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Species delimitation

Bruna Buch, Mariéllen Dornelles Martins, Luis Henrique Z Branco
Several new genera originally classified as the genus Phormidium, a polyphyletic and taxonomically complex genus within the Oscillatoriales, were recently described. The simple morphology of Phormidium does not reflect its genetic diversity and the delimitation of a natural group is not possible with traditional classification systems based on morphology alone. Therefore, this study used morphological, ecological and molecular approaches to evaluate four populations morphologically similar to Ammassolinea, Kamptonema and Ancylothrix (simple, curved and gradually attenuated at the ends trichome), found in subtropical and tropical Brazilian regions...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Susan E McGill, Daniel Barker
OBJECTIVE: " Candidatus Ruthia magnifica", "Candidatus Vesicomyosocius okutanii" and Thiomicrospira crunogena are all sulfur-oxidising bacteria found in deep-sea vent environments. Recent research suggests that the two symbiotic organisms, "Candidatus R. magnifica" and "Candidatus V. okutanii", may share common ancestry with the autonomously living species T. crunogena. We used comparative genomics to examine the genome-wide protein-coding content of all three species to explore their similarities...
July 20, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Arial J Shogren, Jennifer L Tank, Elizabeth Andruszkiewicz, Brett Olds, Andrew R Mahon, Christopher L Jerde, Diogo Bolster
Advances in detection of genetic material from species in aquatic ecosystems, including environmental DNA (eDNA), have improved species monitoring and management. eDNA from target species can readily move in streams and rivers and the goal is to measure it, and with that infer where and how abundant species are, adding great value to delimiting species invasions, monitoring and protecting rare species, and estimating biodiversity. To date, we lack an integrated framework that identifies environmental factors that control eDNA movement in realistic, complex, and heterogeneous flowing waters...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elliot M Gardner, Paya Sarraf, Evelyn W Williams, Nyree J C Zerega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maclura (ca. 12 spp., Moraceae) is a widespread genus of trees and woody climbers found on five continents. Maclura pomifera, the Osage orange, is considered a classic example of an anachronistic fruit. Native to the central USA, the grapefruit-sized Osage oranges are unpalatable and have no known extant native dispersers, leading to speculation that the fruits were adapted to extinct megafauna. Our aim was to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates, and infer ancestral ranges of Maclura in order to test the monophyly of subgeneric classifications and to understand evolution and dispersal patterns in this globally distributed group...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Davide Dagnino, Luigi Minuto, Gabriele Casazza
Delimiting taxa boundaries is a crucial point for any evolutionary research and conservation regulation. In order to avoid mistaken description of species, the approach of integrative taxonomy recommends to consider multidisciplinary lines of evidence, including ecology. Unfortunately, ecological data are often difficult to quantify in an objective way. Here we test and discuss the potential use of Ecological Niche Models for validating taxa boundaries, using three pairs of closely related plant taxa endemic to South-western Alps as a case study...
July 10, 2017: Plant Biology
Kaomud Tyagi, Vikas Kumar, Devkant Singha, Kailash Chandra, Boni Amin Laskar, Shantanu Kundu, Rajasree Chakraborty, Sumantika Chatterjee
Thrips are one of the major sucking pest and vector of plant viruses causing huge economic loss in agriculture. The accurate identification of thrips is crucial for effective pest management strategies. However, morphology based identification has limitations and warrants integration of molecular data. We attempted the largest DNA barcoding initiative on 370 sequences of 89 thrips morphospecies including 104 novel sequences from 39 morphospecies, including the type specimens of four species. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (BIN, ABGD, GMYC and bPTP) were consistent for 73 species (82%) with their morphological identifications...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gabriela B Bittencourt-Silva, Lucinda P Lawson, Krystal A Tolley, Daniel M Portik, Christopher D Barratt, Peter Nagel, Simon P Loader
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have been used in a wide range of ecological and evolutionary studies. In biogeographic studies these models have, among other things, helped in the discovery of new allopatric populations, and even new species. However, small sample sizes and questionable taxonomic delimitation can challenge models, often decreasing their accuracy. Herein we examine the sensitivity of ENMs to the addition of new, geographically isolated populations, and the impact of applying different taxonomic delimitations...
July 3, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ying Miao, Na Ma, Bao-Zhen Hua
The species of the genus Cerapanorpa Gao, Ma & Hua, 2016 (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) are characterized mainly by the presence of a finger-like anal horn on tergum VI of males and are distributed in the Oriental and eastern Palearctic regions. Herein, we investigated the pachytene banding patterns and reconstructed the Bayesian time-calibrated tree of some species of Cerapanorpa. All species examined display achiasmate meiosis and the same meiformula 2n = 42 + X0, reconfirming the monophyly of Cerapanorpa...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
J A Ávila-Reyes, N Almaraz-Abarca, A I Chaidez-Ayala, D Ramírez-Noya, E A Delgado-Alvarado, R Torres-Ricario, N Naranjo-Jiménez, R E Alanís-Bañuelos
The family Verbenaceae hosts important species used in traditional medicine of many countries. The taxonomic controversies concerning the specific delimitation of several of its species make it difficult to guarantee the botanical origin of herbal preparations based on species of this family. To contribute to the development of both specific chemomarkers and a quality control tool to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal preparations of Verbenacea species, we determined the foliar HPLC-DAD phenolic profiles and the antioxidant properties of 10 wild species of this family occurring in Mexico...
June 26, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Xiaoke Xing, Jinxin Men, Shunxing Guo
It has been well established that some Armillaria species are symbionts of Polyporus umbellatus, However, little is known about the evolutionary history of P. umbellatus-Armillaria associations. In this research, we used an analysis based on the strength of the phylogenetic signal to investigate P. umbellatus-Armillaria associations in 57 sclerotial samples across 11 provinces of China. We isolated Armillaria strains from the invasion cavity inside the sclerotia of P. umbellatus and then phylogenetically analyzed these Armillaria isolates...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Véronique Giudicelli, Patrice Duroux, Sofia Kossida, Marie-Paule Lefranc
BACKGROUND: IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain...
June 26, 2017: BMC Immunology
Enoque Medeiros-Neto, Felipe Nollet, Ana Paula Moraes, Leonardo P Felix
The asymmetry indexes have helped cytotaxonomists to interpret and classify plant karyotypes for species delimitation efforts. However, there is no consensus about the best method to calculate the intrachromosomal asymmetry. The present study aimed to compare different intrachromosomal asymmetry indexes in order to indicate which are more efficient for the estimation of asymmetry in different groups of orchids. Besides, we aimed to compare our results with the Orchidaceae phylogenetic proposal to test the hypothesis of Stebbins (1971)...
June 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Peng Zhao, Makoto Kakishima, Qi Wang, Lei Cai
Melampsora epitea (Pucciniales, Basidiomycota) has been widely known as the main rust pathogen on willows, but its species boundary has been extremely confusing. Melampsora epitea was often confused with several morphologically similar species, such as M. arctica, M. humilis, and M. epiphylla. Recent DNA-based studies using specimens from North America and Europe suggested that M. epitea was a complex of several phylogenetic species. In this study, we examined the species boundary of M. epitea based on rDNA phylogeny and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model from 534 specimens...
May 11, 2017: Mycologia
Ricardo García-Jiménez, Jose Luis Horreo, Antonio G Valdecasas
In this work, we compare morphological and molecular data in their ability to distinguish between species of water mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Hydrachnidia). We have focused on the two species of the genus Lebertia inhabiting the island of Madeira. While traditional morphological traits were initially sufficient to distinguish between these two species, the molecular data were more dependable on the kind of analysis carried out. Single arbitrary genetic distance (e.g. a K2P distance below 2%) may lead to the conclusion that the specimens under study belong to the same species...
June 16, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Daniel J MacGuigan, Anthony J Geneva, Richard E Glor
Delimiting young species is one of the great challenges of systematic biology, particularly when the species in question exhibit little morphological divergence. Anolis distichus, a trunk anole with more than a dozen subspecies that are defined primarily by dewlap color, may actually represent several independent evolutionary lineages. To test this, we utilized amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) genome scans and genetic clustering analyses in conjunction with a coalescent-based species delimitation method...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Susan Rutherford, Stephen P Bonser, Peter G Wilson, Maurizio Rossetto
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenotypic plasticity is an important means through which organisms cope with environmental variability. We investigated seedling plasticity in the green ash eucalypts within a phylogenetic framework to examine the relationship between plasticity and evolutionary history. The green ashes are a diverse group, which include the tallest flowering plant in the world (Eucalyptus regnans) and a rare mallee less than 1 m tall (E. cunninghamii). METHODS: Seedlings of 12 species were exposed to high and low nutrient and water availability in a factorial experiment...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Eric N Rittmeyer, Christopher C Austin
We describe two new species of the scincid lizard genus Tribolonotus from the islands of Buka and Choiseul in the Solomon Archipelago, closely related to, and previously included within, T. pseudoponceleti. One species, T. parkeri sp. nov., is endemic to Buka Island and was revealed in our previous study via taxonomically focused analyses of both next-generation sequencing data and morphology. Here, we also further support the validity of this species by more taxonomically comprehensive Bayesian species delimitation of three Sanger sequenced nuclear loci...
May 15, 2017: Zootaxa
Ssu-Li Chen, Hsi-Te Shih
Three new species of Opiliones are delimited and described from central and northern Taiwan based on morphological and molecular evidence. Pseudogagrella dorsomaculata sp. nov., collected from the Dasyueshan Forest Recreation Area, Heping, Taichung, resembles P. andoi Suzuki 1977, but can be recognized by the different pattern of the first abdominal tergite and the morphology of the penile grans. Pseudogagrella nigridorsa sp. nov., collected from the Lalashan National Forest Sanctuary, Fusing, Taoyuan, resembles P...
May 15, 2017: Zootaxa
Salomón Sanabria-Urbán, Hojun Song, Ken Oyama, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Raúl Cueva Del Castillo
The genus Sphenarium Charpentier, 1842 comprises the most diverse group of the New World Pyrgomorphidae. These grasshoppers show an extensive variation in external morphology, and are culturally and economically important for Mexican people since pre-Hispanic times. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of Sphenarium has been chaotic and remained incompletely resolved until now. Following an integrative taxonomic framework, we infer the number of species in this genus by species delimitation based on morphological, phylogenetic, and geographic information...
June 8, 2017: Zootaxa
Tamara Bianca Horn, Júlia Jantsch Ferla, Júlia Horn Körbes, Júlia Horn Körbes, Juliana Granich, Barry Oconnor, Pavel Klimov, Noeli Juarez Ferla
We describe Tuccioglyphus setosus gen. et sp. nov. from the litter of commercially reared laying hens as well as wild birds in Brazil. The new genus Tuccioglyphus presents a mixture of character states between the two conventional subfamilies, Pyroglyphinae and Dermatophagoidinae. Based on this new unusual genus, we discuss character states delimiting these and other major subfamilies of the house dust mite family, Pyroglyphidae, as well as its most important and species-rich genus Dermatophagoides. An additional new genus, Marioglyphus gen...
March 20, 2017: Zootaxa
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