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Systemic reviews

Markus Basan
Elucidating strategies of resource allocation and metabolism is crucial for a better understanding of microbial phenotypes. In particular, uncovering the governing principles underlying these processes would be a crucial step for achieving a central aim of systems microbiology, which is to quantitatively predict phenotypes of microbial cells or entire populations in diverse conditions. Here, some of the key concepts for understanding cellular resource allocation and metabolism that have been suggested over the past years are reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Samane Zare, Mehdi Nemati, Yuqing Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. METHOD: A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type...
2018: PloS One
LaDonya Jackson, Wael Eldahshan, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
For many years, modulators of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) have been trusted by clinicians for the control of essential hypertension. It was recently demonstrated that these modulators have other pleiotropic properties independent of their hypotensive effects, such as enhancement of cognition. Within the brain, different components of the RAS have been extensively studied in the context of neuroprotection and cognition. Interestingly, a crosstalk between the RAS and other systems such as cholinergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems have been demonstrated...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fabio Sonvico, Adryana Clementino, Francesca Buttini, Gaia Colombo, Silvia Pescina, Silvia Stanisçuaski Guterres, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Sara Nicoli
In the field of nasal drug delivery, nose-to-brain delivery is among the most fascinating applications, directly targeting the central nervous system, bypassing the blood brain barrier. Its benefits include dose lowering and direct brain distribution of potent drugs, ultimately reducing systemic side effects. Recently, nasal administration of insulin showed promising results in clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Nanomedicines could further contribute to making nose-to-brain delivery a reality...
March 15, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Annalisa Trenti, Serena Tedesco, Carlotta Boscaro, Lucia Trevisi, Chiara Bolego, Andrea Cignarella
Estrogen plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular physiology and the immune system by inducing direct effects on multiple cell types including immune and vascular cells. Sex steroid hormones are implicated in cardiovascular protection, including endothelial healing in case of arterial injury and collateral vessel formation in ischemic tissue. Estrogen can exert potent modulation effects at all levels of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Their action is mediated by interaction with classical estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, as well as the more recently identified G-protein coupled receptor 30/G-protein estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mario Silva, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, Colin Jacobs, Giovanni Capretti, Francesco Ciompi, Bram van Ginneken, Ugo Pastorino, Nicola Sverzellati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and visual reading for the detection of subsolid nodules (SSNs) in volumetrl measuremic low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective visual detection (VD) and manuaent of SSN were performed in the 2303 baseline volumetric LDCTs of the Multicenter Italian Lung Detection trial. Baseline and 2- and 4-year LDCTs underwent retrospective CAD analysis, subsequently reviewed by 2 experienced thoracic radiologists...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Mark N Belkin, Nir Uriel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. These patients are at an increased risk for heart disease, specifically HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, HIV-associated cardiomyopathy was predominantly noted as systolic dysfunction, but diastolic dysfunction has become more common with increased use of HAART...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Ana E López-Pérez, Kulmira Nurgali, Raquel Abalo
Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Chetan Gohal, Ajaykumar Shanmugaraj, Patrick Tate, Nolan S Horner, Asheesh Bedi, Anthony Adili, Moin Khan
CONTEXT: Knee osteoarthritis affects 9.3 million adults over age 45 years in the United States. There is significant disability associated with this condition. Given the potential complications and the significant cost to the health care system with the dramatic increase in total knee arthroplasties performed for this condition, assessment of the efficacy of nonoperative modalities, such as offloading knee braces, is essential as part of optimizing nonoperative treatment for this condition...
March 1, 2018: Sports Health
Allison M Weis, Raymond Soto, June L Round
The commensal microbiota influences many aspects of immune system regulation, including T cells, but molecular details of how this occurs are largely unknown. Here we review our findings that the microbiota regulates Erdr1, a secreted apoptotic factor, to control T cell survival. Erdr1 is highly upregulated in CD4+ T cells from germfree mice and antibiotic treated animals, and our study shows that Erdr1 is suppressed by the microbiota via Toll-like receptor signaling and MyD88 dependent pathways. Erdr1 functions in an autocrine fashion and promotes apoptosis through the FAS/FASL pathway...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Noushin Mohammadifard, Carolyn Gotay, Karin H Humphries, Andrew Ignaszewski, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Appropriate intake of micronutrient, such as electrolyte minerals is critical for the well-being of the cardiovascular health system. However, there are some debates regarding the impacts of dietary and/or supplemental intake of these minerals, on the risk of cardiovascular events and associated risk factors. High sodium intake is adversely associated with the risk of hypertension. Although many reports refered to the positive association of Na intake and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, however, other studies indicated that low Na intake is related to higher risk of all-cause mortality and HF-related events...
March 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Phillip Joy, Matthew Numer
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer people (LGBTQ) have unique concerns regarding their nutritional health while experiencing disparities within the Canadian healthcare system. Dietetic training programs often do not provide adequate knowledge or skills to students to be competent in meeting the needs of this population. Drawing from literature from other health programs, this paper outlines key strategies to the integration of LGBTQ curriculum into dietetic training programs. LGBTQ training can help students gain cultural competencies, knowledge and understanding of the LGBTQ communities, and the nutritional concerns within them...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
K Kragelund Nielsen, L Groth Grunnet, H Terkildsen Maindal
In this review, we aim to summarize knowledge about gestational diabetes (GDM) after delivery; with special focus on the potential of preventing Type 2 diabetes in a family context. The review expands on the key messages from a symposium held in Copenhagen in May 2017 and highlights avenues for future research. A narrative review of the symposium presentations and related literature is given. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term adverse outcomes including Type 2 diabetes for both mother and offspring...
March 15, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rachel C Lombardo, Aleksey Porollo, James F Cnota, Robert J Hopkin
PurposeCongenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, OMIM 209880) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in PHOX2B that manifests as a consequence of abnormal neural crest cell migration during embryogenesis. Unlike other neurocristopathies, however, its impact on the cardiovascular system has not been previously assessed. This study was an effort to characterize the association between congenital heart disease (CHD) and mutations in PHOX2B in patients with CCHS.MethodsA retrospective review of patients with CCHS in conjunction with functional analysis of PHOX2B mutations associated with CHD was performed...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Zornitza Stark, Sebastian Lunke, Gemma R Brett, Natalie B Tan, Rachel Stapleton, Smitha Kumble, Alison Yeung, Dean G Phelan, Belinda Chong, Miriam Fanjul-Fernandez, Justine E Marum, Matthew Hunter, Anna Jarmolowicz, Yael Prawer, Jessica R Riseley, Matthew Regan, Justine Elliott, Melissa Martyn, Stephanie Best, Tiong Y Tan, Clara L Gaff, Susan M White
PurposeThe purpose of the study was to implement and prospectively evaluate the outcomes of a rapid genomic diagnosis program at two pediatric tertiary centers.MethodsRapid singleton whole-exome sequencing (rWES) was performed in acutely unwell pediatric patients with suspected monogenic disorders. Laboratory and clinical barriers to implementation were addressed through continuous multidisciplinary review of process parameters. Diagnostic and clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of rWES were assessed.ResultsOf 40 enrolled patients, 21 (52...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
A A Yarovoy, O V Golubeva, S S Kleyankina, T V Yanchenko
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JX) is a benign growth of fibrohistiocytoma range that mainly affects children. The most frequent localization of the tumor is skin integument. Non-cutaneous forms of JX are found in 5-10% of cases; they are manifested as deep lesions of soft tissues, involvement of various organs (oropharynx, lungs, liver, spleen, pericardium, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, bone marrow) including the organ of vision. JX can develop in any part of the eye and its appendages. Taking into consideration how rare this pathology is, its diagnosis and treatment are complicated...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Michael W Deem, Melia Elizabeth Bonomo
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) constitute a multi-functional, constantly evolving immune system in bacteria and archaea cells. A heritable, molecular memory is generated of phage, plasmids, or other mobile genetic elements that attempt to attack the cell. This memory is used to recognize and interfere with subsequent invasions from the same genetic elements. This versatile prokaryotic tool has also been used to advance applications in biotechnology...
March 15, 2018: Physical Biology
E Millart, S Lesieur, V Faivre
Introduction The development of multifunctional drug carriers provides many opportunities in the field of drug delivery. Among them, carriers loaded with both drug and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles would allow the combination of chemotherapy with the possibility of monitoring or controlling the distribution of the nanocarrier in the body, triggering drug release and/or applying a synergistic hyperthermia treatment. Areas covered The present review covers biocompatible lipid-based nanotechnologies that have been employed to co-encapsulate drug and iron oxide...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
R Cuthbert, C Deutsch, A Roy, P Stimpson, H Patel
Introduction The free jejunal flap represents the gold standard for circumferential defects in upper digestive tract reconstruction. It is a technically demanding procedure with significant failure rates. Unrecognised failure leads to flap necrosis and potentially fatal sequelae, including sepsis and carotid artery bleed. Despite these catastrophic consequences, however, there remains no consensus on an optimum method for postoperative flap monitoring. Our unit has pioneered the use of external colour duplex ultrasound to monitor flap vascularity...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
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