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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213971/mass-turnover-and-recovery-dynamics-of-a-diverse-australian-continental-radiation
#1
Ian G Brennan, Paul M Oliver
Trends in global and local climate history have been linked to observed macroevolutionary patterns across a variety of organisms. These climatic pressures may unilaterally or asymmetrically influence the evolutionary trajectory of clades. To test and compare signatures of changing global (Eocene-Oligocene boundary cooling) and continental (Miocene aridification) environments on a continental fauna, we investigated the macroevolutionary dynamics of one of Australia's most diverse endemic radiations, pygopodoid geckos...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212488/graphene-oxide-glue-electrode-for-fabrication-of-vertical-elastic-conductive-columns
#2
Liusi Yang, Mingchu Zou, Shiting Wu, Wenjing Xu, Huaisheng Wu, Anyuan Cao
Graphene has a planar atomic structure with high flexibility, and might be used as ultra-thin conductive glues or adhesion layers in electronics and other applications. Here, we show that graphene oxide (GO) sheets condensed from solution can act as a pure, thin-layer, non-penetrating glue for fabrication of vertical architectures anchored on rigid and flexible substrates. Carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges are used as a porous template to make polymer-reinforced composite columns, to achieve both high conductivity and elastic behavior...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194954/gecko-inspired-nanotentacle-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-substrate-for-sampling-and-reliable-detection-of-pesticide-residues-in-fruits-and-vegetables
#3
Pan Wang, Long Wu, Zhicheng Lu, Qin Li, Wenmin Yin, Fan Ding, Heyou Han
Rapid sampling and multicomponent detection are crucial for monitoring of pesticide residues analysis. Here, a gecko-inspired nanotentacle surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (G-SERS) platform is proposed for the first time for the simultaneous detection of three kinds of pesticides via a simple and intuitive "press and peeled-off" approach. The G-SERS platform obtained from seeding deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on 3D PDMS nanotentacle array is flexible and free-standing. Compared with other substrates, this G-SERS substrate can simultaneously provide outstanding SERS activity (enhancement factor = 1...
February 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194313/off-the-scale-a-new-species-of-fish-scale-gecko-squamata-gekkonidae-geckolepis-with-exceptionally-large-scales
#4
Mark D Scherz, Juan D Daza, Jörn Köhler, Miguel Vences, Frank Glaw
The gecko genus Geckolepis, endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, is taxonomically challenging. One reason is its members ability to autotomize a large portion of their scales when grasped or touched, most likely to escape predation. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach including external morphology, morphometrics, genetics, pholidosis, and osteology, we here describe the first new species from this genus in 75 years: Geckolepis megalepissp. nov. from the limestone karst of Ankarana in northern Madagascar...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193810/thresholds-and-noise-limitations-of-colour-vision-in-dim-light
#5
REVIEW
Almut Kelber, Carola Yovanovich, Peter Olsson
Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187551/systematics-of-a-small-i-gehyra-i-squamata-gekkonidae-from-the-einasleigh-uplands-queensland-description-of-a-new-range-restricted-species
#6
Gayleen Bourke, Renae C Pratt, Eric Vanderduys, Craig Moritz
The tropical savannah landscapes of Australia's north, though previously overshadowed by the biodiverse rainforests of the Wet Tropics, are themselves now attracting interest for their biological significance and uniqueness. The Einasleigh Uplands region of north-east Queensland is home to a diverse group of mammals and reptiles and was previously recognised for its importance in shaping speciation in birds. Here we add a small saxicoline gecko to a growing list of recently described reptiles that are endemic to this region...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186403/discretely-supported-dry-adhesive-film-inspired-by-biological-bending-behavior-for-enhanced-performance-on-a-rough-surface
#7
Hong Hu, Hongmiao Tian, Jinyou Shao, Xiangming Li, Yue Wang, Yan Wang, Yu Tian, Bingheng Lu
Biologically inspired dry adhesion has recently become a research hot topic because of its practical significance in scientific research and instrumental technology. Yet, most of the current studies merely focus on borrowing the concept from some finer biological contact elements but lose sight of the foundation ones that play an equally important role in the adhesion functionality. Inspired by the bending behavior of the flexible foundation element of a gecko (lamellar skin) in attachment motion, in this study, a new type of dry adhesive structure was proposed, wherein a mushroom-shaped micropillar array behaving as a strongly adhesive layer was engineered on a discretely supported thin film...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149678/three-new-karst-dwelling-cnemaspis-strauch-1887-squamata-gekkoniade-from-peninsular-thailand-and-the-phylogenetic-placement-of-c-%C3%A2-punctatonuchalis-and-c-%C3%A2-vandeventeri
#8
Perry Lee Wood, L Lee Grismer, Anchalee Aowphol, César A Aguilar, Micheal Cota, Marta S Grismer, Matthew L Murdoch, Jack W Sites
Three new species of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov., C. phangngaensis sp. nov., and C. thachanaensis sp. nov. of the chanthaburiensis and siamensis groups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2). Cnemaspis lineogularis sp...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132673/recent-advances-in-the-study-and-design-of-parahydrophobic-surfaces-from-natural-examples-to-synthetic-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Caroline R Szczepanski, Frédéric Guittard, Thierry Darmanin
Parahydrophobic surfaces are an interesting class of materials that combines both high contact angles and very strong adhesion with wetting fluids, most commonly water. This unique set of properties makes parahydrophobic surfaces attractive for a variety of applications, including water harvesting and collection, guided fluid transport, and membrane development, amongst many others. Taking inspiration from natural surfaces that display this same behavior such as rose petals and gecko feet, synthetic approaches aim to incorporate the nano- and micro-scale topography as well as the low surface energy chemistry found on these interfaces...
January 19, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130071/an-energetic-perspective-on-tissue-regeneration-the-costs-of-tail-autotomy-in-growing-geckos
#10
Zuzana Starostová, Lumír Gvoždík, Lukáš Kratochvíl
Tail autotomy is a crucial antipredatory lizard response, which greatly increases individual survival, but at the same time also compromises locomotor performance, sacrifices energy stores and induces a higher burden due to the ensuing response of regenerating the lost body part. The potential costs of tail autotomy include shifts in energy allocation and metabolic rates, especially in juveniles, which invest their energy primarily in somatic growth. We compared the metabolic rates and followed the growth of juvenile males with and without regenerating tails in the Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta), a nocturnal ground-dwelling lizard...
January 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120867/high-quality-bioreplication-of-intricate-nanostructures-from-a-fragile-gecko-skin-surface-with-bactericidal-properties
#11
David William Green, Kenneth Ka-Ho Lee, Jolanta Anna Watson, Hyun-Yi Kim, Kyung-Sik Yoon, Eun-Jung Kim, Jong-Min Lee, Gregory Shaun Watson, Han-Sung Jung
The external epithelial surfaces of plants and animals are frequently carpeted with small micro- and nanostructures, which broadens their adaptive capabilities in challenging physical habitats. Hairs and other shaped protuberances manage with excessive water, light contaminants, predators or parasites in innovative ways. We are interested in transferring these intricate architectures onto biomedical devices and daily-life surfaces. Such a project requires a very rapid and accurate small-scale fabrication process not involving lithography...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118399/correction-the-acoustic-properties-of-low-intensity-vocalizations-match-hearing-sensitivity-in-the-webbed-toed-gecko-gekko-subpalmatus
#12
Jingfeng Chen, Teppei Jono, Jianguo Cui, Xizi Yue, Yezhong Tang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146677.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112828/ecological-associations-of-autopodial-osteology-in-neotropical-geckos
#13
Priscila S Rothier, Renata Brandt, Tiana Kohlsdorf
Coevolution of form and function inspires investigation of associations between morphological variation and the exploitation of specific ecological settings. Such relationships, based mostly on traits of external morphology, have been extensively described for vertebrates, and especially so for squamates. External features are, however, composed by both soft tissues and bones, and these likely play different biomechanical roles during locomotion, such as in the autopodia. Therefore, ecological trends identified on the basis of external morphological measurements may not be directly correlated with equivalent variation in osteology...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107057/living-on-the-edge-parasite-prevalence-changes-dramatically-across-a-range-edge-in-an-invasive-gecko
#14
Andrew Coates, Louise K Barnett, Conrad Hoskin, Ben L Phillips
Species interactions can determine range limits, and parasitism is the most intimate of such interactions. Intriguingly, the very conditions on range edges likely change host-parasite dynamics in nontrivial ways. Range edges are often associated with clines in host density and with environmental transitions, both of which may affect parasite transmission. On advancing range edges, founder events and fitness/dispersal costs of parasitism may also cause parasites to be lost on range edges. Here we examine the prevalence of three species of parasite across the range edge of an invasive gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, in northeastern Australia...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097049/sharing-refuges-on-arid-islands-ecological-and-social-influence-on-aggregation-behaviour-of-wall-geckos
#15
Raquel Vasconcelos, Sara Rocha, Xavier Santos
BACKGROUND: The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. METHODS: After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080907/unsedated-computed-tomography-for-diagnosis-of-pelvic-canal-obstruction-in-a-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius
#16
Kelly DeCourcy, Eric T Hostnik, Josh Lorbach, Sue Knoblaugh
An adult leopard gecko ( Eublepharis macularius ) presented for lethargy, hyporexia, weight loss, decreased passage of waste, and a palpable caudal coelomic mass. Computed tomography showed a heterogeneous hyperattenuating (∼143 Hounsfield units) structure within the right caudal coelom. The distal colon-coprodeum lumen or urinary bladder was hypothesized as the most likely location for the heterogeneous structure. Medical support consisted of warm water and lubricant enema, as well as a heated environment...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078708/blood-vessel-formation-during-tail-regeneration-in-the-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-the-blastema-is-not-avascular
#17
Samantha L Payne, Hanna M Peacock, Matthew K Vickaryous
Unique among amniotes, many lizards are able to self-detach (autotomize) their tail and then regenerate a replacement. Tail regeneration involves the formation of a blastema, an accumulation of proliferating cells at the site of autotomy. Over time, cells of the blastema give rise to most of the tissues in the replacement tail. In non-amniotes capable of regenerating (such as urodeles and some teleost fish), the blastema is reported to be essentially avascular until tissue differentiation takes place. For tail regenerating lizards less is known...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077086/the-measure-of-success-geographic-isolation-promotes-diversification-in-pachydactylus-geckos
#18
Matthew P Heinicke, Todd R Jackman, Aaron M Bauer
BACKGROUND: Geckos of the genus Pachydactylus and their close relatives comprise the most species-rich clade of lizards in sub-Saharan Africa. Many explanations have been offered to explain species richness patterns of clades. In the Pachydactylus group, one possible explanation is a history of diversification via geographic isolation. If geographic isolation has played a key role in facilitating diversification, then we expect species in more species-rich subclades to have smaller ranges than species in less diverse subclades...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050465/lizard-bite-masquerading-as-scorpion-sting-envenomation
#19
Ramesh Neelannavar, Mallanagouda Patil, Shankargouda Patil, Bhavana Lakhkar, Vijaykumar Shegji
Lizard bite is very infrequent in children. Lizards tend to avoid confrontation. Bites are only inflicted when they are manipulated or when they are cornered and feel threatened. Lizard bites may be frightening but most do not cause serious health problems. The wall lizard or gecko, found in most homes, is not poisonous at all. It only checks insect population. A two-year-old boy was brought with history of lizard bite over right hand when he was trying to capture it. The child had experienced excessive sweating and irritability within two hours of bite...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038311/adhesion-circle-a-new-approach-to-better-characterize-directional-gecko-inspired-dry-adhesives
#20
Yue Wang, Samuel Lehmann, Jinyou Shao, Dan Sameoto
The number of different designs of directional gecko-inspired adhesives has proliferated over the past 15 years, but some basic characterization tools are still nonstandardized, which can make direct comparisons of different adhesives in the literature difficult. By far the most common type of test for directional adhesives, the load-drag-pull (LDP) test is useful but can miss substantial information on the exact behavior of gecko-inspired adhesives in a variety of loading conditions. Other test techniques, including angled approaches and pull-offs, have been employed by a few groups but they are not as widely adopted; peel tests can be employed but require a larger amount of adhesive material to use in the test, which is not always practical given some current manufacturing constraints...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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