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Species delimitation

Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo, Alejandro Casas, Fabiola Parra, Hilda Julieta Arreola-Nava, Teresa Terrazas, Cristian Sánchez
The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S...
2018: PloS One
Fabiana B Drago, Verónica Núñez, Lía I Lunaschi
Studying the Helminthological Collection of Museo de La Plata (MLP-He), several specimens of digeneans, recovered parasitizing a long-winged harrier, Circus buffoni (Accipitridae) from Buenos Aires Argentina, were analysed. The morphological and morphometric analysis of these specimens revealed the presence of two strigeid species, one of them new for science. Parastrigea buffoni n. sp. is characterised by a forebody differentiated in a retractile cephalic region with a large opening and a balloon-shaped collar region or collerette, suckers located in cephalic region, holdfast organ with well development dorsal and ventral lips that can emerge through opening, a claviform hindbody, a large copulatory bursa with muscular ring (Ringnapf) and a genital cone well delimited, crossed by a sinuous hermaphroditic duct with internal rugae...
January 16, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jesús A Ballesteros, Gustavo Hormiga
The orchard spider, Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer, 1841) is one of the most common and abundant orb-weavers in North America. This species has a broad geographic distribution extending across tropical and temperate regions of the Americas from Canada to Brazil. Guided by a preliminary observation of the barcode gap between sequences from specimens of L. venusta collected in Florida and other North American localities, we collected across a transect through southeastern states of the USA to investigate the observed genetic divide...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Cene Fišer, Christopher T Robinson, Florian Malard
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new 'species' paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category - which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Emmanuel C Nwankwo, Chryso Th Pallari, Louis Hadjioannou, Andreas Ioannou, Ronald K Mulwa, Alexander N G Kirschel
The criteria for species delimitation in birds have long been debated, and several recent studies have proposed new methods for such delimitation. On one side, there is a large consensus of investigators who believe that the only evidence that can be used to delimit species is molecular phylogenetics, and with increasing numbers of markers to gain better support, whereas on the other, there are investigators adopting alternative approaches based largely on phenotypic differences, including in morphology and communication signals...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yuan-Cong Li, Da-Lv Zhong, Guang-Yuan Rao, Jun Wen, Yi Ren, Jian-Qiang Zhang
Quaternary climatic oscillations have had tremendous effects on current distribution of species. Previous studies unraveled multiple microrefugia on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in two woody plants. Still we know little whether herbs growing in forests responded to climatic oscillations similarly. We herein conducted a phylogeographic study on Rhodiola sect. Trifida, an herbaceous group endemic to the QTP, which mainly growing on the forest floors, using plastid and ITS sequences as well as ecological niche modeling...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Shuai Yuan, Gui Zeng, Miaomiao Shi, Dianxiang Zhang
Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Primula ovalifolia, a member of Primula section Petiolares (Primulaceae), to study the population genetics and species delimitation in this section. Methods and Results: A total of 4753 markers were successfully designated from 5139 putative simple sequence repeat loci. We isolated 38 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers from 220 selected marker sites and tested polymorphism in three populations of P...
December 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Sonia Fisch-Muller, Jan H A Mol, Raphaël Covain
Characterizing and naming species becomes more and more challenging due to the increasing difficulty of accurately delineating specific bounderies. In this context, integrative taxonomy aims to delimit taxonomic units by leveraging the complementarity of multiple data sources (geography, morphology, genetics, etc.). However, while the theoretical framework of integrative taxonomy has been explicitly stated, methods for the simultaneous analysis of multiple data sets are poorly developed and in many cases different information sources are still explored successively...
2018: PloS One
Masahiko Idei, Shinya Sato, Tamotsu Nagumo, David G Mann
Diploneis species have perhaps the most complex valve structure among pennate diatoms. The development of this structure was studied in D. smithii and begins with the formation of a primary band, which then develops secondary arms at both poles and the center, as in the classic Chiappino-Volcani model of raphid diatom ontogeny. Spine-like projections grow out from the primary band and secondary arms to establish the transapical ribs (virgae) of the mature valve and themselves develop spines, which are spaced first oppositely and then alternately and fuse with each other to delimit the stria pores...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Patrick Strutzenberger, Gunnar Brehm, Brigitte Gottsberger, Florian Bodner, Carlo Lutz Seifert, Konrad Fiedler
Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp) from one mitochondrial (COI) and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha) for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident...
2017: PloS One
Chun-Xia Wang, Xin Xu, Shu-Qiang Li
Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment (COI)...
November 18, 2017: Zoological Research
Neelam Rashid, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Ihsan-Ul Haq, Syed Nasar Shah, Abdul Mateen, Tauseef Ahmed
Seed micromorphology of 12 species of tribe Vicieae (Papilionoidae) representing five genera were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The different seed types were described, illustrated, compared, and their taxonomic importance is discussed. Seeds exhibit great diversity in ultrastructure and a variety of novel morphological features have been determined among and within genera of the tribe. Seeds were characterized by oval to round shape, ovate to oblong outline and striate to papillate ornamentation...
December 27, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Tao Ma, Kun Wang, Quanjun Hu, Zhenxiang Xi, Dongshi Wan, Qian Wang, Jianju Feng, Dechun Jiang, Hamid Ahani, Richard J Abbott, Martin Lascoux, Eviatar Nevo, Jianquan Liu
How genome divergence eventually leads to speciation is a topic of prime evolutionary interest. Genomic islands of elevated divergence are frequently reported between diverging lineages, and their size is expected to increase with time and gene flow under the speciation-with-gene-flow model. However, such islands can also result from divergent sorting of ancient polymorphisms, recent ecological selection regardless of gene flow, and/or recurrent background selection and selective sweeps in low-recombination regions...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
W M Jaklitsch, J Checa, M N Blanco, I Olariaga, S Tello, H Voglmayr
Fresh collections, type studies and molecular phylogenetic analyses of a multigene matrix of partial nuSSU-ITS-LSU rDNA, rpb2, tef1 and tub2 sequences were used to evaluate the boundaries of Cucurbitaria in a strict sense and of several related genera of the Cucurbitariaceae. Two species are recognised in Cucurbitaria and 19 in Neocucurbitaria. The monotypic genera Astragalicola, Cucitella, Parafenestella, Protofenestella, and Seltsamia are described as new. Fenestella is here included as its generic type F...
June 2018: Studies in Mycology
Łukasz Kajtoch, Matteo Montagna, Marek Wanat
Curculionidae is a hyperdiverse group of beetles, whose taxonomy and phylogenetics is still poorly understood, especially at the genus level. The latest work on the evolution of Apionini showed a noticeable "mess" in the subtribe Oxystomatina, where most of the morphology-based genera were found to be polyphyletic or paraphyletic. These discrepancies between classical taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics implied the need for further taxonomic revision of these groups. Here, we used sets of morphological, molecular and ecological characters to verify the taxonomic statuses and disentangle the phylogenetic relations among the Bothryorrhynchapion apionids, which are classified as a subgenus of Cyanapion...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sergio M Q Lima, Waldir M Berbel-Filho, Thais F P Araújo, Henrique Lazzarotto, Andrey Tatarenkov, John C Avise
Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a 'near threatened' armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
Niels W L Van Steenkiste, Elizabeth R Herbert, Brian S Leander
Increasing evidence suggests that many widespread species of meiofauna are in fact regional complexes of (pseudo-)cryptic species. This knowledge has challenged the 'Everything is Everywhere' hypothesis and also partly explains the meiofauna paradox of widespread nominal species with limited dispersal abilities. Here, we investigated species diversity within the marine microturbellarian Astrotorhynchus bifidus sensu lato in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. We used a multiple-evidence approach combing multi-gene (18S, 28S, COI) phylogenetic analyses, several single-gene and multi-gene species delimitation methods, haplotype networks and conventional taxonomy to designate Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Silvia A Justi, Sara Cahan, Lori Stevens, Carlota Monroy, Raquel Lima, Patricia L Dorn
To date, the phylogeny of Triatoma dimidiata sensu lato (s. l.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), the epidemiologically most important Chagas disease vector in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America, has only been investigated by one multi-copy nuclear gene (Internal Transcribed Spacer - 2) and a few mitochondrial genes. We examined 450 specimens sampled across most of its native range from Mexico to Ecuador using reduced representation next-generation sequencing encompassing over 16,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ilkser Erdem Kiper, Paulette Bloomer, Philippe Borsa, Thierry Bernard Hoareau
Rabbitfishes are reef-associated fishes that support local fisheries throughout the Indo-West Pacific region. Sound management of the resource requires the development of molecular tools for appropriate stock delimitation of the different species in the family. Microsatellite markers were developed for the cordonnier, Siganus sutor, and their potential for cross-amplification was investigated in 12 congeneric species. A library of 792 repeat-containing sequences was built. Nineteen sets of newly developed primers, and 14 universal finfish microsatellites were tested in S...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
Gregory F M Jongsma, Michael F Barej, Christopher D Barratt, Marius Burger, Werner Conradie, Raffael Ernst, Eli Greenbaum, Mareike Hirschfeld, Adam D Leaché, Johannes Penner, Daniel M Portik, Ange-Ghislain Zassi-Boulou, Mark-Oliver Rödel, David C Blackburn
Frogs in the genus Amnirana (family Ranidae) are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa and present a model system for exploring the relationship between diversification and geography across the continent. Using multiple loci from the mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear genomes (DISP2, FICD, KIAA2013, REV3L), we generated a strongly supported species-level phylogeny that provides insights into the continental biogeography of African species of Amnirana, which form a monophyletic group within the genus. Species delimitation analyses suggest that there may be as many as seven additional species of Amnirana in Africa...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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