Han Chen
Thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in a pregnant woman is very rare. In the literature, most cases are diagnosed early from neurogenic signs or symptomatic thyroid gland. Pregnancy also contributes to a hesitation toward early surgical and medical treatments. We reported a scalp tumor in a physically healthy 37-year-old pregnant female with a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) with lung, bone and cranial metastasis in initial presentation. Silent neurogenic and physical examinations make an early diagnosis very challenging...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Luigi Albano, Paola Ungaro, Annamaria Colao, Paolo Emidio Macchia
Vitamin D exerts its canonical roles on the musculoskeletal system and in the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. In the last years, increasing evidences suggested several extra-skeletal actions of this hormone, indicating that vitamin D may produce effects in almost all the body tissues. These are mediated by the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and thanks to the presence of the 1-α-hydroxylase, the protein that converts the 25-hydroxyvitamin (calcidiol) to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (calcitriol)...
January 14, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Luba Rakhlin, Stephanie Fish, R Michael Tuttle
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of recurrence/progression of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, it is unclear if the impact of pregnancy would differ based on pre-pregnancy response to therapy status. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of recurrence/progression of DTC, applying the response to therapy assessments to pre-pregnancy status as recommended by the 2015 American Thyroid Association thyroid cancer guidelines. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 235 women followed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center for DTC who had a term pregnancy after initial treatment for DTC between 1997 and 2015...
March 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Anita Jorgensen, Peter O'Leary, Ian James, Sheila Skeaff, Jillian Sherriff
Breast-fed infants may depend solely on an adequate supply of iodine in breast milk for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which are essential for optimal growth and cognitive development. This is the first study to measure breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) among lactating women in Western Australian (n = 55). Breast milk samples were collected between 2014 and 2015 at a mean (±SD) of 38.5 (±5.5) days post-partum. The samples were analysed to determine median BMIC and the percentage of samples with a BMIC < 100 µg/L, a level considered adequate for breast-fed infants...
November 4, 2016: Nutrients
Claudia Teti, Elena Nazzari, Marina Raffaella Galletti, Mattia Grazia Mandolfino, Francesca Pupo, Giampaola Pesce, Flavia Lillo, Marcello Bagnasco, Salvatore Benvenga
BACKGROUND: The use of thyrotropin and free thyroid hormone assays to evaluate thyroid function is widespread, but in some situations the results are inconsistent with the patient's thyroid status. SUMMARY: A 35-year-old woman with a known diagnosis of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was referred to the authors' clinic at week 26 of her second pregnancy. The patient was clinically euthyroid. Consistent with this, her serum thyrotropin (TSH) was normal (0.79 mIU/L), but she had elevated free thyroid hormones-free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4)-as determined by a one-step chemiluminescent assay...
November 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Michael H Dahan, SeangLin Tan
The pituitary gland plays a critical role in reproduction. In response to the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary secretes prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Adreno corticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone. Dysregulation in these hormones often lead to reproductive failure. Multiple mechanisms of pituitary injury exist. Simmond's disease is atrophy or destruction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland resulting in hypopitiutaryism...
July 13, 2016: Minerva Ginecologica
Simone De Leo, Sun Y Lee, Lewis E Braverman
Hyperthyroidism is characterised by increased thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion from the thyroid gland, whereas thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome of excess circulating thyroid hormones, irrespective of the source. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease, followed by toxic nodular goitre. Other important causes of thyrotoxicosis include thyroiditis, iodine-induced and drug-induced thyroid dysfunction, and factitious ingestion of excess thyroid hormones. Treatment options for Graves' disease include antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy, and surgery, whereas antithyroid drugs are not generally used long term in toxic nodular goitre, because of the high relapse rate of thyrotoxicosis after discontinuation...
August 27, 2016: Lancet
Annemiek M C P Joosen, Ivon J M van der Linden, Neletta de Jong-Aarts, Marieke A A Hermus, Antonius A M Ermens, Monique J M de Groot
BACKGROUND: Trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH are recommended to assess thyroid function during pregnancy due to changes in thyroid physiology. Laboratories should verify reference intervals for their population and assay used. No consistent upper reference limit (URL) for TSH during pregnancy is reported in literature. We investigated the use of non-pregnant reference intervals for TSH, recommended during pregnancy by current Dutch guidelines, by deriving trimester-specific reference intervals in disease-free Dutch pregnant women as these are not available...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
E Piantanida, A Lai, L Sassi, D Gallo, E Spreafico, M L Tanda, L Bartalena
Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas and is ultimately due to antibodies interacting with the TSH receptor on thyroid follicular cells [TSH-receptor antibody (TRAb)]. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) belonging to the family of thionamides are the first-line treatment in Europe. ATD treatment is commonly continued for 18-24 months. Its major limitation is the high rate of relapses after drug withdrawal. Factors particularly bound to subsequent relapses are the large thyroid volume, smoking habit, persistence of TRAb in the circulation at the end of treatment, and the post-partum period...
September 2015: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Edoardo Guastamacchia, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Brunella Licchelli, Vincenzo Triggiani
Selenium and iodine are essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and function. Selenium, in form of selenocysteine, is found either in the catalytic center of enzymes involved in the protection of the thyroid gland from free radicals originating during thyroid hormone synthesis, and in three different iodothyronine deiodinases catalyzing the activation and the inactivation of thyroid hormones. Iodine is an essential constituent of thyroid hormones and its deficiency causes different disorders that include goiter, hypothyroidism, reduced fertility and alteration in growth, physical and neurological development...
2015: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Shailesh Garg, Manuel Villa, Jaya Ruth Asirvatham, Thomas Mathew, Louis-Joseph Auguste
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis is a rare cervical inflammatory lymphadenitis that is most commonly seen in young Asian women. It is mainly characterized by lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, fever, nocturnal sweats, myalgia, weight loss, and arthralgia, and commonly follows a self-limited course. The differential diagnosis is challenging as many other conditions such as malignant lymphoma, metastatic disease, tuberculosis and infectious lymphadenopathies can present in a similar way...
June 2015: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
G Jean Harry, Michelle J Hooth, Molly Vallant, Mamta Behl, Gregory S Travlos, James L Howard, Catherine J Price, Sandra McBride, Ron Mervis, Peter R Mouton
Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate biological processes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and can be altered with environmental exposures. Developmental exposure to the dioxin-like compound, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB), induced a dose response deficit in serum T4 levels with no change in 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine or thyroid stimulating hormone. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged (corn oil, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg TCAB/kg/day) two weeks prior to cohabitation until post-partum day 3 and male offspring from post-natal day (PND)4-21...
September 2014: Toxics
Elizabeth N Pearce
An awareness of the gestational changes to thyroid physiology and the impact of uncontrolled thyroid disease on pregnancy and infant outcome is essential for the successful management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. This review summarizes strategies for the management of thyroid disease in pregnancy and post partum, and it highlights areas where there is still a lack of consensus.
July 2015: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Lorelle Weiss, Tye E Arbuckle, Mandy Fisher, Tim Ramsay, Ranjeeta Mallick, Russ Hauser, Alain LeBlanc, Mark Walker, Pierre Dumas, Carly Lang
BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent commonly added to personal care products. Some animal research studies have associated TCS exposure with androgenic and thyroid effects, as well as endocrine disruption, contact dermatitis and skin irritation. Limited Canadian data exist on exposure levels, temporal variability and sources of exposure to TCS, especially among pregnant women. METHODS: Single and serial spot urine samples (n=1249), as well as consumer product use information were collected over 5 study visits across pregnancy and post-partum from 80 healthy pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada...
August 2015: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Inger Aakre, Trine Bjøro, Ingrid Norheim, Tor A Strand, Ingrid Barikmo, Sigrun Henjum
OBJECTIVES: Thyroid dysfunction can be a result of excessive iodine intake, which may have adverse health consequences, particularly for women in fertile age. In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among lactating women with excessive iodine intake in the Saharawi refugee camps in Algeria and found a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction. Three years later, we conducted a follow-up study to monitor the iodine situation and explore whether thyroid dysfunction still was highly prevalent when the women no longer were post-partum...
2015: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jesslyn Lu, Susan Samson, Joseph Kass, Nalini Ram
A previously healthy 36-year-old woman presented with visual hallucinations and acute psychosis manifested predominantly as hypersexuality. Laboratory testing demonstrated elevated free thyroxine levels, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and presence of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies consistent with Graves' disease. Despite achieving biochemical euthyroidism, she remained profoundly hypersexual. She did not respond to additional treatment with antipsychotics and corticosteroids, prompting further evaluation...
April 22, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
Manish M George, Jay Goswamy, Susannah E Penney
BACKGROUND: The thyroid undergoes a variety of physiological changes during pregnancy. The relatively low iodine levels seen in pregnancy have been implicated in thyroid growth during this time. Management of thyroid cancer in pregnancy is not immediately apparent. Furthermore, acute suppurative thyroiditis is rare and this is attributed to the glands innate immunity. We thoroughly review the evidence regarding management of thyroid abscess and thyroid malignancy during pregnancy and illustrate it via an extremely rare case of an embolic thyroid abscess highlighting an underlying carcinoma in a pregnant woman...
2015: Thyroid Research
Robert Krysiak, Beata Kowalska, Bogusław Okopien
Vitamin D deficiency seems to be implicated in the onset and progression of some autoimmune disorders. No previous study has investigated vitamin D homeostasis in post-partum thyroiditis. We compared 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels between four groups of non-lactating women who gave birth within 12 months before the beginning of the study: hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis (group A; n = 14), euthyroid females with post-partum thyroiditis (group B; n = 14), women with non-autoimmune hypothyroidism (group C; n = 16) and healthy euthyroid females without thyroid autoimmunity (group D; n = 15)...
June 2015: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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