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Disease trajectories

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436391/prediction-of-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease-with-longitudinal-measures-and-time-to-event-data
#1
Kan Li, Wenyaw Chan, Rachelle S Doody, Joseph Quinn, Sheng Luo
BACKGROUND: Identifying predictors of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critically important for AD prevention and targeted treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare various clinical and biomarker trajectories for tracking progression and predicting conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to probable AD. METHODS: Participants were from the ADNI-1 study. We assessed the ability of 33 longitudinal biomarkers to predict time to AD conversion, accounting for demographic and genetic factors...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431862/application-of-the-cdc-ebolaresponse-modeling-tool-to-disease-predictions
#2
Robert H Gaffey, Cécile Viboud
Model-based predictions were critical in eliciting a vigorous international public health response to the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa. Here, we describe the performances of an extension of the CDC-initiated EbolaResponse Modeling tool to the Ebola Forecasting Challenge, which offered a controlled environment for epidemiological predictions. In the EbolaResponse tool, transmission risks and proportions of population affected by interventions were fitted to data via least square fitting. Prediction performances were evaluated for 5 prediction time points of 4 synthetic outbreaks...
March 10, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431792/changes-to-histone-modifications-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-an-emerging-picture
#3
REVIEW
Eric J Chater-Diehl, Benjamin I Laufer, Shiva M Singh
Epigenetic mechanisms are important for facilitating gene-environment interactions in many disease etiologies, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Extensive research into the role of DNA methylation and miRNAs in animal models has illuminated the complex role of these mechanisms in FASD. In contrast, histone modifications have not been as well researched, due in part to being less stable than DNA methylation and less well-characterized in disease. It is now apparent that even changes in transient marks can have profound effects if they alter developmental trajectories...
February 4, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429659/sex-differences-in-disease-specific-health-status-measures-in-patients-with-symptomatic-peripheral-artery-disease-data-from-the-portrait-study
#4
Mazen Roumia, Herbert D Aronow, Peter Soukas, Kensey Gosch, Kim G Smolderen, John A Spertus, J Dawn Abbott
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with poor health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life (QOL)). Whether sex differences exist in PAD-specific health status is unknown. In patients presenting to a specialty clinic with new-onset or recent exacerbation of PAD, we examined sex differences as assessed by the Peripheral Artery Questionnaire (PAQ). The Patient-centered Outcomes Related to TReatment Practices in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Investigating Trajectories (PORTRAIT) study is a multicenter, international prospective study of patients with new or worsening PAD symptoms...
April 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429458/genomic-evidence-for-population-specific-responses-to-coevolving-parasites-in-a-new-zealand-freshwater-snail
#5
Laura A Bankers, Peter Fields, Kyle E McElroy, Jeffrey L Boore, John M Logsdon, Maurine Neiman
Reciprocal coevolving interactions between hosts and parasites are a primary source of strong selection that can promote rapid and often population- or genotype-specific evolutionary change. These host-parasite interactions are also a major source of disease. Despite their importance, very little is known about the genomic basis of coevolving host-parasite interactions in natural populations, especially in animals. Here, we use gene expression and sequence evolution approaches to take critical steps towards characterizing the genomic basis of interactions between the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum and its coevolving sterilizing trematode parasite, Microphallus sp...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425680/adaptation-to-health-states-sick-yet-better-off
#6
Patricia Cubí-Mollá, Mireia Jofre-Bonet, Victoria Serra-Sastre
Healthcare funding decisions in the UK rely on health state valuations of the general public. However, it has been shown that there is disparity between the valuation of the impact of hypothetical conditions on health and the reported health by those experiencing them. Patients' adaptation to health states is among the most common explanations for this discrepancy. Being diagnosed with a disease appears to affect individual perception of health over time so that better subjective health may be reported over a disease trajectory...
April 20, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424085/the-within-host-population-dynamics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vary-with-treatment-efficacy
#7
Andrej Trauner, Qingyun Liu, Laura E Via, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Huimin Shi, Ying Chen, Ziling Wang, Ruixia Liang, Wei Zhang, Wang Wei, Jingcai Gao, Gang Sun, Daniela Brites, Kathleen England, Guolong Zhang, Sebastien Gagneux, Clifton E Barry, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy is one of the most effective tools for limiting the emergence of drug resistance in pathogens. Despite the widespread adoption of combination therapy across diseases, drug resistance rates continue to rise, leading to failing treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying treatment failure are well studied, but the processes governing successful combination therapy are poorly understood. We address this question by studying the population dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with different combinations of antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423795/multivariate-and-longitudinal-health-system-indicators
#8
Guido Antonio Powell, Yu T Luo, Aman Verma, David A Stephens, David L Buckeridge
Within population health information systems, indicators are commonly presented as independent, cross-sectional measures, neglecting the multivariate, longitudinal nature of disease progression, health care use, and profiles of performance. We use administrative claims data of Montreal, Canada to identify patterns across indicators and over time in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We first cluster regions based on four health service indicators. Our second approach discovers individual-level trajectories based on a hidden Markov model using the same four indicators...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419689/kinetic-and-structural-changes-in-hsmtphers-induced-by-pathogenic-mutations-in-human-fars2
#9
Ekaterine Kartvelishvili, Dmitry Tworowski, Hilary Vernon, Nina Moor, Jing Wang, Lee-Jun Wong, Zofia Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Mark Safro
Mutations in the mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mtaaRSs) can cause profound clinical presentations, and have manifested as diseases with very selective tissue specificity. To date most of the mtaaRS mutations could be phenotypically recognized, such that clinicians could identify the affected mtaaRS from the symptoms alone. Among the recently reported pathogenic variants are point mutations in FARS2 gene, encoding the human mitochondrial PheRS. Patient symptoms range from spastic paraplegia to fatal infantile Alpers encephalopathy...
April 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419656/cannabis-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-unravelling-a-complex-interaction
#10
Ian Hamilton
The relationship between cannabis and psychosis and schizophrenia has tested the field of addiction for decades, and in some ways serves as measure of our ability to provide a credible contribution to public health. As cannabis is used widely, many people are interested in the risks the drug poses to mental health. This paper focuses upon a seminal study examining this, the trajectory of subsequent research findings and what this has meant for understanding and communicating risk factor information. These studies provided evidence of a dose-response relationship between cannabis and psychosis, and that for those individuals with schizophrenia cannabis exacerbated their symptoms...
April 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418523/neurocognitive-trajectory-of-boys-who-received-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-at-an-early-stage-of-childhood-cerebral-adrenoleukodystrophy
#11
Elizabeth I Pierpont, Julie B Eisengart, Ryan Shanley, David Nascene, Gerald V Raymond, Elsa G Shapiro, Rich S Ziegler, Paul J Orchard, Weston P Miller
Importance: Untreated childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) is a fatal disease associated with progressive cerebral demyelination and rapid, devastating neurologic decline. The standard of care to enhance long-term survival and stabilize cerebral disease is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Neurologic outcomes are better when HSCT occurs at an earlier stage of cALD, yet there is limited understanding of the neurocognitive trajectory of patients who undergo HSCT. Objectives: To characterize neurocognitive outcomes of boys with cALD and early-stage cerebral disease who were treated with an allogeneic HSCT and to identify disease- and treatment-related factors associated with long-term functioning...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418023/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-modelling-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Karthikeyan Ardhanareeswaran, Jessica Mariani, Gianfilippo Coppola, Alexej Abyzov, Flora M Vaccarino
We currently have a poor understanding of the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, owing to the fact that postmortem and imaging studies can only measure the postnatal status quo and offer little insight into the processes that give rise to the observed outcomes. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) should, in principle, prove powerful for elucidating the pathways that give rise to neurodevelopmental disorders. hiPSCs are embryonic-stem-cell-like cells that can be derived from somatic cells...
April 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417983/an-approach-to-and-web-based-tool-for-infectious-disease-outbreak-intervention-analysis
#13
Ashlynn R Daughton, Nicholas Generous, Reid Priedhorsky, Alina Deshpande
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death globally. Decisions surrounding how to control an infectious disease outbreak currently rely on a subjective process involving surveillance and expert opinion. However, there are many situations where neither may be available. Modeling can fill gaps in the decision making process by using available data to provide quantitative estimates of outbreak trajectories. Effective reduction of the spread of infectious diseases can be achieved through collaboration between the modeling community and public health policy community...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417965/distinct-subtypes-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-patterns-of-brain-atrophy-longitudinal-trajectories-and-clinical-applications
#14
Daniel Ferreira, Chloë Verhagen, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera, Lena Cavallin, Chun-Jie Guo, Urban Ekman, J-Sebastian Muehlboeck, Andrew Simmons, José Barroso, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman
Atrophy patterns on MRI can reliably predict three neuropathological subtypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD): typical, limbic-predominant, or hippocampal-sparing. A method to enable their investigation in the clinical routine is still lacking. We aimed to (1) validate the combined use of visual rating scales for identification of AD subtypes; (2) characterise these subtypes at baseline and over two years; and (3) investigate how atrophy patterns and non-memory cognitive domains contribute to memory impairment...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414312/high-resolution-myogenic-lineage-mapping-by-single-cell-mass-cytometry
#15
Ermelinda Porpiglia, Nikolay Samusik, Andrew Tri Van Ho, Benjamin D Cosgrove, Thach Mai, Kara L Davis, Astraea Jager, Garry P Nolan, Sean C Bendall, Wendy J Fantl, Helen M Blau
Muscle regeneration is a dynamic process during which cell state and identity change over time. A major roadblock has been a lack of tools to resolve a myogenic progression in vivo. Here we capitalize on a transformative technology, single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF), to identify in vivo skeletal muscle stem cell and previously unrecognized progenitor populations that precede differentiation. We discovered two cell surface markers, CD9 and CD104, whose combined expression enabled in vivo identification and prospective isolation of stem and progenitor cells...
April 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413630/patient-healthcare-trajectory-an-essential-monitoring-tool-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jessica Pinaire, Jérôme Azé, Sandra Bringay, Paul Landais
BACKGROUND: Patient healthcare trajectory is a recent emergent topic in the literature, encompassing broad concepts. However, the rationale for studying patients' trajectories, and how this trajectory concept is defined remains a public health challenge. Our research was focused on patients' trajectories based on disease management and care, while also considering medico-economic aspects of the associated management. We illustrated this concept with an example: a myocardial infarction (MI) occurring in a patient's hospital trajectory of care...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410981/predicting-healthcare-trajectories-from-medical-records-a-deep-learning-approach
#17
Trang Pham, Truyen Tran, Dinh Phung, Svetha Venkatesh
Personalized predictive medicine necessitates the modeling of patient illness and care processes, which inherently have long-term temporal dependencies. Healthcare observations, stored in electronic medical records are episodic and irregular in time. We introduce DeepCare, an end-to-end deep dynamic neural network that reads medical records, stores previous illness history, infers current illness states and predicts future medical outcomes. At the data level, DeepCare represents care episodes as vectors and models patient health state trajectories by the memory of historical records...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410647/disease-trajectories-before-esrd-implications-for-clinical-management
#18
REVIEW
Keiichi Sumida, Csaba P Kovesdy
One of the biggest challenges nephrologists face is to predict complex clinical pathways of kidney disease progression that do not follow a steady linear decline. This unpredictability often becomes a barrier to timely shared decision making between patients and physicians and could lead to adverse patient outcomes. By using numerous analytic approaches to characterize the longitudinal changes in kidney function, emerging evidence has disclosed the heterogeneous trajectories of kidney disease progression, particularly in late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) nearing end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and showed their independent associations with various clinical outcomes...
March 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410569/phenotypes-of-rapid-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-progression-during-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#19
Rhonda D Szczesniak, Dan Li, Weiji Su, Cole Brokamp, John Pestian, Michael Seid, John P Clancy
RATIONALE: Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at risk for prolonged drops in lung function, clinically termed rapid decline, during discreet periods of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To identify phenotypes of rapid pulmonary decline and determine how these phenotypes are related to patient characteristics. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of cystic fibrosis patients aged 6-21 years was conducted using the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408262/optimization-of-microelectrode-recording-in-dbs-surgery-using-intraoperative-ct
#20
Ryan B Kochanski, Sander Bus, Gian Pal, Leo Verhagen Metman, Sepehr Sani
BACKGROUND: Microelectrode recording (MER) is used to confirm targeting accuracy during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We describe a technique using intraoperative CT extrapolation (iCTE) to predetermine and adjust the trajectory of the guide tube in order to improve microelectrode targeting accuracy. We hypothesized that this technique would decrease the number of MER tracks and operative time, while increasing the recorded length of subthalamic nucleus (STN). METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent STN DBS before the iCTE method were compared to 33 patients undergoing STN DBS using iCTE...
April 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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