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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#1
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809032/a-sensitive-and-versatile-in-situ-hybridization-protocol-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-developing-amniote-brains
#2
Pei-Shan Hou, Takuma Kumamoto, Carina Hanashima
The detection of specific RNA molecules in embryonic tissues has wide research applications including studying gene expression dynamics in brain development and evolution. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have introduced new animal models to explore the molecular principles underlying the assembly and diversification of brain circuits between different amniote species. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for a versatile in situ hybridization method that is immediately applicable to a range of amniote embryos including zebra finch and Madagascar ground gecko, two new model organisms that have rapidly emerged for comparative brain studies over recent years...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776504/effect-of-counterface-roughness-on-the-friction-of-bionic-wall-shaped-microstructures-for-gecko-like-attachments
#3
Haytam Kasem, Yossi Cohen
Hairy adhesive systems involved in gecko locomotion have drawn the interest of many researchers regarding the development of bionic solutions for fast and reversible adhesive technologies. To date, despite extensive efforts to design gecko-inspired adhesive surfaces, adhesion and friction capacities are often evaluated using smooth and rigid counterfaces, in general glass, whereas most natural and artificial surfaces inevitably have a certain level of roughness. For that reason, in this study experiments tested the effects of the substrate roughness on the friction of bionic wale-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767644/cryptic-diversity-in-ptyodactylus-reptilia-gekkonidae-from-the-northern-hajar-mountains-of-oman-and-the-united-arab-emirates-uncovered-by-an-integrative-taxonomic-approach
#4
Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Margarita Metallinou, Philip de Pous, Johannes Els, Sithum Jayasinghe, Erika Péntek-Zakar, Thomas Wilms, Saleh Al-Saadi, Salvador Carranza
The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760959/lizards-on-newly-created-islands-independently-and-rapidly-adapt-in-morphology-and-diet
#5
Mariana Eloy de Amorim, Thomas W Schoener, Guilherme Ramalho Chagas Cataldi Santoro, Anna Carolina Ramalho Lins, Jonah Piovia-Scott, Reuber Albuquerque Brandão
Rapid adaptive changes can result from the drastic alterations humans impose on ecosystems. For example, flooding large areas for hydroelectric dams converts mountaintops into islands and leaves surviving populations in a new environment. We report differences in morphology and diet of the termite-eating gecko Gymnodactylus amarali between five such newly created islands and five nearby mainland sites located in the Brazilian Cerrado, a biodiversity hotspot. Mean prey size and dietary prey-size breadth were larger on islands than mainlands, expected because four larger lizard species that also consume termites, but presumably prefer larger prey, went extinct on the islands...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745397/tempo-and-mode-of-performance-evolution-across-multiple-independent-origins-of-adhesive-toe-pads-in-lizards
#6
Travis J Hagey, Josef C Uyeda, Kristen E Crandell, Jorn A Cheney, Kellar Autumn, Luke J Harmon
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics...
July 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739371/trans-biome-diversity-in-australian-grass-specialist-lizards-diplodactylidae-strophurus
#7
Rebecca J Laver, Stuart V Nielsen, Dan F Rosauer, Paul M Oliver
Comparisons of biodiversity patterns within lineages that occur across major climate gradients and biomes, can provide insights into the relative roles that lineage history, landscape and climatic variation, and environmental change have played in shaping regional biotas. In Australia, while there has been extensive research into the origins and patterns of diversity in the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ), how diversity is distributed across this biome and the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) to the north, has been less studied...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739370/molecular-systematics-species-delimitation-and-diversification-patterns-of-the-phyllodactylus-lanei-complex-gekkota-phyllodactylidae-in-mexico
#8
Tonatiuh Ramírez-Reyes, Daniel Piñero, Oscar Flores-Villela, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
The description of cryptic gecko species worldwide has revealed both that many putative species are, in fact, conformed by a complex of morphologically conserved species that are genetically distinct and highly divergent, and that gecko species diversity could be underestimated. The taxonomy and species delimitation of geckos belonging to the genus Phyllodactylus is still controversial, 16 of which are distributed in Mexico and 13 are endemic. Although the large morphological variation shown by the Phyllodactylus species from Mexico has been amply documented, little is known about their genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships, and much less regarding cryptic speciation...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727845/emergent-multisystemic-enterococcus-infection-threatens-endangered-christmas-island-reptile-populations
#9
Karrie Rose, Jessica Agius, Jane Hall, Paul Thompson, John-Sebastian Eden, Mukesh Srivastava, Brendan Tiernan, Cheryl Jenkins, David Phalen
Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717207/barcoding-utility-in-a-mega-diverse-cross-continental-genus-keeping-pace-with-cyrtodactylus-geckos
#10
Ian G Brennan, Aaron M Bauer, Ngo Van Tri, Yun-Yu Wang, Wen-Zhi Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang, Robert W Murphy
Over the past decade, DNA barcoding has become a staple of low-cost molecular systematic investigations. The availability of universal primers and subsidized sequencing projects (PolarBOL, SharkBOL, SpongeBOL) have driven this popularity, often without appropriate investigation into the utility of barcoding data for the taxonomic group of interest. Here, our primary aim is to determine the phylogenetic value of DNA barcoding (mitochondrial locus COI) within the gecko genus Cyrtodactylus. With >40 new species described since last systematic investigation, Cyrtodactylus represents one of the most diverse extant squamate genera, and their contemporary distribution spans the Indian subcontinent, eastward through Indochina, and into AustraloPapua...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680663/sticking-to-rough-surfaces-using-functionally-graded-bio-inspired-microfibres
#11
Serdar Gorumlu, Burak Aksak
Synthetic fibrillar adhesives inspired by nature, most commonly by the gecko lizard, have been shown to strongly and repeatedly attach to smooth surfaces. These adhesives, mostly of monolithic construction, perform on par with their natural analogues on smooth surfaces but exhibit far inferior adhesive performance on rough surfaces. In this paper, we report on the adhesive performance of functionally graded microfibrillar adhesives based on a microfibre with a divergent end and a thin soft distal layer on rough surfaces...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659411/leaping-lizards-landing-on-leaves-escape-induced-jumps-in-the-rainforest-canopy-challenge-the-adhesive-limits-of-geckos
#12
Timothy E Higham, Anthony P Russell, Karl J Niklas
The remarkable adhesive capabilities of geckos have garnered attention from scientists and the public for centuries. Geckos are known to have an adhesive load-bearing capacity far in excess (by 100-fold or more) of that required to support their body mass or accommodate the loading imparted during maximal locomotor acceleration. Few studies, however, have investigated the ecological contexts in which geckos use their adhesive system and how this may influence its properties. Here we develop a modelling framework to assess whether their prodigious adhesive capacity ever comes under selective challenge...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635030/plasticity-of-thermoregulatory-behavior-in-leopard-geckos-eublepharis-macularius-blyth-1954
#13
Octavian Craioveanu, Cristina Craioveanu, Vioara Mireşan
Studies on thermoregulation in nocturnal lizards have shown that their thermal regimes are similar to those of diurnal lizards, even though they hide during the daytime and are active mostly at night, when heat sources are very scarce. As a result, nocturnal lizards display an active thermoregulatory behavior consisting of seeking warm shelters to hide during the daytime, using accumulated heat for the nocturnal activity. Based on this information, we hypothesize that when leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius, Blyth 1954) are presented with the choice of safety in cool shelters or vulnerability in heated open areas, suitable temperature will prevail in importance, i...
June 20, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630354/not-all-cells-are-equal-effects-of-temperature-and-sex-on-the-size-of-different-cell-types-in-the-madagascar-ground-gecko-paroedura-picta
#14
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Zuzana Starostová, Anna Sikorska, Elżbieta Bonda-Ostaszewska, Katarzyna Woch, Lukáš Kubička, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Jan Kozlowski
Cell size plays a role in evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in body size. To examine this role, we measured the sizes of seven cell types of geckos (Paroedura picta) reared at three constant temperatures (24, 27, and 30°C). Our results show that the cell size varies according to the body size, sex and developmental temperature, but the pattern of this variance depends on the cell type. We identified three groups of cell types, and the cell sizes changed in a coordinated manner within each group...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615488/hotter-nests-produce-hatchling-lizards-with-lower-thermal-tolerance
#15
Buddhi Dayananda, Brad R Murray, Jonathan K Webb
In many regions, the frequency and duration of summer heatwaves is predicted to increase in future. Hotter summers could result in higher temperatures inside lizard nests, potentially exposing embryos to thermally stressful conditions during development. Potentially, developmentally plastic shifts in thermal tolerance could allow lizards to adapt to climate warming. To determine how higher nest temperatures affect the thermal tolerance of hatchling geckos, we incubated eggs of the rock-dwelling velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, at two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current nest temperatures (mean 23...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615483/gecko-youngsters-more-at-risk-after-incubating-during-a-heat-wave
#16
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610163/a-new-small-bent-toed-gecko-of-the-genus-i-cyrtodactylus-i-squamata-gekkonidae-from-the-lower-slopes-of-mount-tambora-sumbawa-island-indonesia
#17
Awal Riyanto, Mulyadi Mulyadi, Jimmy A McGuire, Mirza D Kusrini, Febylasmia Febylasmia, Irfan Haidar Basyir, Hinrich Kaiser
We describe the sixth species of bent-toed gecko from the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. This species was first collected on the banks of the Oi Marai River on the low northern slopes of Gunung (Mount) Tambora on Sumbawa Island. The new species is differentiated from Greater Sunda Islands (including Sulawesi) and Lesser Sunda Islands congeners by having the following unique combination of characters: (1) two scales between the second pair of postmentals in contact with the first pair; (2) dorsal surface of antebrachium tuberculate; (3) no tubercles on dorsal surface of brachium; (4) dorsal surfaces of thigh and crus tuberculate; (5) 18 irregularly aligned, longitudinal rows of keeled tubercles at midbody; (6) 26-27 paravertebral tubercles; (7) 40 ventral scales between indistinct ventrolateral folds; (8) 16-17 fourth-toe subdigital scales; (9) a continuous enlarged precloacal and femoral scales present, with the enlarged femoral scales arranged in three rows; (10) males with five to six precloacal pores, with four larger pores situated in a short groove; (11) femoral pores absent in both sexes; (12) lack of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and (13) 7-9 irregular, paired black blotches on the body...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610039/a-new-limestone-dwelling-leaf-toed-gecko-gekkonidae-i-dixonius-i-from-khao-sam-roi-yot-massif-peninsular-thailand
#18
Montri Sumontha, Nirut Chomngam, Eakarit Phanamphon, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Chutinton Viriyapanon, Wanlada Thanaprayotsak, Olivier S G Pauwels
We describe Dixonius kaweesaki sp. nov. from Khao Daeng, a limestone mountain in Khao Sam Roi Yot massif, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, peninsular Thailand. It is diagnosed from all other species by a combination of maximal SVL of 41.6 mm; 12 or 13 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 24 longitudinal rows of ventrals across the abdomen; a continuous series of 9-11 precloacal pores in males, no pores in females; and two bold dark stripes from the snout to the base of the tail separated by a contrasting light vertebral stripe...
March 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609895/a-new-species-of-rock-gecko-genus-cnemaspis-squamata-gekkonidae-from-western-sarawak-malaysia
#19
Takaki Kurita, Kanto Nishikawa, Masafumi Matsui, Tsutomu Hikida
A new species of Asian rock gecko, genus Cnemaspis, is described from Padawan, western Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The new species forms a clade with C. paripari and C. nigridia of the C. nigridia group in a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and is similar to them morphologically in some characters such as caudal scalation. It differs from the other Asian Cnemaspis species in its unique combination of snout-vent length (up to 62.7 mm), 4-9 precloacal pores in males, keeled subcaudals with an enlarged, smooth, median row, presence of ventrolateral caudal tubercles, and coloration (head and upper flanks dark-yellow; anterior portion of tail black; posterior portion of tail white with black, paravertebral blob)...
May 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572378/flexible-geckos
#20
Sacha Vignieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Science
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