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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102972/evaluating-the-clinical-copd-questionnaire-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Zijing Zhou, Aiyuan Zhou, Yiyang Zhao, Ping Chen
The Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) is recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) to evaluate health status in patients with COPD. The objective of this work was to systemically assess the reliability, validity, responsiveness and minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of the CCQ. A structured search was conducted in three databases to identify articles that evaluated the psychometric properties of the CCQ in individuals with COPD. Two investigators screened the title, abstract and full text of the articles to determine study eligibility and performed the data extraction...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102813/intramedullary-amputation-neuroma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Laura Stone McGuire, Mandana Behbahini, Sumit Das, David Loeffler, Peter Burger, Herbert Engelhard, Tibor Valyi-Nagy, Ankit Mehta
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Amputation neuromas consist of non-neoplastic collections of myelinated axons and Schwann cells and typically arise in injured peripheral nerves. Rarely, however, neuromas occur within the spinal cord. Intramedullary amputation neuromas have been described both with and without a history of trauma within the peripheral nervous system. We report a rare case of an isolated intramedullary spinal cord amputation neuroma. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This 43-year-old man presented with progressive and severe gait deterioration for ~ 7 years...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#4
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102737/platelet-microvesicles-in-health-and-disease
#5
Imene Melki, Nicolas Tessandier, Anne Zufferey, Eric Boilard
Interest in cell-derived extracellular vesicles and their physiological and pathological implications is constantly growing. Microvesicles, also known as microparticles, are small extracellular vesicles released by cells in response to activation or apoptosis. Among the different microvesicles present in the blood of healthy individuals, platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) are the most abundant. Their characterization has revealed a heterogeneous cargo that includes a set of adhesion molecules. Similarly to platelets, PMVs are also involved in thrombosis through support of the coagulation cascade...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102734/fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-dependent-effector-molecules-as-a-critical-mediator-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-current-status-and-future-directions
#6
Ramamoorthi Ganesan, Mahaboobkhan Rasool
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic-autoimmune-mediated disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and progressive destruction of joint. Currently available biological agents and inhibitor therapy that specifically target tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, T cells, B cells, and subcellular molecules (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase) cannot facilitate complete remission in all patients and are unable to cure the disease. Therefore, further potent therapeutic targets need to be identified for effective treatment and successful clinical outcomes in patients with RA...
January 19, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102702/immunomodulating-peptides-for-food-allergy-prevention-and-treatment
#7
Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Rosina López-Fandiño
Among the most promising strategies currently assayed against IgE-mediated allergic diseases stands the possibility of using immunomodulating peptides to induce oral tolerance towards offending food allergens or even to prevent allergic sensitization. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of food derived immunomodulating peptides on food allergy, which can be directly exerted in the intestinal tract or once being absorbed through the intestinal epithelial barrier to interact with immune cells. Food peptides influence intestinal homeostasis by maintaining and reinforcing barrier function or affecting intestinal cell-signalling to nearby immune cells and mucus secretion...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102571/developing-a-cultural-competence-inventory-for-nurses-in-china
#8
D Cai, W Kunaviktikul, A Klunklin, A Sripusanapan, P K Avant
AIM: To develop and psychometrically test the Cultural Competence Inventory for Nurses in China. BACKGROUND: Cultural competence is expected worldwide from nurses due to the increasing cultural diversity of people in healthcare establishments. Yet, no cultural competence framework or instrument for nurses has been identified to guide nursing practice in China where the cultural diversity of the populations and the characteristics of the healthcare system are different from those of the West...
January 19, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102563/multiscale-modeling-methods-in-biomechanics
#9
REVIEW
Pinaki Bhattacharya, Marco Viceconti
More and more frequently, computational biomechanics deals with problems where the portion of physical reality to be modeled spans over such a large range of spatial and temporal dimensions, that it is impossible to represent it as a single space-time continuum. We are forced to consider multiple space-time continua, each representing the phenomenon of interest at a characteristic space-time scale. Multiscale models describe a complex process across multiple scales, and account for how quantities transform as we move from one scale to another...
January 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102467/mypod-an-emr-based-tool-that-facilitates-quality-improvement-and-maintenance-of-certification
#11
Loren Berman, Brian Duffy, B Randall Brenn, Charles Vinocur
Maintenance of Certification (MOC) was designed to assess physician competencies including operative case volume and outcomes. This information, if collected consistently and systematically, can be used to facilitate quality improvement. Information automatically extracted from the electronic medical record (EMR) can be used as a prompt to compile these data. We developed an EMR-based program called MyPOD (My Personal Outcomes Data) to track surgical outcomes at our institution. We compared occurrences reported in the first 18 months to those captured in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) over the same time period...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102120/intestinal-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-health-and-disease
#12
Theodore J Sanders, Ulf Yrlid, Kevin J Maloy
The intestine is the tissue of the body with the highest constitutive exposure to foreign antigen and is also a common entry portal for many local and systemic pathogens. Therefore, the local immune system has the unenviable task of balancing efficient responses to dangerous pathogens with tolerance toward beneficial microbiota and food antigens. As in most tissues, the decision between tolerance and immunity is critically governed by the activity of local myeloid cells. However, the unique challenges posed by the intestinal environment have necessitated the development of several specialized mononuclear phagocyte populations with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics that have vital roles in maintaining barrier function and immune homeostasis in the intestine...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102055/role-of-regulatory-cells-in-oral-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Marcin Wawrzyniak, Liam O'Mahony, Mübeccel Akdis
The immune system is continuously exposed to great amounts of different antigens from both food and intestinal microbes. Immune tolerance to these antigens is very important for intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis. Oral tolerance is a specific type of peripheral tolerance induced by exposure to antigen via the oral route. Investigations on the role of intestinal immune system in preventing hypersensitivity reactions to innocuous dietary and microbial antigens have been intensively performed during the last 2 decades...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102031/dual-nano-sized-contrast-agents-in-pet-mri-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Afsaneh Lahooti, Saeed Sarkar, Sophie Laurent, Saeed Shanehsazzadeh
Nowadays molecular imaging plays a vital role in achieving a successful targeted and personalized treatment. Hence, the approach of combining two or more medical imaging modalities was developed. The objective of this review is to systematically compare recent dual contrast agents in Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and in some cases Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI in terms of some their characteristics, such as tumor uptake, and reticuloendothelial system uptake (especially liver) and their relaxivity rates for early detection of primary cancer tumor...
November 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101972/an-evaluation-of-the-quality-of-evidence-available-to-inform-current-bone-conduction-hearing-device-national-policy
#15
Rishi Mandavia, Alex Carter, Nadine Haram, Elias Mossialos, Anne Gm Schilder
OBJECTIVES: In 2016 NHS England published the commissioning policy on Bone Conducting Hearing Devices (BCHDs). This policy was informed by updated evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of BCHDs as well as by the 2013 Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) policy. Commissioning policies set the criteria for service delivery and therefore have a major impact on the care received by patients. It is important that stakeholders have a good appreciation of the available evidence informing policy, since this will promote engagement both with the policy as well as with future research leading on from the policy...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101895/on-the-rarity-of-dioecy-in-flowering-plants
#16
Jos Käfer, Gabriel A B Marais, John R Pannell
Dioecy, the co-existence of separate male and female individuals in a population, is a rare but phylogenetically widespread sexual system in flowering plants. While research has concentrated on why and how dioecy evolves from hermaphroditism, the question of why dioecy is rare, despite repeated transitions to it, has received much less attention. Previous phylogenetic and theoretical studies have suggested that dioecy might be an evolutionary dead end. However, recent research indicates that the phylogenetic support for this hypothesis is attributable to a methodological bias, and that there is no evidence for reduced diversification in dioecious angiosperms...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101874/bioengineered-collagens
#17
Barbara Brodsky, John A M Ramshaw
There is a great deal of interest in obtaining recombinant collagen as an alternative source of material for biomedical applications and as an approach for obtaining basic structural and biological information. However, application of recombinant technology to collagen presents challenges, most notably the need for post-translational hydroxylation of prolines for triple-helix stability. Full length recombinant human collagens have been successfully expressed in cell lines, yeast, and several plant systems, while collagen fragments have been expressed in E...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101860/the-structure-and-topology-of-%C3%AE-helical-coiled-coils
#18
Andrei N Lupas, Jens Bassler, Stanislaw Dunin-Horkawicz
α-Helical coiled coils constitute one of the most diverse folds yet described. They range in length over two orders of magnitude; they form rods, segmented ropes, barrels, funnels, sheets, spirals, and rings, which encompass anywhere from two to more than 20 helices in parallel or antiparallel orientation; they assume different helix crossing angles, degrees of supercoiling, and packing geometries. This structural diversity supports a wide range of biological functions, allowing them to form mechanically rigid structures, provide levers for molecular motors, project domains across large distances, mediate oligomerization, transduce conformational changes and facilitate the transport of other molecules...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101824/empirically-derived-weights-for-gms-capitation-payments-to-general-practitioners
#19
B McElroy
AIM: Unlike other weighted capitation schemes used in Irish health service financing and in health systems internationally, the GMS capitation payments scheme for General Practitioners lacks transparency in both the data used and the model employed. In this study, evidence-based weights were generated and compared to current payment weights. METHODS: Four datasets on GP utilisation were interrogated. RESULTS: Evidence-based weights indicated that over 70s had higher payments per consultation than other groups...
January 18, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101791/strategies-to-reduce-30-day-readmissions-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#20
REVIEW
Elliot B Tapper, Michael Volk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one quarter of patients discharged after a hospitalization for decompensated cirrhosis will be readmitted within 30 days. These readmissions have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, can be financially harmful to the health system, and may be partially preventable. This review summarizes the literature on readmissions, providing clinicians with tools for risk prediction and a taxonomy for preventative interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Readmission strategies can be categorized according to complexity (simple versus complex) and specificity (focused versus broad)...
January 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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