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Frozen sections

Hai-Hao Han, Yu-Jiao Qiu, Yuan-Yuan Shi, Wen Wen, Xiao-Peng He, Li-Wei Dong, Ye-Xiong Tan, Yi-Tao Long, He Tian, Hong-Yang Wang
The ability of chemical tools to effectively detect malignancy in frozen sections removed from patients during surgery is important for the timely determination of the subsequent surgical program. However, current clinical methods for tissue imaging rely on dye-based staining or antibody-based techniques, which are sluggish and complicated. Methods: Here, we have developed a 2D material-based supramolecular imaging probe for the simple, rapid yet precise diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The 2D probe is constructed through supramolecular self-assembly between a water soluble, fluorescent peptide ligand that selectively targets glypican-3 (GPC-3, a specific cell-surface biomarker for HCC) and 2D molybdenum disulfide that acts as a fluorescence quencher as well as imaging enhancer...
2018: Theranostics
Charlotte S Voskuilen, Elisabeth E Fransen van de Putte, Jose I Pérez-Reggeti, Erik van Werkhoven, Laura S Mertens, Bas W G van Rhijn, Mohamed Saad, Axel Bex, Xavier Cathelineau, Henk G van der Poel, Simon Horenblas, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Richard P Meijer
PURPOSE: To assess long-term functional and oncologic outcomes of prostate sparing cystectomy (PSC) as a sexuality-preserving alternative to radical cystectomy in a selected group of bladder cancer (BC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2014, 185 BC patients underwent PSC according to one of two standardized procedures at two centers. All patients had received extensive evaluation to rule out prostate cancer and BC at the bladder neck and prostatic urethra (PU), including prostate specific antigen blood analysis, transrectal ultrasound and/or prostate biopsies, PU biopsies and/or PU frozen section analysis...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Y M Xue, M G Chen, D W Chen, W F Wu, Y L Liu, F H Lin
Objective: To explore the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on myocardial fibrosis in mice with chronic viral myocarditis (CVMC) and related mechanisms. Methods: Forty 4-week-old Balb/c male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n= 10 each): phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group, CVMC group, CVMC+miR-21 inhibitor group, CVMC+isotype control group. The first injection of Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) or PBS was performed on day 0, and the total study time was 42 days. Each mouse in CVMC group, CVMC+miR-21 inhibitor group and CVMC+isotype control group was intraperitoneally (i...
June 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Satoshi Kamiya, Manabu Ohashi, Satoshi Ida, Koshi Kumagai, Souya Nunobe, Takeshi Sano, Naoki Hiki
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LsTG) has several advantages, including technical safety and preservation of postoperative function, compared with total or proximal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. However, LsTG has some technical issues with respect to achieving a safe resection margin and patency in patients with lesions close to the cardia or fornix. When LsTG is performed for lesions located rather close to the cardia or fornix, conventional marking clips can physically hinder transection by an endoscopic linear stapler...
June 19, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Vladimir Neychev, Vesela Ivanova, Tihomir Dikov, Georgi Todorov
A 67-year-old woman presented with clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and preoperative work-up highly suggestive of advanced stage IV carcinoma of the gallbladder (CG). An extended cholecystectomy with the excision of adjacent liver segments and loco-regional lymphadenectomy was performed. Final pathology results revealed diffuse xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XG) with ruptured Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses with tumor-resembling adenomyosis without atypical or malignant cells. There was a reactive inflammatory and fatty degeneration of the adjacent hepatic tissue and a nonspecific inflammatory reaction of the enlarged periportal lymph nodes...
April 17, 2018: Curēus
Katya Mokretar, Daniel Pease, Jan-Willem Taanman, Aynur Soenmez, Ayesha Ejaz, Tammaryn Lashley, Helen Ling, Steve Gentleman, Henry Houlden, Janice L Holton, Anthony H V Schapira, Elizabeth Nacheva, Christos Proukakis
The α-synuclein protein, encoded by SNCA, has a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. Although usually sporadic, Parkinson's disease can result from inherited copy number variants in SNCA and other genes. We have hypothesized a role of somatic SNCA mutations, leading to mosaicism, in sporadic synucleinopathies. The evidence for mosaicism in healthy and diseased brain is increasing rapidly, with somatic copy number gains of APP reported in Alzheimer's brain. Here we demonstrate somatic SNCA copy number gains in synucleinopathies (Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy), focusing on substantia nigra...
June 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Caleb Sutherland, Yu Wang, Robert V Brown, Julie Foley, Beth Mahler, Kyathanahalli S Janardhan, Ramesh C Kovi, Anton M Jetten
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) has allowed gene expression analysis of single cells and enriched cell populations in tissue sections. LCM is a great tool for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell differentiation and the development and progression of various diseases, including glaucoma. Glaucoma, which comprises a family of progressive optic neuropathies, is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Structural changes and damage within the trabecular meshwork (TM) can result in increased intraocular pressure (IOP), which is a major risk factor for developing glaucoma...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
P Oberst, D A Sandercock, P Di Giminiani, S A Edwards, P J Brunton
Background Adverse experiences in early life, such as exposure to stress, can have long term detrimental effects on the future physiology and behaviour of the animal. Typically animals exposed to such experiences are more anxious and more reactive to stress in later life. Tail biting is a major problem in modern pig production, both in terms of animal welfare and productivity. Tail docking in early postnatal life is common practice to reduce risk of this problem, but causes pain and may alter pain sensitivity...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Shuma Hirashio, Takahiro Arima, Ayaka Satoh, Kouichi Mandai, Shigeo Hara, Takao Masaki
BACKGROUND: Immunotactoid glomerulopathy (ITG) is a rare glomerulonephritis characterized by microtubular deposits. Immunofluorescence findings are necessary to differentiate ITG from other proliferative glomerular diseases. The characteristic tubular structure on electron microscopy is essential for a definitive diagnosis, and the diameter of the structure has been traditionally used for differentiating between ITG and other types of glomerulonephritis with organized deposits. In recent years, the disease concept of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, which is associated with M protein produced by plasma cell tumors, has been proposed...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Marina Danilenko, Robert Stones, Neil Rajan
Transcriptomic profiling of skin disease using next generation sequencing allows for detailed information on aspects of RNA biology including gene expression, non-coding regulatory elements and gene splicing. The application of RNA sequencing to human skin disease and cancer is often hampered by degraded RNA. Here we describe a protocol that allows for consistently intact RNA to be extracted from snap frozen skin biopsy samples, which has been validated in a clinical trial setting. Human skin tumour punch biopsies (n=28) ranging from 4-6mm in diameter were obtained from 14 patients with an inherited skin tumour syndrome (CYLD cutaneous syndrome) and frozen in liquid nitrogen prior to being stored at -80°C...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Hyeong In Ha, Min Chul Choi, Jin Hyung Heo, Kyoung Ah Kim, Sang Geun Jung, Hyun Park, Won Duk Joo, Seung Hun Song, Tae Hoen Kim, Chan Lee
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to analyze the clinicopathologic features and treatment of uSTUMP in a single institution. In addition, we described the obstetric outcomes after uterine-preserving surgery for uSTUMP. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with uSTUMP between January 2000 and February 2018 at the Comprehensive Gynecologic Cancer Center, CHA Bundang Medical Center. We obtained data on the patients' demographics, treatment, therapeutic results, time to recurrence, disease-free and overall survival, and subsequent obstetric outcomes...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Armen Khararjian, Prakash Mathew, Ajuni Choudhary, Alexander Baras
CONTEXT: - Intraoperative pathology consultation is an important tool for many surgical procedures and is deemed appropriate when the pathology result immediately alters surgical management. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate the utility of intraoperative gross examinations of colorectal resections and to better understand the associated costs. DESIGN: - The pathology database of our institution was searched for colorectal resections for primary disease, and those cases were separated into 3 categories: frozen section performed, intraoperative gross examination performed, and no intraoperative consultation...
June 14, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Beric M Gilbert, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage
Parasites of fishes have been shown to be effective bioindicators of the aquatic environment. Few investigations have been conducted on ectoparasite models and therefore little is known about the fate of trace elements and metals which they accumulate. In this study trace element sequestration was observed in the carapace of the fish louse, Argulus japonicus and found to relate to the sex of the parasite, as well as, the degree of sclerotization of the carapace. Adults of A. japonicus were collected from cyprinid hosts in the Vaal Dam, South Africa...
2018: PloS One
Nungki Anggorowati, Ahmad Ghozali, Irianiwati Widodo, Dwi Cahyani Ratna Sari, Muhammad Mansyur Romi, Nur Arfian
Background: Heparanase and endothelin-1/endothelin A receptor (ET-1/ETA R) expressions increase in cancer. This condition enhances tumor progression and correlates with poor survival. Limited data are documented regarding the role of heparanase and ET-1/ETA R in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We sought to characterize the correlation between heparanase and ET-1/ETA R in EOC. Methods: Thirty patients with benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were recruited in this study...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Rudy S Suidan, Charlotte C Sun, Scott B Cantor, Andrea Mariani, Pamela T Soliman, Shannon N Westin, Karen H Lu, Sharon H Giordano, Larissa A Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-utility of three lymphadenectomy strategies in the management of low-risk endometrial carcinoma. METHODS: A decision analysis model compared three lymphadenectomy strategies in women undergoing minimally invasive surgery for low-risk endometrial carcinoma: 1) routine lymphadenectomy in all patients, 2) selective lymphadenectomy based on intraoperative frozen section criteria, and 3) sentinel lymph node mapping. Costs and outcomes were obtained from published literature and Medicare reimbursement rates...
June 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hirofumi Enomoto, Takuya Sensu, Emi Yumoto, Takao Yokota, Hisakazu Yamane
RATIONALE: Abscisic acid (ABA), and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development. However, because of their low ionization efficiencies, visualization by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has been difficult. In this study, we used on-tissue chemical derivatization (OTCD) with derivatization reagent Girard's T (GirT) in MALDI-IMS to visualize ABA and OPDA. METHODS: Immature Phaseolus vulgaris L...
June 10, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Atsuo Miyazawa
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) includes three technical methods, (1) rapid freezing for vitreous ice-embedding, (2) observation of frozen hydrated specimens, and (3) image processing for three-dimensional structural analysis. The three-dimensional structural analysis can be performed in three different ways. Electron crystallography can decipher the structure of membrane proteins at the highest resolution (atomic level). Single particle analysis now allows the determiration of the structure of highly purified proteins and complexes (non-crystalline biomolecules) in solution at the near-atomic level...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
K Yang, R J Miron, Z Bian, Y F Zhang
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem worldwide. Semaphorins (Sema) have been described as key molecules involved in the cross-talk between bone cells (osteoblasts/osteoclasts). In this study, we investigated whether plasmid containing Sema3a could ameliorate bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model via (AspSerSer)6 , a selectively bone-targeting moiety. Plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-Sema3a-GFP was fabricated and transfected cells with the plasmid demonstrated statistically higher levels of Sema3A in vitro (p < 0...
June 5, 2018: Bone
Ayman Shehata Dawood, Adel Elshahat Elgergawy
This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the incidences and sites of pelvic adhesions in women with post-caesarean unexplained infertility. This study was conducted at the Tanta University Hospitals in the period from August 1 2015 to July 31 2016. The enrolled patients were assessed by a diagnostic laparoscopy for the presence and sites of abdominal and pelvic adhesions. Pelvic adhesions were found in 98 cases (73.13%) and the remaining 36 cases (26.87%) were free of adhesions. Adhesions were tubal in 55...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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