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tooth germ

Takashi Nakamura, Yuta Chiba, Masahiro Naruse, Kan Saito, Hidemitsu Harada, Satoshi Fukumoto
Tooth crown morphogenesis is tightly regulated by the proliferation and differentiation of dental epithelial cells. Globoside (Gb4), a globo-series glycosphingolipid, is highly expressed during embryogenesis as well as organogenesis, including tooth development. We previously reported that Gb4 is dominantly expressed in the neutral lipid fraction of dental epithelial cells. However, because its functional role in tooth development remains unknown, we investigated the involvement of Gb4 in dental epithelial cell differentiation...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
Keijo Luukko, Päivi Kettunen
The tooth, like many other organs, develops from both epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, and has proven to be a valuable tool with which to investigate organ formation and peripheral innervation. Tooth formation is regulated by local epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions, and is closely integrated with stereotypic dental nerve navigation and patterning. Recent analyses of the function and regulation of semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) have shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate organogenesis and innervation at the tissue and molecular levels...
August 9, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Shihai Jia, Hyuk-Jae Edward Kwon, Yu Lan, Jing Zhou, Han Liu, Rulang Jiang
Mutations in MSX1 cause craniofacial developmental defects, including tooth agenesis, in humans and mice. Previous studies suggest that Msx1 activates Bmp4 expression in the developing tooth mesenchyme to drive early tooth organogenesis. Whereas Msx1(-/-) mice exhibit developmental arrest of all tooth germs at the bud stage, mice with neural crest-specific inactivation of Bmp4 (Bmp4(ncko)(/ncko)), which lack Bmp4 expression in the developing tooth mesenchyme, showed developmental arrest of only mandibular molars...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Biology
Kun Yang, Yingying Wang, Yingxin Ju, Gang Li, Chang Liu, Junyu Liu, Qi Liu, Xiujie Wen, Lu Chuan Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) regulates differential mineralization capacity of rEMSCs (rat ectomesenchymal stem cells) and underlying mechanisms associated with Mage-D1 (melanoma-associated antigens-D1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of p75NTR in developing tooth germs was performed on E12.5d (embryonic 12.5 days) and E19.5d (embryonic 19.5 days). E12.5d EMSCs and E19.5d EMSCs were isolated in the same pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from embryonic maxillofacial processes and tooth germs...
September 27, 2016: Cell Proliferation
Ronell Bologna-Molina, Yasunori Takeda, Takahisa Kuga, Naoyuki Chosa, Masae Kitagawa, Takashi Takata, Akira Ishisaki, Toshinari Mikami
The Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) was originally isolated and described as the gene responsible for Wilms' tumor. Although there is growing evidence linking the overexpression of WT1 to tumorigenesis, no reports on ameloblastoma are available at present. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of WT1 in various histological subtypes of ameloblastoma tissue specimens and in human ameloblastoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on a total of 168 cases of ameloblastoma, one case of ameloblastic carcinoma, and five cases of tooth germs (control)...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Kathleen S Paul, Claudia M Astorino, Shara E Bailey
OBJECTIVES: The Patterning Cascade Model (PCM) provides an evolutionary developmental framework for exploring diversity in tooth crown form. According to the model, proximity of secondary enamel knots and tooth germ size track underlying developmental processes that dictate ultimate crown morphology (i.e., cusp number, accessory cusp presence/size). Previous research has shown the model to successfully predict variation in Carabelli's trait expression between antimeric and metameric pairs of human permanent molars...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Maria Hovorakova, Katerina Lochovska, Oldrich Zahradnicek, Kristina Domonkosova Tibenska, Michaela Dornhoferova, Lucie Horakova-Smrckova, Silvia Bodorikova
The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Motamedifar, Hengameh Khosropanah, Shima Dabiri
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Dental caries is one the most prevalent diseases that affects humans throughout their lives. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is recognized as the most important microorganism during tooth cariogenicity. Reducing this germ in oral cavity can reduce the rate of tooth decays in humans. PURPOSE: The present study compared the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Peganum harmala L. seeds and 0.2% chlorhexidine on S. mutans. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Agar diffusion technique and micro broth dilution method were employed to test the antimicrobial effects of these two agents on S...
September 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Yan Chen, Hongwei Liu
Gingival-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have recently been harvested; however, the use of GMSCs in periodontal tissue engineering requires further study. The present study established an indirect co‑culture system between rat apical tooth germ‑conditioned medium (APTG‑CM) and GMSCs, in order to determine the effects on periodontal tissue differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Using the limiting dilution technique, single‑colony derived human GMSCs and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) were isolated and expanded to obtain homogeneous populations...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhaoming Wu, Don Jeevanie Epasinghe, Jinquan He, Liwen Li, David W Green, Min-Jung Lee, Han-Sung Jung
Vangl2, one of the core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, has an important role in the regulation of morphogenesis in several tissues. Although the expression of Vangl2 has been detected in the developing tooth, its role in tooth morphogenesis is not known. In this study, we show that Vangl2 is expressed in the inner dental epithelium (IDE) and in the secondary enamel knots (SEKs) of bell stage tooth germs. Inhibition of Vangl2 expression by siRNA treatment in in vitro-cultured tooth germs resulted in retarded tooth germ growth with deregulated cell proliferation and apoptosis...
September 3, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Ritsuko Morita, Miho Kihira, Yousuke Nakatsu, Yohei Nomoto, Miho Ogawa, Kazumasa Ohashi, Kensaku Mizuno, Tetsuhiko Tachikawa, Yukitaka Ishimoto, Yoshihiro Morishita, Takashi Tsuji
The morphologies of ectodermal organs are shaped by appropriate combinations of several deformation modes, such as invagination and anisotropic tissue elongation. However, how multicellular dynamics are coordinated during deformation processes remains to be elucidated. Here, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) analysis system for tracking cell movement and division at a single-cell resolution in developing tooth epithelium. The expression patterns of a Fucci probe clarified the region- and stage-specific cell cycle patterns within the tooth germ, which were in good agreement with the pattern of the volume growth rate estimated from tissue-level deformation analysis...
2016: PloS One
Thimios A Mitsiadis, Pierfrancesco Pagella
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is important for the development and the differentiation of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. NGF binds to specific low- and high-affinity cell surface receptors, respectively, p75(NTR) and TrkA. In the present study, we examined by immunohistochemistry the expression patterns of the NGF, p75(NTR), and TrkA proteins during human fetal tooth development, in order to better understand the mode of NGF signaling action in dental tissues. The results obtained show that these molecules are expressed in a wide range of dental cells of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin during early stages of odontogenesis, as well as in nerve fibers that surround the developing tooth germs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Yumiko Togo, Katsu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Saito, Honoka Kiso, Hiroko Tsukamoto, Boyen Huang, Motoko Yanagita, Manabu Sugai, Hidemitsu Harada, Toshihisa Komori, Akira Shimizu, Mary MacDougall, Kazuhisa Bessho
Supernumerary teeth and tooth agenesis are common morphological anomalies in humans. We previously obtained evidence that supernumerary maxillary incisors form as a result of the successive development of the rudimentary maxillary incisor tooth germ in Usag-1 null mice. The development of tooth germs is arrested in Runx2 null mice, and such mice also exhibit lingual epithelial buds associated with the upper molars and incisors. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential crosstalk between Usag-1 and Runx2 during tooth development...
2016: PloS One
Jiang Tao, Yue Zhai, Hyun Park, Junli Han, Jianhui Dong, Ming Xie, Ting Gu, Keidren Lewi, Fang Ji, William Jia
Rhythmic incremental growth lines and the presence of melatonin receptors were discovered in tooth enamel, suggesting possible role of circadian rhythm. We therefore hypothesized that circadian rhythm may regulate enamel formation through melatonin receptors. To test this hypothesis, we examined expression of melatonin receptors (MTs) and amelogenin (AMELX), a maker of enamel formation, during tooth germ development in mouse. Using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we found that mRNA and protein levels of both MTs and AMELX in normal mandibular first molar tooth germs increased gradually after birth, peaked at 3 or 4 day postnatal, and then decreased...
2016: PloS One
Marwa Haddaji Mastouri, Peter De Coster, Aicha Zaghabani, Saoussen Trabelsi, Yosra May, Ali Saad, Paul Coucke, Dorra H'mida Ben Brahim
BACKGROUND: Dental agenesis is the most common developmental anomaly in man and may present either as an isolated trait or as part of a syndrome, such as ectodermal dysplasia. Until now, the underlying molecular pathogenic mechanisms responsible for dental agenesis are still largely unknown. Several genetic and molecular studies have demonstrated that at least 300 genes are involved in tooth formation and development, coding for specific transcriptional factors, receptors or growth factors that are expressed at specific developmental stages...
November 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Elena M Popa, Neal Anthwal, Abigail S Tucker
How teeth are replaced during normal growth and development has long been an important question for comparative and developmental anatomy. Non-standard model animals have become increasingly popular in this field due to the fact that the canonical model laboratory mammal, the mouse, develops only one generation of teeth (monophyodonty), whereas the majority of mammals possess two generations of teeth (diphyodonty). Here we used the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum), an Old World megabat, which has two generations of teeth, in order to observe the development and replacement of tooth germs from initiation up to mineralization stages...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Lin Wang, Yong Zhu, Danyang Wang
OBJECTIVE: High fluoride can induce stress-mediated apoptosis and degradation of ameloblasts. Fas ligand (FasL) has been regarded as a key regulator in intracellular responses for stress-induced apoptosis in reproductive or cancerous cell lineages. The objective of this study is to explore the role of FasL in the regulation of ameloblast ultrastructure damage. DESIGN: Primary ameloblasts were isolated from the molar tooth germ of 4-day-old SD rats. The ameloblasts were incubated with 3...
June 29, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Nergis Abay, Gorke Gurel Pekozer, Mustafa Ramazanoglu, Gamze Torun Kose
Designing and providing a scaffold are very important for the cells in tissue engineering. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has high potential as a scaffold for bone regeneration due to its capacity in cell proliferation and differentiation. Also, stem cells from 3rd molar tooth germs were favoured in this study due to their developmentally and replicatively immature nature. In this study, porcine dental germ stem cells (pDGSCs) seeded PBS scaffolds were used to investigate the effects of surface modification with fibronectin or laminin on these scaffolds to improve cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation for tissue engineering applications...
2016: Stem Cells International
Luigi Paglia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Filiberto Mastrangelo, Maria T Sberna, Raffaele Vinci, Giovanni Iaderosa, Lucia Tettamanti, Giuseppe Cantatore, Angelo Tagliabue, Enrico F Gherlone
BACKGROUND: Scientific studies show a possible influence of intercellular and intracellular proteins (VEGF) on the development of physiological and pathological tissue. VEGF, a key regulator of angiogenesis, it would seem essential to take action during the embryonic development of the dental germ. The purpose of the study is to investigate the importance of the enzymatic activity of VEGF through protein quantification at different stages of tooth germ development. METHODS: The quantification of VEGF protein was performed by 3 different laboratory tests: Western-blot analysis, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) and finally immunohistochemical analysis...
August 2016: Minerva Stomatologica
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