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Weijian Sun, Bin He, Beng Yang, Wendi Hu, Shaobing Cheng, Heng Xiao, Zhengjie Yang, Xiaoyu Wen, Lin Zhou, Haiyang Xie, Xian Shen, Jian Wu, Shusen Zheng
The genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screen is a powerful tool used to identify therapeutic targets that can be harnessed for cancer treatment. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of genome-wide CRISPR screening to identify druggable genes associated with sorafenib-treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A genome-scale CRISPR knockout (GeCKO v2) library containing 123,411 single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) was used to identify loss-of-function mutations conferring sorafenib resistance upon HCC cells...
February 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Skye F Cameron, Rebecca Wheatley, Robbie S Wilson
Studies of sexual selection primarily focus on morphological traits such as body size and secondary trait dimorphism, with less attention been given to the functional differences between the sexes and even more so their thermal performance capacities. Each sex may benefit from possessing different thermal performance capacities that would allow them to maximise their fitness relative to their different reproductive roles; especially when performances are closely related to reproductive success. Here, we examine sexual divergence in thermal sensitivities of performance across three populations of the Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) over an extensive latitudinal cline...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Ophélie Cojean, Claire Vergneau-Grosset, Isabelle Masseau
Captive leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) often present to the exotic clinic for gastrointestinal impactions, follicular stasis, or dystocia. To our knowledge, normal ultrasonographic anatomy of these lizards has not been described. The objectives of this prospective, anatomic, analytical study were to develop ultrasound techniques for this species and to describe the normal sonographic anatomy of the head, coelomic cavity, and tail. Eleven, healthy, female leopard geckos were included. A linear array 13-18 MHz transducer was used...
February 19, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Louise K Barnett, Ben L Phillips, Allen C G Heath, Andrew Coates, Conrad J Hoskin
Host-parasite dynamics can play a fundamental role in both the establishment success of invasive species and their impact on native wildlife. The net impact of parasites depends on their capacity to switch effectively between native and invasive hosts. Here we explore host-switching, spatial patterns and simple fitness measures in a slow-expanding invasion: the invasion of Asian house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) from urban areas into bushland in Northeast Australia. In bushland close to urban edges, H. frenatus co-occurs with, and at many sites now greatly out-numbers, native geckos...
February 14, 2018: Parasitology
Noeline Subramaniam, James J Petrik, Matthew K Vickaryous
The skin is a bilayered organ that serves as a key barrier between an organism and its environment. In addition to protecting against microbial invasion, physical trauma and environmental damage, skin participates in maintaining homeostasis. Skin is also capable of spontaneous self-repair following injury. These functions are mediated by numerous pleiotrophic growth factors, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) families...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
The nature and hormonal control of cues used for recognition of sex and reproductive status of conspecifics remain largely unstudied in reptiles. It has been proposed that production of a female attractiveness pheromone controlled by female ovarian hormones (and which is suppressed by male gonadal androgens) is necessary to elicit courtship in males. In the case of leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), it has been suggested that an individual is recognized as a male and attacked unless it produces female-specific stimuli in its skin and that females are attacked, not courted, while shedding...
February 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Tal Cohen, Chon U Chan, L Mahadevan
Thin adhesive pads used to attach objects to each other often fail catastrophically. Here we consider the nature of failure of such a pad under loading parallel to the adhesive substrate. To determine the modes of failure of the pad and to understand what limits its load bearing capacity, we conduct experiments with finite pads composed of a soft adhesive layer with a stiff backing and load them parallel to the surface of adhesion. We find that two different peeling mechanisms emerge as a function of the slenderness of the adhesive pad: an interfacial peeling mechanism that starts close to the pulling end for very long pads, and an unstable curling mechanism that starts at the opposite end for relatively short pads...
February 5, 2018: Soft Matter
Kenkoh S Endoh, Toshihiro Kawakatsu, Florian Müller-Plathe
The mechanical properties of gecko setae and spatulae are investigated with a coarse-grained model having two bead types. The two-bead model is based on both experimental information for the internal structure of setae and the chemical amino-acid composition. Since the seta is composed of a stiff fibril region and a soft matrix region, we model each of regions separately. Our model is parameterized in a bottom-up way, and successfully predicts essential mechanical properties without optimization against the macroscopic properties of keratin...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
K Tomo Wiggans, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Christopher M Reilly, Claire Vergneau-Grosset, Philip H Kass, Steven R Hollingsworth
OBJECTIVE To describe diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 112 of 144 (78%) leopard geckos that were evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital in January 1985 through October 2013 and for which sufficient medical record information was available. PROCEDURES Information from medical records was used to identify leopard geckos with ophthalmic disease, characterize cases, and determine risk factors for the presence of ophthalmic disease...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Theresa M Grieco, Joy M Richman
We performed a test of how function impacts a genetically programmed process that continues into postnatal life. Using the dentition of the polyphyodont gecko as our model, tooth shedding was recorded longitudinally across the jaw. We compared two time periods: one in which teeth were patterned symmetrically in ovo and a later period when teeth were initiated post-hatching. By pairing shedding events on the right and left sides, we found the patterns of tooth loss are symmetrical and stable between periods, with only subtle deviations...
January 10, 2018: Evolution & Development
H Suzuki, T Yamamoto
Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactive cells in the pancreas of gecko Homopholis fasciata. Four types of endocrine cells were distinguished: insulin immunoreactive (B cells), pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactive (PP cells), glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactive (A/PP cells) and somatostatin immunoreactive cells (D cells). Pancreatic islets contained B, A/PP and D cells, whereas extrainsular regions contained B, D and PP cells...
January 8, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
T P Russo, L Varriale, L Borrelli, A Pace, M Latronico, L F Menna, A Fioretti, L Dipineto
OBJECTIVES: Reptiles are considered an important reservoir of Salmonella species. This study evaluated the prevalence of Salmonella species in different species of gecko kept as pets in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faecal swab samples were collected from 70 clinically healthy geckos and examined for Salmonella species by culture that were then serotyped. RESULTS: Salmonella species were isolated from 24 of 70 (34·3%) samples. Eighteen isolates expressed resistance to ceftazidime and four isolates to ampicillin...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Airn E Hartwig, Richard A Bowen
Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Wei-Ting Chen, Karthikeyan Manivannan, Chia-Chi Yu, Jinn P Chu, Jem-Kun Chen
The concurrent attachment and detachment movements of geckos on virtually any type of surface via their foot pads have inspired us to develop a thermal device with numerous arrangements of a multi-layer thin film together with electrodes that can help modify the temperature of the surface via application of a voltage. A sequential fabrication process was employed on a large-scale integration to generate well-defined contact hole arrays of photoresist for use as templates on the electrode-based device. The photoresist templates were then subjected to sputter deposition of the metallic glass Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5...
January 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Stuart V Nielsen, Paul M Oliver
Exposed limestone karst landscapes, especially in the tropics, are often home to distinctive and specialized biotas. Among vertebrates, a particularly large number of karst-associated lizard taxa have been described, but for the vast majority, evidence of specific adaptions to karst is lacking. A number of studies, however, have provided evidence of consistent morphological trends in lizards that use complex, three-dimensional, saxicoline habitats such as those that typify karst areas. Here we combine morphological and genetic data to test whether a newly discovered gecko from an extremely rugged karst area in New Guinea shows morphological trends matching those observed in other lizards associated with complex rock habitats such as karst and caves...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Emre Kizilkan, Stanislav N Gorb
The importance of the geometry of the micro-/nanosized attachment elements for adhesive characteristics of gecko-inspired microstructured surfaces has been comprehensively discussed in recent years. Due to the complex hierarchical structure of these systems, they possess a broad range of adhesion control capabilities by either passive or active adaptability of their underlying structures to the specific substrate and/or behavioral situation. Here, the influence of macroscopic geometry of backing layers hosting biomimetic microstructured surfaces is examined...
December 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
Truong Quang Nguyen, Anh VAN Pham, Thomas Ziegler, Hanh Thi Ngo, Minh Duc LE
We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus on the basis of four specimens collected from the limestone karst forest of Phu Yen District, Son La Province, Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus sonlaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL of 83.2 mm; dorsal tubercles in 13-15 irregular rows; ventral scales in 34-42 rows; ventrolateral folds prominent without interspersed tubercles; enlarged femoral scales 15-17 on each thigh; femoral pores 14-15 on each thigh in males, absent in females; precloacal pores 8, in a continuous row in males, absent in females; postcloacal tubercles 2 or 3; lamellae under toe IV 18-21; dorsal head with dark brown markings, in oval and arched shapes; nuchal loop discontinuous; dorsum with five brown bands between limb insertions, third and fourth bands discontinuous; subcaudal scales distinctly enlarged...
October 30, 2017: Zootaxa
Varad B Giri, Aaron M Bauer, Pratyush P Mohapatra, Chelmala Srinivasulu, Ishan Agarwal
A distinct new gecko of the genus Hemidactylus is described from Andhra Pradesh, India. This large-sized (snout to vent length up to at least 105 mm), scansorial Hemidactylus is characterized by dorsal scalation of small granules intermixed with large, pointed, trihedral tubercles that form 16-17 fairly regularly arranged longitudinal rows at midbody; 9-11 subdigital lamellae below the first and 11-13 below the fourth digit; 6-8 strongly pointed and keeled enlarged tubercles on the original tail; 20-23 femoral pores separated by 4 poreless scales in males; 11-13 supralabials and 9-11 infralabials...
November 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Eric Vanderduys
A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from central Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus trux sp. nov. It is similar to the recently described Strophurus congoo Vanderduys from north Queensland and apparently shares a habitat preference for Triodia hummock open woodlands. It is notably different from the latter in possessing a vivid yellow to golden eye. It is only known from one small area of the Brigalow Belt Bioregion, although it is expected to occur more widely than the one area in which it has been found...
November 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Fanomezana M Ratsoavina, Philip-Sebastian Gehring, Mark D Scherz, David R Vieites, Frank Glaw, Miguel Vences
The Tsaratanana Massif is the highest mountain massif of Madagascar and is characterized by a high species-level endemism of its biota. Here we describe two new small-sized species of leaf-tailed geckos of the Uroplatus ebenaui group from this region. Named in a preliminary way as confirmed candidate species Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca1] and [Ca2] in previous studies, we here provide detailed data on their molecular and morphological differentiation and describe them as Uroplatus fotsivava sp. nov. and Uroplatus kelirambo sp...
November 14, 2017: Zootaxa
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