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reflex and OSA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658103/genioglossus-reflex-responses-to-negative-upper-airway-pressure-are-altered-in-people-with-tetraplegia-and-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#1
Nirupama S Wijesuriya, Laura Gainche, Amy S Jordan, David J Berlowitz, Mariannick LeGuen, Peter D Rochford, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Warren R Ruehland, Jayne C Carberry, Jane E Butler, Danny J Eckert
More than 60% of people with tetraplegia have obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, the specific causes are unknown. Genioglossus, the largest upper-airway dilator muscle, is important in maintaining upper-airway patency. Impaired genioglossus muscle function following spinal cord injury may contribute to OSA. This study aimed to determine if genioglossus reflex responses to negative upper-airway pressure are altered in people with OSA and tetraplegia compared to non-neurologically impaired able-bodied individuals with OSA...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458748/does-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-affect-autonomic-nervous-system-in-patients-with-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
Francesca Izzi, Fabio Placidi, Claudio Liguori, Benedetta Lauretti, Girolama A Marfia, Antonio Pisani, Nicola B Mercuri, Camilla Rocchi
OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at evaluating whether Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment (CPAP) may affect autonomic nervous system (ANS) in male patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSAS). METHODS: We compared autonomic symptoms of de novo severe OSAS patients, OSAS patients on chronic CPAP treatment and healthy controls, using the Scales for Outcome in Parkinson disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) questionnaire. All groups underwent cardiovascular function tests including head-up tilt test (HUTT), Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, hand grip and cold face tests...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378860/dorsal-raphe-serotonin-neurons-mediate-co-2-induced-arousal-from-sleep
#3
Haleigh R Smith, Nicole K Leibold, Daniel A Rappoport, Callie M Ginapp, Benton S Purnell, Nicole M Bode, Stephanie L Alberico, Young-Cho Kim, Enrica Audero, Cornelius T Gross, Gordon F Buchanan
Arousal from sleep in response to CO2 is a critical protective phenomenon. Dysregulation of CO2 -induced arousal contributes to morbidity and mortality from prevalent diseases, such as obstructive sleep apnea and sudden infant death syndrome. Despite the critical nature of this protective reflex, the precise mechanism for CO2 -induced arousal is unknown. Because CO2 is a major regulator of breathing, prevailing theories suggest that activation of respiratory chemo- and mechano-sensors is required for CO2 -induced arousal...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365388/-neuromuscular-properties-of-genioglossus-activity-in-healthy-adults-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients
#4
Y Q Zhou, J Y Ye
Upper airway patency closely contact with neuromuscular airway regulation during respiratory, especially the activity of the pharyngeal dilators. The genioglossus is the largest pharyngeal dilators with its contraction playing the most important role in keeping the pharyngeal airway open. In healthy individuals, genioglossus activation shows a negative correlation with pharyngeal collapsibility and upper airway resistance. Negative pressure during inspiration can stimulate airway mechanoreceptors to produce a muscle reflex activity...
January 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147581/review-of-and-updates-on-hypertension-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#5
REVIEW
Masood Ahmad, Devan Makati, Sana Akbar
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder as is hypertension (HTN) in the 21st century with the rising incidence of obesity. Numerous studies have shown a strong association of OSA with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the relationship between OSA and hypertension (HTN). The pathophysiology of HTN in OSA is complex and dependent on various factors such as sympathetic tone, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, and altered baroreceptor reflexes...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135515/association-between-allergic-and-nonallergic-rhinitis-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
Ming Zheng, Xiangdong Wang, Luo Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) are common disorders, which have been considered as potential risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This review summarizes the proposed underlying pathophysiological mechanisms to provide a better understanding of the relationship between these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In adults, allergic rhinitis and NAR may be considered as symptoms potentiating, rather than risk potentiating factors in the pathophysiology of OSA, whereas in children, these are considered to be independent predictors for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and failure of adeno-tonsillectomy, the recommended first-line therapy for children with OSA...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635907/-the-problem-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-asthmatic-patients
#7
E G Sheludko, D E Naumov, Yu M Perelman, V P Kolosov
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. These have common risk factors that include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and impaired nasal breathing (allergic rhinitis, sinusitis). At the same time, experimental evidence demonstrates common pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases, such as involvement in the process of the respiratory tract, a systemic inflammatory response, and implementation of neuromechanical reflexes...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527878/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-diabetes-a-state-of-the-art-review
#8
REVIEW
Sirimon Reutrakul, Babak Mokhlesi
OSA is a chronic treatable sleep disorder and a frequent comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardinal features of OSA, including intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, have been linked to abnormal glucose metabolism in laboratory-based experiments. OSA has also been linked to the development of incident type 2 diabetes. The relationship between OSA and type 2 diabetes may be bidirectional in nature given that diabetic neuropathy can affect central control of respiration and upper airway neural reflexes, promoting sleep-disordered breathing...
November 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389910/sleep-duration-and-quality-in-heart-failure-patients
#9
Anke Türoff, Ulrich Thiem, Henrik Fox, Jens Spießhöfer, Thomas Bitter, Renaud Tamisier, Naresh M Punjabi, Dieter Horstkotte, Olaf Oldenburg
PURPOSE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-REF). SDB is classified as predominant obstructive (OSA) or central (CSA) and may alter sleep duration, sleep quality, and quality of life. This study describes sleep quality and duration in well-characterized cohorts of these patients. METHODS: Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with HF-REF (NYHA class ≥II, ejection fraction ≤45%) underwent cardiac and pulmonary examination, plus full attended in-hospital overnight polysomnography (PSG)...
December 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356179/upper-airway-reflexes-are-preserved-during-dexmedetomidine-sedation-in-children-with-down-syndrome-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#10
Mohamed Mahmoud, Stacey L Ishman, Keith McConnell, Robert Fleck, Sally Shott, Goutham Mylavarapu, Ephraim Gutmark, Yuanshu Zou, Rhonda Szczesniak, Raouf S Amin
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The assessment of pharyngeal collapsibility is difficult to perform in children under normal sleep. An alternative is to perform the assessment under an anesthetic, such as dexmedetomidine (DEX), that induces non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The objectives of this study were to compare critical closing airway pressure (Pcrit) obtained during natural sleep to that obtained under DEX in patients with Down syndrome (DS) and persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and determine whether Pcrit measured under sedation predicts the severity of OSA...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318060/integrating-postural-and-vestibular-dimensions-to-depict-impairment-in-moderate-to-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-patients
#11
Alessandro Micarelli, Claudio Liguori, Andrea Viziano, Francesca Izzi, Fabio Placidi, Marco Alessandrini
Vestibular dysfunction was linked to moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients in literature. However, due to a lack of knowledge among valid and recent implementations conceived to study postural control on static posturography (SP) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain under physiological conditions (video Head Impulse Test; vHIT), the aim of this work was to integrate (i) VOR changes via vHIT implementation, (ii) postural arrangement by studying both classical parameters and frequency spectra (PS) and (iii) correlation between these findings, polygraphic (PG) and subjective scores along Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)...
August 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225580/real-time-multislice-mri-during-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-reveals-upper-airway-response-to-pressure-change
#12
Weiyi Chen, Emily Gillett, Michael C K Khoo, Sally L Davidson Ward, Krishna S Nayak
PURPOSE: To determine if a real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) method during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can be used to measure neuromuscular reflex and/or passive collapsibility of the upper airway in individual obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted experiments on four adolescents with OSA and three healthy controls, during natural sleep and during wakefulness. Data were acquired on a clinical 3T scanner using simultaneous multislice (SMS) RT-MRI during CPAP...
November 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126503/-pathophysiology-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-and-its-cardiometabolic-consequences
#13
REVIEW
Marie Destors, Renaud Tamisier, Louis-Marie Galerneau, Patrick Lévy, Jean-Louis Pepin
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent partial or complete pharyngeal collapses during sleep. The pathophysiology of OSAS is complex and multifactorial. Factors influencing upper airway patency include a reduction in upper airway dimensions that can result from both anatomical and functional alterations (obesity, fluid shift or maxillo-facial structural changes), and increased pharyngeal collapsibility owing to reduced neuromuscular compensation and lack of the pharyngeal protective reflex during sleep...
April 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957483/is-there-an-association-between-altered-baroreceptor-sensitivity-and-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-in-the-healthy-elderly
#14
Emilia Sforza, Magali Saint Martin, Jean Claude Barthélémy, Frédéric Roche
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with a rise in cardiovascular risk in which increased sympathetic activity and depressed baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) have been proposed. We examined this association in a sample of healthy elderly subjects with unrecognised OSA. 801 healthy elderly (aged ≥65 years) subjects undergoing clinical, respiratory polygraphy and vascular assessment were examined. According to the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), the subjects were stratified into no OSA, mild-moderate OSA and severe OSA cases...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826468/digital-analysis-of-eyelid-features-and-eyebrow-position-following-co2-laser-assisted-blepharoptosis-surgery
#15
Xiaodong Zheng, Hirohiko Kakizaki, Tomoko Goto, Atsushi Shiraishi
BACKGROUND: To compare the margin reflex distance of the upper (MRD-1) and lower (MRD-2) eyelids and the eyebrow height (EBH) in patients with involutional and hard contact lens wear--induced blepharoptosis before and after ptosis surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients with acquired blepharoptosis were studied. Group 1 consisted of 30 patients with involutional ptosis (age, 75.8 ± 6.4 years), and group 2 consisted of 30 patients with hard contact lens wear-induced ptosis (age, 50...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783860/neural-control-of-the-upper-airway-respiratory-and-state-dependent-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Leszek Kubin
Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA)...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516542/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-does-not-normalize-the-prolonged-reflex-inhibition-to-inspiratory-loading-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Nicholas P S Murray, David K McKenzie, Simon C Gandevia, Jane E Butler
In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the short-latency inhibitory reflex (IR) of inspiratory muscles to airway occlusion is prolonged in proportion to the severity of the OSA. The mechanism underlying the prolongation may relate to chronic inspiratory muscle loading due to upper airway obstruction or sensory changes due to chronic OSA-mediated inflammation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy prevents upper airway obstruction and reverses inflammation. We therefore tested whether CPAP therapy normalized the IR abnormality in OSA...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506145/epigenetic-regulation-of-redox-state-mediates-persistent-cardiorespiratory-abnormalities-after-long-term-intermittent-hypoxia
#18
Jayasri Nanduri, Ying-Jie Peng, Ning Wang, Shakil A Khan, Gregg L Semenza, Ganesh K Kumar, Nanduri R Prabhakar
KEY POINTS: The effects of short-term (ST; 10 days) and long-term (LT; 30 days) intermittent hypoxia (IH) on blood pressure (BP), breathing and carotid body (CB) chemosensory reflex were examined in adult rats. ST- and LT-IH treated rats exhibited hypertension, irregular breathing with apnoea and augmented the CB chemosensory reflex, with all these responses becoming normalized during recovery from ST- but not from LT-IH. The persistent cardiorespiratory responses to LT-IH were associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the CB and adrenal medulla, which were a result of DNA methylation-dependent suppression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes (AOEs)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445853/inflammatory-role-of-ros-sensitive-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-the-hypersensitivity-of-lung-vagal-c-fibers-induced-by-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rats
#19
Chang-Huan Yang, Yan-Jhih Shen, Ching Jung Lai, Yu Ru Kou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242540/nadph-oxidase-derived-ros-induced-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-mediates-hypersensitivity-of-lung-vagal-c-fibers-in-rats
#20
Chang-Huan Yang, Wei-Ling Zhuang, Yan-Jhih Shen, Ching Jung Lai, Yu Ru Kou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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