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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823106/mitochondrial-outer-membrane-permeabilization-a-focus-on-the-role-of-mitochondrial-membrane-structural-organization
#1
REVIEW
Siti Haji Suhaili, Hamed Karimian, Matthew Stellato, Tzong-Hsien Lee, Marie-Isabel Aguilar
Apoptosis is important in regulating cell death turnover and is mediated by the intrinsic and death receptor-based extrinsic pathways which converge at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) leading to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MOMP results in the release of apoptotic proteins that further activate the downstream pathway of apoptosis. Thus, tight regulation of MOMP is crucial in controlling apoptosis, and a lack of control may lead to tissue and organ malformation and the development of cancers...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#2
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822984/tbk1-mutations-in-italian-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-genetic-and-functional-characterisation
#3
Laura Pozzi, Fabiola Valenza, Lorena Mosca, Andrea Dal Mas, Teuta Domi, Alessandro Romano, Claudia Tarlarini, Yuri Matteo Falzone, Lucio Tremolizzo, Gianni Sorarù, Federica Cerri, Pilar M Ferraro, Silvia Basaia, Federica Agosta, Raffaella Fazio, Mauro Comola, Giancarlo Comi, Maurizio Ferrari, Angelo Quattrini, Christian Lunetta, Silvana Penco, Dario Bonanomi, Paola Carrera, Nilo Riva
BACKGROUND: TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene has been recently identified as a causative gene of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We sequenced the TBK1 gene in a cohort of 154 Italian patients with ALS with unclear genetic aetiology. We subsequently assessed the pathogenic potential of novel identified TBK1 variants using functional in vitro studies: expression, targeting and activity were evaluated in patient-derived fibroblasts and in cells transfected with mutated-TBK1 plasmids...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822856/antigen-presenting-dendritic-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#4
Jesus Gil-Pulido, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages is a key event in atherosclerosis. However, also other immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and T cells, are found within lesions. DCs are classified as a separate lineage of mononuclear phagocytes that arise from progenitors distinct from precursors of monocytes/macrophages. Although a clear attribution of the effects of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to monocytes/macrophages and DCs is hampered by the use of promiscuous surface markers, recent research has approached to resolve the contribution of bona fide cDCs and their subsets and of plasmacytoid-DCs (pDCs) to atherosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822585/time-to-focus-on-the-rare-encouraging-progress-in-the-management-of-non-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
EDITORIAL
Archie Fernando
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822556/associations-between-residual-disease-and-survival-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-by-histologic-type
#6
Alexander Melamed, Beryl Manning-Geist, Amy J Bregar, Elisabeth J Diver, Annekathryn Goodman, Marcela G Del Carmen, John O Schorge, J Alejandro Rauh-Hain
OBJECTIVE: Surgical cytoreduction has been postulated to affect survival by increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, which usually responds to chemotherapy, would derive greater benefit from complete cytoreduction than those with histologic subtypes that are less responsive to chemotherapy, such as mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer from 2011 to 2013 using data from the National Cancer Database...
August 16, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822264/trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-risk-factor-for-atherosclerosis-induces-stress-in-j774a-1-murine-macrophages
#7
Abbas Mohammadi, Zakaria Vahabzadeh, Soran Jamalzadeh, Tahereh Khalili
PURPOSE: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biomarker for kidney problems. It has also been introduced as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis trigger cellular and humeral immunoreaction in macrophages through induction of heat shock protein expressions and increased levels of GRP94 and HSP70 are associated with increased atherosclerosis risk. The present study evaluated the possible effect(s) of TMAO on the expression of GRP94 and HSP70 at protein levels...
August 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821924/-89-zr-labeled-nivolumab-for-imaging-of-t-cell-infiltration-in-a-humanized-murine-model-of-lung-cancer
#8
Christopher G England, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Brian T Rekoske, Paul A Ellison, Reinier Hernandez, Todd E Barnhart, Douglas G McNeel, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
PURPOSE: Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody specific for programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of T-cell activation and response. Acting as an immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab binds to PD-1 expressed on the surface of many immune cells and prevents ligation by its natural ligands. Nivolumab is only effective in a subset of patients, and there is limited evidence supporting its use for diagnostic, monitoring, or stratification purposes. METHODS: (89)Zr-Df-nivolumab was synthesized to map the biodistribution of PD-1-expressing tumor infiltrating T-cells in vivo using a humanized murine model of lung cancer...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821821/the-inhibitory-mechanism-of-hal3-on-the-yeast-ppz1-phosphatase-a-mutagenesis-analysis
#9
Cristina Molero, Carlos Casado, Joaquín Ariño
The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PPase) Ppz1 is an enzyme related to the ubiquitous type-1 PPases (PP1c) but found only in fungi. It is regulated by an inhibitory subunit, Hal3, which binds to its catalytic domain. Overexpression of Ppz1 is highly toxic for yeast cells, so its de-regulation has been proposed as a target for novel antifungal therapies. While modulation of PP1c by its many regulatory subunits has been extensively characterized, the manner by which Hal3 controls Ppz1 remains unknown. We have used error-prone PCR mutagenesis to construct a library of Ppz1 variants and developed a functional assay to identify mutations affecting the binding or/and the inhibitory capacity of Hal3...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821659/stim1-regulates-somatic-ca-2-signals-and-intrinsic-firing-properties-of-cerebellar-purkinje-neurons
#10
Changhyeon Ryu, Dong Cheol Jang, Dayoon Jung, Yong Gyu Kim, Hyun Geun Shim, Hyun-Hee Ryu, Yong-Seok Lee, David J Linden, Paul F Worley, Sang Jeong Kim
Control of Ca(2+) flux between the cytosol and intracellular Ca(2+) stores is essential for maintaining normal cellular function. It has been well established in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) initiates and regulates refilling Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we describe a novel, additional role for STIM1, regulation of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and consequent control of spike firing in neurons. Among central neurons, cerebellar Purkinje neurons express the highest level of STIM1 and they fire continuously in the absence of stimulation, making somatic Ca(2+) homeostasis of particular importance...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821011/the-photodynamic-action-of-pheophorbide-a-induces-cell-death-through-oxidative-stress-in-leishmania-amazonensis
#11
Nathielle Miranda, Hélito Volpato, Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues, Wilker Caetano, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Sueli de Oliveira Silva, Celso Vataru Nakamura
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by hemoflagellate protozoa, affecting millions of people worldwide. The difficulties of treating patients with this parasitosis include the limited efficacy and many side effects of the currently available drugs. Therefore, the search for new compounds with leishmanicidal action is necessary. Photodynamic therapy has been studied in the medical field because of its selectivity, utilizing a combination of visible light, a photosensitizer compound, and singlet oxygen to reach the area of treatment...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820395/chemokine-c-x-c-motif-ligand-1-cxcl1-and-chemokine-c-x-c-motif-ligand-2-cxcl2-modulate-the-activity-of-trpv1-ib4-cultured-rat-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons-upon-short-term-and-acute-application
#12
A F Deftu, A Filippi, K Shibsaki, R O Gheorghe, M Chiritoiu, V Ristoiu
CXCL1 and CXCL2 are two chemokines with 78% homology of their sequence. CXCL1 was associated with atopic dermatitis, a highly pruritic skin disease, but it is not clear what is its mechanism of action, while for CXCL2 there are no data about an association with itch sensitivity. CXCL1 and CXCL2 can modulate TRPV1 receptors, which are one of the most important downstream effectors for itch sensitivity, upon short-term (4 h) or long-term (24 h) incubation, but the data are incomplete. Therefore, the aims of this study were to better characterize the short-term effects of CXCL1 and CXCL2 on TRPV1(+)/IB4(+) dorsal root ganglia neurons known to include nociceptor and itch-sensitive neurons, and to obtain new data about the acute application (12 min) of the two chemokines on the same population of neurons...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819932/twice-daily-vs-once-daily-dosing-with-0-075-bromfenac-in-durasite-outcomes-from-a-14-day-phase-2-study
#13
William Trattler, Kamran Hosseini
INTRODUCTION: Bromfenac is a well-known topical ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commercialized in the USA and other regions of the world. A new formulation, 0.075% bromfenac in DuraSite®, was developed to treat postoperative inflammation and reduce pain in patients who have undergone cataract surgery. We hypothesized that efficacy and safety would be enhanced with twice-daily (BID) dosing compared to once-daily (QD) dosing. METHODS: This was a multicenter, double-masked, comparative study in which 40 and 45 subjects were randomized to groups receiving BID dosing and QD dosing, respectively...
August 17, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819833/-lymphocytic-myocarditis-in-a%C3%A2-patient-with-metastatic-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-nivolumab
#14
R Sauer, P Kiewe, M Desole, M Schuler, F Theissig, A Roth, T Mairinger
Immune checkpoint inhibitors against the PD-1 protein offer a new therapy option for many solid cancers. We report a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer treated with Nivolumab. As a rare immune-mediated adverse event, we describe a fatal lymphocytic myocarditis two weeks after starting immune therapy. The cause of death was first diagnosed at autopsy. This case report underlines the importance and need of clinical autopsies as an instrument of quality assurance and detection of rare therapy-induced adverse effects...
August 17, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819685/cardiomyocyte-dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase-1-ddah1-plays-an-important-role-in-attenuating-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-dysfunction
#15
Xin Xu, Ping Zhang, Dongmin Kwak, John Fassett, Wenhui Yue, Dorothee Atzler, Xinli Hu, Xiaohong Liu, Huan Wang, Zhongbing Lu, Haipeng Guo, Edzard Schwedhelm, Rainer H Böger, Peijie Chen, Yingjie Chen
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases that limits nitric oxide bioavailability. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) exerts a critical role for ADMA degradation and plays an important role in NO signaling. In the heart, DDAH1 is observed in endothelial cells and in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes. While NO signaling is important for cardiac adaptation to stress, DDAH1 impact on cardiomyocyte homeostasis is not clear. Here we used the MerCreMer-LoxP model to specifically disrupt cardiomyocyte DDAH1 expression in adult mice to determine the physiological impact of cardiomyocyte DDAH1 under basal conditions and during hypertrophic stress imposed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
August 17, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819645/3d-imaging-of-optically-cleared-tissue-using-a-simplified-clarity-method-and-on-chip-microscopy
#16
Yibo Zhang, Yoonjung Shin, Kevin Sung, Sam Yang, Harrison Chen, Hongda Wang, Da Teng, Yair Rivenson, Rajan P Kulkarni, Aydogan Ozcan
High-throughput sectioning and optical imaging of tissue samples using traditional immunohistochemical techniques can be costly and inaccessible in resource-limited areas. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) imaging and phenotyping in optically transparent tissue using lens-free holographic on-chip microscopy as a low-cost, simple, and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches. The tissue sample is passively cleared using a simplified CLARITY method and stained using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine to target cells of interest, enabling bright-field optical imaging and 3D sectioning of thick samples...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819569/a-study-on-il8rb-gene-polymorphism-as-a-potential-immuno-compromised-adherent-in-exaggeration-of-parenteral-and-mammo-crine-oxidative-stress-during-mastitis-in-buffalo
#17
S M El Nahas, A H El Kasas, A A Abou Mossallem, M I Abdelhamid, Mohamad Warda
The genetic markers in inflammatory responses during mastitis afford a reasonable way for improving milk production in the Egyptian buffalo breed. Among them is the interleukin 8 Receptor Gene (IL8RB) (CXCR2); a chemokine receptor gene augments the neutrophil migration during infection. To understand its role better during mastitis in Egyptian buffalos, twenty-five dairy animals representing the normal, sub-clinically, clinically and chronically affected buffalos were randomly selected from different districts...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819560/a-novel-peptide-blocking-cancer-cell-invasion-by-structure-based-drug-design
#18
Yuki Yamada, Seiji Kanayama, Fuminori Ito, Noriyuki Kurita, Hiroshi Kobayashi
The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPAR, facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis by focusing on several ligands, including uPA, integrins and vitronectin. With computational prediction algorithms and structure-based drug design, we identified peptides containing the Gly-Lys-Gly-Glu-Gly-Glu-Gly-Lys-Gly sequence (peptide H1), which strongly interacts with uPAR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of allosteric inhibition at the uPAR interface using a novel synthetic peptide and its function on ovarian cancer cell invasion...
September 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819401/identification-and-validation-of-soluble-carrier-family-expression-signature-for-predicting-poor-outcome-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Wan Fangning, Ma Chunguang, Zhang Hailiang, Shi Guohai, Zhu Yao, Dai Bo, Shen Yijun, Zhu Yiping, Ye Dingwei
The soluble carrier (SLC) family plays an important role in cell metabolism. The purpose of the current study was to screen SLCs as potential prognostic factors in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A total of 509 patients with ccRCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort were enrolled in this study. The expression profile of SLCs was obtained from the TCGA RNAseq database. Metadata of the TCGA cohort, including age, sex, TNM stage, tumor grade, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, laterality, and overall survival, were collected...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819378/hif-is-not-essential-for-suppression-of-experimental-tumor-growth-by-mtor-inhibition
#20
Karl X Knaup, Regina Guenther, Johanna Stoeckert, Juliana M Monti, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Michael S Wiesener
The Hypoxia Inducible Transcription Factor (HIF) is the master regulator of cellular response to hypoxic adaptation. Solid tumors inevitably harbour hypoxic regions with subsequent stabilization and activation of HIF and HIF target genes due to poor vascularization and rapid growth. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a global regulator of cellular growth and proliferation, which can also regulate HIF expression independantly of hypoxia via specific activation of cellular translation and transcription...
2017: Journal of Cancer
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