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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535339/ecophysiological-examination-of-the-lake-erie-microcystis-bloom-in-2014-linkages-between-biology-and-the-water-supply-shutdown-of-toledo-ohio
#1
Morgan Michelle Steffen, Timothy W Davis, Robert Michael McKay, George S Bullerjahn, Lauren E Krausfeldt, Joshua M A Stough, Michelle L Neitzey, Naomi E Gilbert, Gregory L Boyer, Thomas H Johengen, Duane C Gossiaux, Ashley M Burtner, Danna Palladino, Mark Rowe, Gregory J Dick, Kevin Meyer, Shawn Levy, Braden Boone, Richard Stumpf, Timothy Wynne, Paul V Zimba, Danielle B Gutierrez, Steven W Wilhelm
Annual cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis have occurred in western Lake Erie (USA/Canada) during summer months since 1995. The production of toxins by bloom-forming cyanobacteria can lead to drinking water crises, such as the one experienced by the city of Toledo in August of 2014, when the city was rendered without drinking water for > 2 days. It is important to understand the conditions and environmental cues that were driving this specific bloom to provide a scientific framework for management of future bloom events...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535148/stochastic-gene-expression-conditioned-on-large-deviations
#2
Jordan M Horowitz, Rahul V Kulkarni
The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can give rise to large fluctuations and rare events that drive phenotypic variation in a population of genetically identical cells. Characterizing the fluctuations that give rise to such rare events motivates the analysis of large deviations in stochastic models of gene expression. Recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics have led to a framework for analyzing Markovian processes conditioned on rare events and for representing such processes by conditioning-free driven Markovian processes...
May 23, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534873/molecular-indicators-of-stress-induced-neuroinflammation-in-a-mouse-model-simulating-features-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#3
S Muhie, A Gautam, N Chakraborty, A Hoke, J Meyerhoff, R Hammamieh, M Jett
A social-stress mouse model was used to simulate features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The model involved exposure of an intruder (male C57BL/6) mouse to a resident aggressor (male SJL) mouse for 5 or 10 consecutive days. Transcriptome changes in brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and hemibrain), blood and spleen as well as epigenome changes in the hemibrain were assayed after 1- and 10-day intervals following the 5-day trauma or after 1- and 42-day intervals following the 10-day trauma...
May 23, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533820/medip-seq-and-ncpg-analyses-illuminate-sexually-dimorphic-methylation-of-gonadal-development-genes-with-high-historic-methylation-in-turtle-hatchlings-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#4
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation alters gene expression but not DNA sequence and mediates some cases of phenotypic plasticity. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) epitomizes phenotypic plasticity where environmental temperature drives embryonic sexual fate, as occurs commonly in turtles. Importantly, the temperature-specific transcription of two genes underlying gonadal differentiation is known to be induced by differential methylation in TSD fish, turtle and alligator. Yet, how extensive is the link between DNA methylation and TSD remains unclear...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533438/high-resolution-mapping-of-crossover-events-in-the-hexaploid-wheat-genome-suggests-a-universal-recombination-mechanism
#5
Benoit Darrier, Hélène Rimbert, François Balfourier, Lise Pingault, Ambre-Aurore Josselin, Bertrand Servin, Julien Navarro, Frédéric Choulet, Etienne Paux, Pierre Sourdille
During meiosis, crossovers (COs) create new allele associations by reciprocal exchange of DNA. In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), COs are almost limited to subtelomeric regions of chromosomes resulting in a substantial loss of breeding efficiency in the proximal regions though these latter carry ~60-70% of the genes. Identifying sequence and/or chromosome features impacting recombination occurrence is thus relevant to improve and drive recombination. Using the recent release of a reference sequence of chromosome 3B and of the draft assemblies of the 20 other wheat chromosomes, we performed a fine-scale mapping of COs and we revealed that 82% of COs located in the distal ends of chromosome 3B representing 19% of the chromosome length...
May 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533408/rna-editing-of-slc22a3-drives-early-tumor-invasion-and-metastasis-in-familial-esophageal-cancer
#6
Li Fu, Yan-Ru Qin, Xiao-Yan Ming, Xian-Bo Zuo, Yu-Wen Diao, Li-Yi Zhang, Jiaoyu Ai, Bei-Lei Liu, Tu-Xiong Huang, Ting-Ting Cao, Bin-Bin Tan, Di Xiang, Chui-Mian Zeng, Jing Gong, Qiangfeng Zhang, Sui-Sui Dong, Juan Chen, Haibo Liu, Jian-Lin Wu, Robert Z Qi, Dan Xie, Li-Dong Wang, Xin-Yuan Guan
Like many complex human diseases, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known to cluster in families. Familial ESCC cases often show early onset and worse prognosis than the sporadic cases. However, the molecular genetic basis underlying the development of familial ESCC is mostly unknown. We reported that SLC22A3 is significantly down-regulated in nontumor esophageal tissues from patients with familial ESCC compared with tissues from patients with sporadic ESCCs. A-to-I RNA editing of the SLC22A3 gene results in its reduced expression in the nontumor esophageal tissues of familial ESCCs and is significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533400/the-pentameric-complex-drives-immunologically-covert-cell-cell-transmission-of-wild-type-human-cytomegalovirus
#7
Isa Murrell, Carmen Bedford, Kristin Ladell, Kelly L Miners, David A Price, Peter Tomasec, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Richard J Stanton
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains that have been passaged in vitro rapidly acquire mutations that impact viral growth. These laboratory-adapted strains of HCMV generally exhibit restricted tropism, produce high levels of cell-free virus, and develop susceptibility to natural killer cells. To permit experimentation with a virus that retained a clinically relevant phenotype, we reconstructed a wild-type (WT) HCMV genome using bacterial artificial chromosome technology. Like clinical virus, this genome proved to be unstable in cell culture; however, propagation of intact virus was achieved by placing the RL13 and UL128 genes under conditional expression...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533307/sox11-promotes-tumor-protective-microenvironment-interactions-through-cxcr4-and-fak-regulation-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#8
Patricia Balsas, Jara Palomero, Álvaro Eguileor, Marta Leonor Rodriguez, Maria Carmela Vegliante, Ester Planas-Rigol, Marta Sureda-Gómez, Maria C Cid, Elias Campo, Virginia Amador
SOX11 overexpression in Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) has been associated with more aggresive behavior and worse outcome. However, SOX11 oncogenic pathways driving MCL tumor progression are poorly known. Here, we demonstrate that SOX11 binds to regulatory regions of two important genes for microenvironment-signals in cancer, (C-X-C motif) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and PTK2 (encoding for focal adhesion kinase (FAK)). Moreover, SOX11-positive xenograft and human primary MCL tumors overexpress cell migration and stromal stimulation gene signatures compared to their SOX11-negative counterparts...
May 22, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531348/plant-derived-transcription-factors-for-orthologous-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Gita Naseri, Salma Balazadeh, Fabian Machens, Iman Kamranfar, Katrin Messerschmidt, Bernd Mueller-Roeber
Control of gene expression by transcription factors (TFs) is central in many synthetic biology projects where tailored expression of one or multiple genes is often needed. As TFs from evolutionary distant organisms are unlikely to affect gene expression in a host of choice, they represent excellent candidates for establishing orthogonal control systems. To establish orthogonal regulators for use in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), we chose TFs from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We established a library of 106 different combinations of chromosomally integrated TFs, activation domains (yeast GAL4 AD, herpes simplex virus VP64, and plant EDLL) and synthetic promoters harbouring cognate cis-regulatory motifs driving a yEGFP reporter...
May 22, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531262/biogeography-of-cryoconite-bacterial-communities-on-glaciers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#10
Yongqin Liu, Trista J Vick-Majors, John C Priscu, Tandong Yao, Shichang Kang, Keshao Liu, Ziyuang Cong, Jingbo Xiong, Yang Li
Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry, and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530128/in-vivo-endocrine-secretion-of-prostacyclin-following-expression-of-a-cox-1-pgis-fusion-protein-in-the-salivary-glands-of-rats-via-non-viral-gene-therapy
#11
Zhimin Wang, Raymond L Benza, Lee Zourelias, Angela Sanguino, Ramaz Geguchadze, Kelly J Shields, Changgong Wu, Kristin B Highland, Michael J Passineau
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that culminates in right heart failure and death. Prostacyclin(PGI2) and its derivatives are effective treatments for PAH when administered as continuous parenteral infusions. This treatment paradigm requires medical sophistication, and patients are at risk for complications from an indewelling catheter; drug interruptions may result in rebound pulmonary hypertension and death. We hypothesized that the salivary gland can be repurposed into an endogenous production site for circulating PGI2 through the expression of a fusion protein embodying cyclooxygenase-1(Cox1) and prostacyclin synthase(PGIS) domains...
May 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529734/differential-regulation-of-mouse-and-human-mu-opioid-receptor-gene-depends-on-the-single-stranded-dna-structure-of-its-promoter-and-%C3%AE-complex-protein-1
#12
Dong-Sun Lee, Ping-Yee Law, Wei Ln, Horace H Loh, Kyu Young Song, Hack Sun Choi
The Mu opioid receptor (MOR) mediates various functions of opioid-induced analgesia, euphoria and respiratory depression, and is a major target of opioid analgesics. Understanding of MOR gene expression among species is important for understanding its analgesic function in humans. In the current study, the polypyrimidine/polypurine (PPy/u) region, a key element of MOR gene expression, was compared in humans and mice. The mouse PPy/u element is highly homologous to its human element (84%), and the mouse MOR (mMOR) reporter drives luciferase activity 35-fold more effectively than the human MOR (hMOR) reporter...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529452/estradiol-suppresses-tlr4-triggered-apoptosis-of-decidual-stromal-cells-and-drives-an-anti-inflammatory-th2-shift-by-activating-sgk1
#13
Yiyun Lou, Minhao Hu, Qijing Wang, Mu Yuan, Ning Wang, Fang Le, Lejun Li, Shisi Huang, Liya Wang, Xiangrong Xu, Fan Jin
A pro-inflammatory cytokine profile at the feto-maternal interface may predispose immune maladaptation notably in early miscarriages. We investigated the involvement of estradiol (E2)-activated serum-glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in preserving the tolerogenic and pro-survival intrauterine microenvironment beneficial to gestation maintenance. Decidual SGK1 was down-regulated in early miscarriage, consistent with the lower serum E2 concentration seen in pregnancy loss. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) signaling induced apoptosis and the pro-inflammatory T helper type (TH) 1 response of decidual stromal cells (DSCs) were associated with miscarriage...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529064/analysis-of-post-transcriptional-regulation-during-cancer-progression-using-a-donor-derived-isogenic-model-of-tumorigenesis
#14
Laura S Bisogno, Jack D Keene
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and non-coding RNAs plays an important role in global gene expression. Many post-transcriptional regulators are misexpressed and misregulated in cancers, resulting in altered programs of protein biosynthesis that can drive tumor progression. While comparative studies of several RBPs and microRNAs expressed in various cancer types have been reported, a model system that can be used to quantify RBP regulation and functional outcomes during the initiation and early stages of tumorigenesis is lacking...
May 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527407/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-systemic-therapy-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppe Galletti, Benjamin I Leach, Linda Lam, Scott T Tagawa
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCPRC) now have an unprecedented number of approved treatment options, including chemotherapies (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (enzalutamide, abiraterone), a radioisotope (radium-223) and a cancer vaccine (sipuleucel-T). However, the optimal treatment sequencing pathway is unknown, and this problem is exacerbated by the issues of primary and acquired resistance. This review focuses on mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies and taxane-based chemotherapy...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527284/-new-multiplex-pcr-for-species-specific-diagnosis-of-human-candidiasis
#16
Liliana Torcoroma García, Liany Johanna Luna, Tania Katherine Velasco, Beatriz Elena Guerra
INTRODUCTION: Candidiases is a group of opportunistic infections caused by yeasts belonging to the genus Candida. Candida albicans is the most prevalent species in both superficial and deep infections, however, the clinical importance of non-albicans Candida has increased during the last decade, driving an urgent need for diagnostic tests that allow for species-level resolution and selection of the optimum therapeutic approach. OBJECTIVE: To design and to optimize a new multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of the five most relevant species of Candida involved in human candidiasis etiology...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526682/aeroallergens-induce-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-dna-damage-and-dampen-antioxidant-responses-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#17
Tze Khee Chan, W S Daniel Tan, Hong Yong Peh, W S Fred Wong
Exposure to environmental allergens is a major risk factor for asthma development. Allergens possess proteolytic activity that is capable of disrupting the airway epithelium. Although there is increasing evidence pointing to asthma as an epithelial disease, the underlying mechanism that drives asthma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the direct DNA damage potential of aeroallergens on human bronchial epithelial cells and elucidated the mechanisms mediating the damage. Human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, directly exposed to house dust mites (HDM) resulted in enhanced DNA damage, as measured by the CometChip and the staining of DNA double-strand break marker, γH2AX...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525572/crosstalk-between-vertical-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-plasmid-replication-control-by-a-conjugative-relaxase
#19
Fabián Lorenzo-Díaz, Cris Fernández-López, Rudi Lurz, Alicia Bravo, Manuel Espinosa
Horizontal gene transfer is a key process in the evolution of bacteria and also represents a source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. Among elements participating in gene transfer, thousands of small (<10 kb) mobile bacterial plasmids that replicate by the rolling circle mechanism represent a driving force in the spread of antibiotic resistances. In general, these plasmids are built as genetic modules that encode a replicase, an antibiotic-resistance determinant, and a relaxase that participates in their conjugative mobilization...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524002/mirna-expression-in-bladder-cancer-and-their-potential-role-in-clinical-practice
#20
Ana Blanca, Liang Cheng, Rodolfo Montironi, Holger Moch, Francesco Massari, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Maria Rosaria Raspollini, Marina Scarpelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran
To date more than 3000 miRNA sequences have been described in humans and reg¬istered at miRBase since their discovery. However, the functions of only a few of these miRNAs have been experimentally determined using deep sequencing technology. Aberrant miRNA expression has been associated with differentiation, invasion and metastasis in several cancers. In this context, recent reports have suggested that miRNAs play important roles in the regulation of target genes by binding to complementary regions of messenger transcripts to repress their translation or regulate degradation...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
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