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Systemic reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441779/glyoxalase-goes-green-the-expanding-roles-of-glyoxalase-in-plants
#1
REVIEW
Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Muhammad Jamshed, Abhinandan Kumar, Logan Skori, Sabine Scandola, Tina Wang, David Spiegel, Marcus A Samuel
The ubiquitous glyoxalase enzymatic pathway is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. The glyoxalase system has been more extensively studied in animals versus plants. Plant glyoxalases have been primarily associated with stress responses and their overexpression is known to impart tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In plants, glyoxalases exist as multigene families, and new roles for glyoxalases in various developmental and signaling pathways have started to emerge...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441776/gold-nanoparticles-for-modulating-neuronal-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Chiara Paviolo, Paul R Stoddart
Understanding the detailed functioning and pathophysiology of the brain and the nervous system continues to challenge the scientific community, particularly in terms of scaling up techniques for monitoring and interfacing with complex 3D networks. Nanotechnology has the potential to support this scaling up, where the eventual goal would be to address individual nerve cells within functional units of both the central and peripheral nervous system. Gold nanoparticles provide a variety of physical and chemical properties that have attracted attention as a light-activated nanoscale neuronal interface...
April 24, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441773/overview-of-four-functional-classification-systems-commonly-used-in-cerebral-palsy
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Paulson, Jilda Vargus-Adams
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers...
April 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441669/keep-them-breathing-cystic-fibrosis-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Sheena D Brown, Rachel White, Phil Tobin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects more than 30,000 people in the United States and 80,000 people worldwide. This life-threatening genetic disorder causes a buildup of thick, viscous mucus secretions in various organ systems, most commonly the gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and genitourinary systems. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and monitoring of patients with CF as well as guidelines for management and emerging pharmacologic treatments.
May 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441632/emergency-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-first-seizure
#5
Kaisa Kotisaari, Pekka Virtanen, Nina Forss, Daniel Strbian, Filip Scheperjans
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of emergent imaging findings on head computed tomography (CT) in an adult population of first seizure (FS) patients presenting to an emergency department (ED); and to search for associations between clinical features and emergent imaging findings among these patients. METHODS: For this retrospective registry-based study, adult FS patients presenting to Helsinki University Hospital ED in 2006 were identified based on ICD-10 diagnosis...
April 17, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441600/microplastics-in-the-antarctic-marine-system-an-emerging-area-of-research
#6
REVIEW
Catherine L Waller, Huw J Griffiths, Claire M Waluda, Sally E Thorpe, Iván Loaiza, Bernabé Moreno, Cesar O Pacherres, Kevin A Hughes
It was thought that the Southern Ocean was relatively free of microplastic contamination; however, recent studies and citizen science projects in the Southern Ocean have reported microplastics in deep-sea sediments and surface waters. Here we reviewed available information on microplastics (including macroplastics as a source of microplastics) in the Southern Ocean. We estimated primary microplastic concentrations from personal care products and laundry, and identified potential sources and routes of transmission into the region...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441534/managing-the-plant-microbiome-for-biocontrol-fungi-examples-from-hypocreales
#7
REVIEW
Ryan M Kepler, Jude E Maul, Stephen A Rehner
Feeding an increasing global population requires continued improvements in agricultural efficiency and productivity. Meeting estimated future production levels requires the adoption of practices that increase output without environmental degradation associated with external inputs to supplement nutrition or control pests. Enriching the community of microbes associated with plants in agricultural systems for those providing ecosystem services such as pest control is one possible component towards achieving sustainable productivity increases...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441368/skeletal-scintigraphy
#8
Jaime L Montilla-Soler, Rikesh Makanji
BACKGROUND: Skeletal scintigraphy remains a valuable tool in the initial and subsequent evaluation of the skeletal system in patients with a diagnosis of primary or metastatic neoplasms. METHODS: We discuss radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine imaging techniques, and current as well as future oncological applications in the adult population. Pertinent literature was reviewed to describe the advantages and limitations of available technologies for the evaluation of skeletal metastatic disease...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441344/collagenous-extracellular-matrix-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-lessons-from-the-common-sea-urchin-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Kheng Lim Goh, David F Holmes
Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441270/improving-quality-through-clinical-registries-in-urology
#10
Mark D Tyson, Daniel A Barocas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlight the use of clinical registries for quality improvement and research purposes in urology. We focus on national and regional clinical database registries, such as the National Surgical Quality Improvement Programme, the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor, the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement collaborative and the American Urological Association Quality Registry programme. RECENT FINDINGS: It is widely known that claims-based and institutional databases are limited in their capacity to provide granular, real-time data for quality improvement purposes...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441255/european-society-of-gynaecological-oncology-guidelines-for-the-management-of-patients-with-vulvar-cancer
#11
Maaike H M Oonk, François Planchamp, Peter Baldwin, Mariusz Bidzinski, Mats Brännström, Fabio Landoni, Sven Mahner, Umesh Mahantshetty, Mansoor Mirza, Cordula Petersen, Denis Querleu, Sigrid Regauer, Lukas Rob, Roman Rouzier, Elena Ulrikh, Jacobus van der Velden, Ignace Vergote, Linn Woelber, Ate G J van der Zee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. METHODS: The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Council nominated an international development group made of practicing clinicians who provide care to patients with vulvar cancer and have demonstrated leadership and interest in the management of patients with vulvar cancer (18 experts across Europe)...
May 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441169/psychosocial-interventions-in-stimulant-use-disorders-a-focus-on-women
#12
Riccardo De Giorgi, Gian L D'Alò, Franco De Crescenzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stimulant use disorders are significant contributors to the global burden of disease, with a growing impact on women. Psychosocial interventions are the gold standard for treating this condition, but several barriers may prevent women from accessing appropriate treatment. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the most recent findings about psychosocial interventions for stimulant use disorders, focussing on results relevant to women. RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty-two eligible studies were identified...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441075/autophagy-and-kidney-inflammation
#13
Tomonori Kimura, Yoshitaka Isaka, Tamotsu Yoshimori
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. Macroautophagy/autophagy plays multiple roles in inflammatory responses, and the regulation of inflammation by autophagy has great potential as a treatment for damaged kidneys. A growing body of evidence suggests autophagy protects kidney from versatile kidney inflammatory insults, including those that are acute, chronic, metabolic, and aging-related. Noteworthy is that, in kidney, mitophagy is active, and damaged lysosomes are removed by autophagy...
April 25, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441071/efficacy-and-safety-of-23-gauge-pars-plana-vitrectomy-silicone-oil-tamponade-combination-for-treatment-of-pediatric-post-traumatic-endophthalmitis
#14
Wei Jin, Yaopeng Xu, Wenjun Wang, Yiqiao Xing, Anhuai Yang
PURPOSE: To determine (i) the etiology, epidemiology, mechanism of injury, and risk factors associated with open globe injuries (OGIs) in children and (ii) visual outcomes of pediatric patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis following 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with silicone oil tamponade (SOT). METHODS: A total of 107 consecutive patients, <15 years of age, who had been diagnosed with post-traumatic endophthalmitis between September 2009 and October 2015, were included in this 6-year retrospective study...
April 25, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441058/protein-misfolding-diseases
#15
F Ulrich Hartl
The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441057/oxidative-stress
#16
Helmut Sies, Carsten Berndt, Dean P Jones
Oxidative stress is two sided: Whereas excessive oxidant challenge causes damage to biomolecules, maintenance of a physiological level of oxidant challenge, termed oxidative eustress, is essential for governing life processes through redox signaling. Recent interest has focused on the intricate ways by which redox signaling integrates these converse properties. Redox balance is maintained by prevention, interception, and repair, and concomitantly the regulatory potential of molecular thiol-driven master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB/IκB is used for system-wide oxidative stress response...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440987/-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Marco Antonio Alegría-Loyola, Javier Andrés Galnares-Olalde, Moisés Mercado
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440972/a-comparison-between-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-frozen-section-and-permanent-section-analyses-in-central-nervous-system
#18
Razie Amraei, Afshin Moradi, Hanieh Zham, Mahsa Ahadi, Maryam Baikpour, Azadeh Rakhshan
Objective: Using diagnostic pathological methods during surgery is a valuable means of determining the appropriate management for patients. Application of Frozen Section in CNS surgeries might face challenges due to friability of brain tissue and its relative inaccessibility. Various studies have evaluated the diagnostic acuity of frozen section compared to gold standard but results have been quite inconsistent. We conducted the present study to evaluate the accuracy of cryostat in diagnosing central nervous system tumors compared to the Gold Standard method...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440899/lissencephaly-expanded-imaging-and-clinical-classification
#19
Nataliya Di Donato, Sara Chiari, Ghayda M Mirzaa, Kimberly Aldinger, Elena Parrini, Carissa Olds, A James Barkovich, Renzo Guerrini, William B Dobyns
Lissencephaly ("smooth brain," LIS) is a malformation of cortical development associated with deficient neuronal migration and abnormal formation of cerebral convolutions or gyri. The LIS spectrum includes agyria, pachygyria, and subcortical band heterotopia. Our first classification of LIS and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) was developed to distinguish between the first two genetic causes of LIS-LIS1 (PAFAH1B1) and DCX. However, progress in molecular genetics has led to identification of 19 LIS-associated genes, leaving the existing classification system insufficient to distinguish the increasingly diverse patterns of LIS...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440892/the-effect-of-adult-early-warning-systems-education-on-nurses-knowledge-confidence-and-clinical-performance-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Mohamad M Saab, Bridie McCarthy, Tom Andrews, Eileen Savage, Frances J Drummond, Nuala Walshe, Mary Forde, Dorothy Breen, Patrick Henn, Jonathan Drennan, Josephine Hegarty
AIMS: This review aims to determine the effect of adult Early Warning Systems education on nurses' knowledge, confidence and clinical performance. BACKGROUND: Early Warning Systems support timely identification of clinical deterioration and prevention of avoidable deaths. Several educational programmes have been designed to help nurses recognise and manage deteriorating patients. Little is known as to the effectiveness of these programmes. DESIGN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: DATA SOURCES: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, SocINDEX and the UK & Ireland Reference Centre, EMBASE, the Turning Research Into Practice database, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Grey Literature sources were searched between October - November 2015...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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