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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166392/intestinal-ralstonia-pickettii-augments-glucose-intolerance-in-obesity
#1
Shanthadevi D Udayappan, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Guido J Bakker, Stefan R Havik, Hilde Herrema, Patrice D Cani, Kristien E Bouter, Clara Belzer, Julia J Witjes, Anne Vrieze, Noor de Sonnaville, Alice Chaplin, Daniel H van Raalte, Steven Aalvink, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Hans G H J Heilig, Göran Bergström, Suzan van der Meij, Bart A van Wagensveld, Joost B L Hoekstra, Frits Holleman, Erik S G Stroes, Albert K Groen, Fredrik Bäckhed, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp
An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low grade inflammation, potentially initiated by the intestinal microbiota, has been suggested to be a driving force in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we report that bacterial DNA is present in mesenteric adipose tissue of obese but otherwise healthy human subjects. Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that DNA from the Gram-negative species Ralstonia was most prevalent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165929/spatial-population-genomics-of-the-brown-rat-rattus-norvegicus-in-new-york-city
#2
Matthew Combs, Emily E Puckett, Jonathan Richardson, Destiny Mims, Jason Munshi-South
Human commensal species such as rodent pests are often widely distributed across cities and threaten both infrastructure and public health. Spatially-explicit population genomic methods provide insights into movements for cryptic pests that drive evolutionary connectivity across multiple spatial scales. We examined spatial patterns of neutral genome-wide variation in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) across Manhattan, New York City (NYC) using 262 samples and 61,401 SNPs to understand: 1) relatedness among nearby individuals and the extent of spatial genetic structure in a discrete urban landscape; 2) the geographic origin of NYC rats, using a large, previously-published dataset of global rat genotypes; and 3) heterogeneity in gene flow across the city, particularly deviations from isolation-by-distance...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165665/novel-structural-features-drive-dna-binding-properties-of-cmr-a-crp-family-protein-in-tb-complex-mycobacteria
#3
Sridevi Ranganathan, Jonah Cheung, Michael Cassidy, Christopher Ginter, Janice D Pata, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes two CRP/FNR family transcription factors (TF) that contribute to virulence, Cmr (Rv1675c) and CRPMt (Rv3676). Prior studies identified distinct chromosomal binding profiles for each TF despite their recognizing overlapping DNA motifs. The present study shows that Cmr binding specificity is determined by discriminator nucleotides at motif positions 4 and 13. X-ray crystallography and targeted mutational analyses identified an arginine-rich loop that expands Cmr's DNA interactions beyond the classical helix-turn-helix contacts common to all CRP/FNR family members and facilitates binding to imperfect DNA sequences...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165389/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-may-drive-cancer-progression-by-facilitating-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Hendrik Ungefroren, David Witte, Bernhard H Rauch, Utz Settmacher, Hendrik Lehnert, Frank Gieseler, Roland Kaufmann
The G protein-coupled receptor proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been implicated in various aspects of cellular physiology including inflammation, obesity and cancer. In cancer, it usually acts as a driver of cancer progression in various tumor types by promoting invasion and metastasis in response to activation by serine proteinases. Recently, we discovered another mode through which PAR2 may enhance tumorigenesis: crosstalk with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling to promote TGF-β1-induced cell migration/invasion and invasion-associated gene expression in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163577/combination-of-the-endogenous-lhcsr1-promoter-and-codon-usage-optimization-boosts-protein-expression-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#5
Manuel Hiss, Lucas Schneider, Christopher Grosche, Melanie A Barth, Christina Neu, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Kristian K Ullrich, Pierre-François Perroud, Mareike Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Stefan A Rensing
The moss Physcomitrella patens is used both as an evo-devo model and biotechnological production system for metabolites and pharmaceuticals. Strong in vivo expression of genes of interest is important for production of recombinant proteins, e.g., selectable markers, fluorescent proteins, or enzymes. In this regard, the choice of the promoter sequence as well as codon usage optimization are two important inside factors to consider in order to obtain optimum protein accumulation level. To reliably quantify fluorescence, we transfected protoplasts with promoter:GFP fusion constructs and measured fluorescence intensity of living protoplasts in a plate reader system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163371/cofactors-as-metabolic-sensors-driving-cell-adaptation-in-physiology-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
Chromatin architectures and epigenetic fingerprint regulation are fundamental for genetically determined biological processes. Chemical modifications of the chromatin template sensitize the genome to intracellular metabolism changes to set up diverse functional adaptive states. Accumulated evidence suggests that the action of epigenetic modifiers is sensitive to changes in dietary components and cellular metabolism intermediates, linking nutrition and energy metabolism to gene expression plasticity. Histone posttranslational modifications create a code that acts as a metabolic sensor, translating changes in metabolism into stable gene expression patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162832/the-roles-of-plasticity-versus-dominance-in-maintaining-polymorphism-in-mating-strategies
#7
Sylvain Moulherat, Alexis Chaine, Alain Mangin, Fabien Aubret, Barry Sinervo, Jean Clobert
Although natural selection is expected to reduce variability, polymorphism is common in nature even under strong selective regimes. Discrete polymorphisms in mating strategies are widespread and offer a good opportunity to understand the genetic processes that allow the maintenance of polymorphism in relatively simple systems. Here we explored the genetic mechanism underlying the expression of discrete mating strategies in the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game. Heterozygotes carry the genetic information for two different strategies, yet little attention has been devoted to the mechanisms underpinning heterozygote phenotype and its consequences for allele frequency dynamics...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162699/dnajb1-prkaca-fusion-kinase-interacts-with-%C3%AE-catenin-and-the-liver-regenerative-response-to-drive-fibrolamellar-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Edward R Kastenhuber, Gadi Lalazar, Shauna L Houlihan, Darjus F Tschaharganeh, Timour Baslan, Chi-Chao Chen, David Requena, Sha Tian, Benedikt Bosbach, John E Wilkinson, Sanford M Simon, Scott W Lowe
A segmental deletion resulting in DNAJB1-PRKACA gene fusion is now recognized as the signature genetic event of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC), a rare but lethal liver cancer that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. Here we implement CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing and transposon-mediated somatic gene transfer to demonstrate that expression of either the endogenous fusion protein or a chimeric cDNA leads to the formation of indolent liver tumors in mice that closely resemble human FL-HCC...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162237/inter-individual-gene-variants-associated-with-trabecular-bone-plasticity-a-step-forward-in-the-personal-genomics-of-degenerative-bone-disease
#9
Enrique Caso, Cristina C Sabiers, Daniel López-Guillén, Jaime Caso, Manuel Toledano, Raquel Osorio, Estrella Osorio, Carmen Lozano, Enrique Guerado
Continuing tissue destruction in osteoarthrosis is maintained by molecular pathways related to an unbalanced chondrocyte metabolism, the loss of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, increase catabolism in a degraded matrix and the limited response to growth factors due to cell aging. Rare deleterious gene variants driving relevant molecular pathways may play a key role in the pathogenesis and genetic control of common diseases and may also influence the common gene variants observed in GWAS. We use molecular profiling technologies based on massive sequencing of genes to interrogate clinical samples for a variety of molecules involved in the pathogenesis pathways of OA and also to derive new insights for drug targeting discovery at an early stage of the disease...
November 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162196/when-inflammation-and-depression-go-together-the-longitudinal-effects-of-parent-child-relationships
#10
Steven R H Beach, Man Kit Lei, Ronald L Simons, Ashley B Barr, Leslie G Simons, Katherine Ehrlich, Gene H Brody, Robert A Philibert
Parent-child relationships have long-term effects on health, particularly later inflammation and depression. We hypothesized that these effects would be mediated by later romantic partner relationships and elevated stressors in young adulthood, helping promote chronic, low grade, inflammation as well as depressive symptoms, and driving their covariation. It has been proposed recently that youth experiencing harsher parenting may also develop a stronger association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in adulthood and altered effects of stressors on outcomes...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162050/transcriptome-profiling-of-aging-drosophila-photoreceptors-reveals-gene-expression-trends-that-correlate-with-visual-senescence
#11
Hana Hall, Patrick Medina, Daphne A Cooper, Spencer E Escobedo, Jeremiah Rounds, Kaelan J Brennan, Christopher Vincent, Pedro Miura, Rebecca Doerge, Vikki M Weake
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with functional decline of neurons and increased incidence of both neurodegenerative and ocular disease. Photoreceptor neurons in Drosophila melanogaster provide a powerful model for studying the molecular changes involved in functional senescence of neurons since decreased visual behavior precedes retinal degeneration. Here, we sought to identify gene expression changes and the genomic features of differentially regulated genes in photoreceptors that contribute to visual senescence...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161685/intergenotype-recombination-among-new-norovirus-gii-4-variants-in-the-complete-genome
#12
Jinfeng Xu, Tingjun Liu, Hua Wang, Hongxing Shen
GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the Sydney variant, has recently become more prevalent on a global scale. Intragenotype recombinations are widespread within the pandemic NoV GII.4 lineage, and are likely to be important forces driving the evolution and emergence of novel GII.4 viruses. In this study, we sought to examine the role that intergenotype recombination has played in the emergence of GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants. The results show that the GII...
November 22, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161442/origin-and-evolution-of-the-bartonella-gene-transfer-agent
#13
Daniel Tamarit, Minna-Maria Neuvonen, Philipp Engel, Lionel Guy, Siv G E Andersson
Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are domesticated bacteriophages that have evolved into molecular machines for the transfer of bacterial DNA. Despite their widespread nature and their biological implications, the mechanisms and selective forces that drive the emergence of GTAs are still poorly understood. Two GTAs have been identified in the Alphaproteobacteria: the RcGTA, which is widely distributed in a broad range of species; and the BaGTA, which has a restricted host range that includes vector-borne intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160910/epithelial-disruptions-but-not-immune-cell-invasion-induced-secretory-dysfunction-following-innate-immune-activation-in-a-novel-model-of-acute-salivary-gland-injury
#14
Abeer Shaalan, Guy Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland (SG) injurious agents are all translated into loss of salivation (xerostomia). An association has been established between activation of innate immunity and salivary gland injury and dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how the secretory epithelia respond by halting saliva production. METHODS: C57BL/6 submandibular glands (SMGs) were acutely challenged using a single dose of the innate immune stimulant: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C))...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160116/assessment-of-aav-serotype-tropism-in-human-retinal-explants
#15
Luke Aaron Wiley, Erin Burnight, Emily E Kaalberg, Chunhua Jiao, Megan J Riker, Jennifer A Halder, Meagan A Luse, Ian C Han, Stephen R Russell, Elliott H Sohn, Edwin Stone, Budd A Tucker, Robert F Mullins
Advances in the discovery of the causes of monogenic retinal disorders, combined with technologies for the delivery of DNA to the retina, offer enormous opportunities for the treatment of previously untreatable blinding diseases. However, for gene augmentation to be most effective, vectors that have the correct cell-type specificity are needed. While animal models are very useful, they often exhibit differences in retinal cell surface receptors compared to human retina. In this study, we evaluated the use of an ex vivo organotypic explant system to test the transduction efficiency and tropism of 7 different adeno-associated viral type 2 (AAV2) serotypes in human retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid: AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/4, AAV2/5, AAV2/6, AAV2/8, and AAV2/9, all driving expression of GFP under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159326/overexpression-of-id1-reverses-the-repression-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-differentiation-induced-by-twist1-silencing
#16
Izabela Maciejewska, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Marta Krzeminska, Tadeusz Pawelczyk
Multiple studies showed that the cessation of TWIST1 expression is the prerequisite for osteoblasts' maturation. However, recent reports revealed that the function of TWIST1 is different in the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), where a high level of TWIST1 expression promoted DPSCs' differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of TWIST1 and ID1 on the differentiation process in the human DPSCs. METHODS: TWIST1 and ID1 expression in the DSPCs was modulated by lentivirus transduction...
November 20, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159263/influence-of-age-and-body-condition-on-astrovirus-infection-of-bats-in-singapore-an-evolutionary-and-epidemiological-analysis
#17
Ian H Mendenhall, Maggie M Skiles, Erica Sena Neves, Sophie A Borthwick, Dolyce H W Low, Benjamin Liang, Benjamin P Y-H Lee, Yvonne C F Su, Gavin J D Smith
Bats are unique mammals that are reservoirs of high levels of virus diversity. Although several of these viruses are zoonotic, the majority are not. Astroviruses, transmitted fecal-orally, are commonly detected in a wide diversity of bat species, are prevalent at high rates and are not thought to directly infect humans. These features make astroviruses useful in examining virus evolutionary history, epidemiology in the host, and temporal shedding trends. Our study screened for the presence of astroviruses in bats in Singapore, reconstructed the phylogenetic relations of the polymerase genes and tested for population characteristics associated with infection...
December 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158506/the-ikk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling%C3%A2-pathway-requires-morgana-to-drive-breast-cancer-metastasis
#18
Federica Fusella, Laura Seclì, Elena Busso, Anna Krepelova, Enrico Moiso, Stefania Rocca, Laura Conti, Laura Annaratone, Cristina Rubinetto, Maurizia Mello-Grand, Vijay Singh, Giovanna Chiorino, Lorenzo Silengo, Fiorella Altruda, Emilia Turco, Alessandro Morotti, Salvatore Oliviero, Isabella Castellano, Federica Cavallo, Paolo Provero, Guido Tarone, Mara Brancaccio
NF-κB is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathological cellular processes, including inflammation, cell survival, proliferation, and cancer cell metastasis. NF-κB is frequently hyperactivated in several cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer. Here we show that NF-κB activation in breast cancer cells depends on the presence of the CHORDC1 gene product Morgana, a previously unknown component of the IKK complex and essential for IκBα substrate recognition...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158338/genes-integral-to-the-reproductive-function-of-male-reproductive-tissues-drive-heterogeneity-in-evolutionary-rates-in-japanese-quail
#19
Findley R Finseth, Richard G Harrison
Early comparative genomics studies originally uncovered a non-intuitive pattern - genes involved in reproduction appeared to evolve more rapidly than other classes of genes.  Currently, however, the emerging consensus is that genes encoding reproductive proteins evolve under variable selective pressures, producing more heterogeneous divergence patterns than previously appreciated.  We investigate a facet of that heterogeneity and explore the factors that drive male reproductive tissue-based heterogeneity in evolutionary rates...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157304/a-novel-vector-for-transgenesis-in-the-rat-cns
#20
T Peter Lopez, Kurt Giles, Brittany N Dugger, Abby Oehler, Carlo Condello, Zuzana Krejciova, Julian A Castaneda, George A Carlson, Stanley B Prusiner
The larger brain of the rat enables a much greater repertoire of complex behaviors than mice, likely making rats preferential for investigating neurodegeneration. Because molecular tools for specific expression of transgenes in the rat brain are sparse, we chose Prnp encoding the prion protein (PrP) to develop a novel vector to drive transgene expression in the rat brain. We compared the rat Prnp sequence with mouse and Syrian hamster Prnp sequences, identifying conserved genetic elements and hypothesizing that these elements would be able to drive neuronal transgene expression...
November 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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