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reflex and OSA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826468/digital-analysis-of-eyelid-features-and-eyebrow-position-following-co2-laser-assisted-blepharoptosis-surgery
#1
Xiaodong Zheng, Hirohiko Kakizaki, Tomoko Goto, Atsushi Shiraishi
BACKGROUND: To compare the margin reflex distance of the upper (MRD-1) and lower (MRD-2) eyelids and the eyebrow height (EBH) in patients with involutional and hard contact lens wear--induced blepharoptosis before and after ptosis surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients with acquired blepharoptosis were studied. Group 1 consisted of 30 patients with involutional ptosis (age, 75.8 ± 6.4 years), and group 2 consisted of 30 patients with hard contact lens wear-induced ptosis (age, 50...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783860/neural-control-of-the-upper-airway-respiratory-and-state-dependent-mechanisms
#2
Leszek Kubin
Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA)...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516542/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-does-not-normalize-the-prolonged-reflex-inhibition-to-inspiratory-loading-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Nicholas P S Murray, David K McKenzie, Simon C Gandevia, Jane E Butler
In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the short-latency inhibitory reflex (IR) of inspiratory muscles to airway occlusion is prolonged in proportion to the severity of the OSA. The mechanism underlying the prolongation may relate to chronic inspiratory muscle loading due to upper airway obstruction or sensory changes due to chronic OSA-mediated inflammation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy prevents upper airway obstruction and reverses inflammation. We therefore tested whether CPAP therapy normalized the IR abnormality in OSA...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506145/epigenetic-regulation-of-redox-state-mediates-persistent-cardiorespiratory-abnormalities-after-long-term-intermittent-hypoxia
#4
Jayasri Nanduri, Ying-Jie Peng, Ning Wang, Shakil A Khan, Gregg L Semenza, Ganesh K Kumar, Nanduri R Prabhakar
KEY POINTS: The effects of short-term (ST; 10 days) and long-term (LT; 30 days) intermittent hypoxia (IH) on blood pressure (BP), breathing and carotid body (CB) chemosensory reflex were examined in adult rats. ST- and LT-IH treated rats exhibited hypertension, irregular breathing with apnoea and augmented the CB chemosensory reflex, with all these responses becoming normalized during recovery from ST- but not from LT-IH. The persistent cardiorespiratory responses to LT-IH were associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the CB and adrenal medulla, which were a result of DNA methylation-dependent suppression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes (AOEs)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445853/inflammatory-role-of-ros-sensitive-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-the-hypersensitivity-of-lung-vagal-c-fibers-induced-by-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rats
#5
Chang-Huan Yang, Yan-Jhih Shen, Ching Jung Lai, Yu Ru Kou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242540/nadph-oxidase-derived-ros-induced-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-mediates-hypersensitivity-of-lung-vagal-c-fibers-in-rats
#6
Chang-Huan Yang, Wei-Ling Zhuang, Yan-Jhih Shen, Ching Jung Lai, Yu Ru Kou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26488535/adult-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-the-larynx
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Novakovic, Stuart MacKay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines current evidence and thinking regarding the relationship between the larynx and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Drug-induced sleep endoscopy has an emerging role in the identification of laryngeal obstruction associated with sleep apnoea and may be adjunctive to awake dynamic assessment in specific cases. Nocturnal stridor and OSA is a common and treatable finding in patients with multiple system atrophy...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26481749/asthma-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Yi-Xian Qiao, Yi Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To get a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma by reviewing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestation and then summarizing the latest progress on diagnosis and treatment. DATA SOURCES: Articles referred in this review were mainly collected from a comprehensive search of the PubMed published in English from 1990 to 2015 with the terms "OSA" and "asthma" as the main keywords...
October 20, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26429743/pupillometric-findings-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
Mona F Philby, Secil Aydinoz, David Gozal, Selim Kilic, Rakesh Bhattacharjee, Hari P Bandla, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to intermittent hypoxia, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and eventually cardiovascular morbidity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) tone and reflexes are likely to play major roles in OSA-associated morbidities, and have been identified in a subset of children with OSA. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether pupillometry, a noninvasive and rapid bedside test for the assessment of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (ANS), would detect abnormal ANS function in children with OSA...
October 2015: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203292/mild-obstructive-sleep-apnea-does-not-modulate-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-adult-patients
#10
Henry Blomster, Tomi P Laitinen, Juha Ek Hartikainen, Tiina M Laitinen, Esko Vanninen, Helena Gylling, Johanna Sahlman, Jouko Kokkarinen, Jukka Randell, Juha Seppä, Henri Tuomilehto
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic and progressive disease. OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the risk being more frequently encountered with severe degrees of OSA. Increased sympathetic activation and impaired cardiac autonomic control as reflected by depressed baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) are possible mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular complications of OSA. However, it is not known at what stage of OSA that changes in BRS appear...
2015: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26113685/the-impact-of-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-on-the-aorta
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Gaisl, Daniel J Bratton, Malcolm Kohler
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been shown to be a causal factor in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction and hypertension, conditions which can promote dilation and subsequent aortic dissection and rupture. The objective of this review is to summarise the current literature on the possible association between OSA and aortic disease and delineate the underlying mechanisms.Relevant studies were found by searching for terms including "obstructive sleep apnoea" in combination with "aortic aneurysm, dissection, and dilation" in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases...
August 2015: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068465/cough-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#12
REVIEW
Kevin Chan, Alvin Ing, Surinder S Birring
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) has recently been reported to be a cause of chronic cough. It should be considered when cough remains unexplained following investigations and treatments for common causes. The presence of nocturnal cough, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux may be helpful in identifying patients who require further investigation. Daytime somnolence is often absent. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been reported to be effective in alleviating cough. Therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, if present, should be optimised...
December 2015: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25794544/theories-on-possible-temporal-relationships-between-sleep-bruxism-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-events-an-expert-opinion
#13
Daniele Manfredini, Luca Guarda-Nardini, Rosario Marchese-Ragona, Frank Lobbezoo
BACKGROUND: Sleep bruxism (SB) is a term covering different motor phenomena with various risk and etiological factors and potentially different clinical relevance, especially as far as its possible protective role against obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is concerned. The present expert opinion discusses the possible temporal relationships between the two phenomena. METHODS: Four hypothetical scenarios for a temporal relationship may be identified: (1) the two phenomena are unrelated; (2) the onset of the OSA event precedes the onset of the SB event within a limited time span, with SB having a potential OSA-protective role; (3) the onset of the SB event precedes the onset of the OSA event within a limited time span, with SB having an OSA-inducing effect; and (4) the onset of the OSA and SB event occurs at the same moment...
December 2015: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25548569/nasal-involvement-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Daniel de Sousa Michels, Amanda da Mota Silveira Rodrigues, Márcio Nakanishi, André Luiz Lopes Sampaio, Alessandra Ramos Venosa
Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO)...
2014: International Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25520668/enhanced-carotid-body-chemosensory-activity-and-the-cardiovascular-alterations-induced-by-intermittent-hypoxia
#15
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga, David C Andrade, Rodrigo Del Rio
The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25400585/carotid-body-insulin-and-metabolic-diseases-unraveling-the-links
#16
REVIEW
Sílvia V Conde, Joana F Sacramento, Maria P Guarino, Constancio Gonzalez, Ana Obeso, Lucilia N Diogo, Emilia C Monteiro, Maria J Ribeiro
The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in arterial blood O2, CO2, and pH levels. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis activate the CB, which respond by increasing the action potential frequency in their sensory nerve, the carotid sinus nerve (CSN). CSN activity is integrated in the brain stem to induce a panoply of cardiorespiratory reflexes aimed, primarily, to normalize the altered blood gases, via hyperventilation, and to regulate blood pressure and cardiac performance, via sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25350456/cannabinoid-type-1-and-type-2-receptor-antagonists-prevent-attenuation-of-serotonin-induced-reflex-apneas-by-dronabinol-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Michael W Calik, David W Carley
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Americans is 9% and increasing. Increased afferent vagal activation may predispose to OSA by reducing upper airway muscle activation/patency and disrupting respiratory rhythmogenesis. Vagal afferent neurons are inhibited by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) or cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors in animal models of vagally-mediated behaviors. Injections of dronabinol, a non-selective CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, into the nodose ganglia reduced serotonin (5-HT)-induced reflex apneas...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25157241/cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-contributes-to-sleep-apnea-in-young-and-lean-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#18
Carolina Castro Porto Silva Janovsky, Luiz Clemente de Souza Pereira Rolim, João Roberto de Sá, Dalva Poyares, Sergio Tufik, Ademir Baptista Silva, Sergio Atala Dib
Knowledge about association between sleep apnea and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) might give some insight into the pathogenesis of this condition in these patients. In obese patients, excessive central adiposity, including a large neck circumference, can contribute to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Its presence in non-obese patients, however, indicates that it could be correlated with autonomic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of OSA in young and lean T1DM patients with and without CAN...
2014: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25097113/chemoreflexes-sleep-apnea-and-sympathetic-dysregulation
#19
REVIEW
Meghna P Mansukhani, Tomas Kara, Sean M Caples, Virend K Somers
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypertension are closely linked conditions. Disordered breathing events in OSA are characterized by increasing efforts against an occluded airway while asleep, resulting in a marked sympathetic response. This is predominantly due to hypoxemia activating the chemoreflexes, resulting in reflex increases in sympathetic neural outflow. In addition, apnea - and the consequent lack of inhibition of the sympathetic system that occurs with lung inflation during normal breathing - potentiates central sympathetic outflow...
September 2014: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24969576/a-novel-association-between-nondipping-and-painful-diabetic-polyneuropathy
#20
Cinzia D'Amato, Roberto Morganti, Federica Di Gennaro, Carla Greco, Girolama A Marfia, Vincenza Spallone
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized the meaningful coexistence of neuropathic pain and nondipping in painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDPN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 113 patients with PDPN, with painless diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN(+)) and without DPN (DPN(-)), neuropathic pain, sleep, risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), autonomic function, and blood pressure (BP) circadian pattern were assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4), the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale, the Berlin Questionnaire, cardiovascular reflex tests, and ambulatory BP monitoring...
September 2014: Diabetes Care
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