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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232500/developmental-osteology-of-the-parafrontal-bones-of-the-sphaerodactylidae
#1
Aaron H Griffing, Juan D Daza, Jonathan C DeBoer, Aaron M Bauer
Well-resolved phylogenetic hypotheses and ontogenetic data are often necessary for investigating the evolution of structural novelty. The Sphaerodactylidae comprises 12 genera of predominantly miniaturized geckos. The genera Aristelliger and Teratoscincus are exceptions, with taxa reaching snout-to-vent lengths far exceeding those of other sphaerodactylids. These two genera possess enigmatic, supraorbital ossifications - parafrontal bones - which are encountered nowhere else among squamates. At the time of their discovery, these structures were believed to be the result of evolutionary convergence...
December 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214798/gecko-inspired-dry-adhesive-based-on-micro-nanoscale-hierarchical-arrays-for-application-in-climbing-devices
#2
Hemant Kumar Raut, Avinash Baji, Hassan Hussein Hariri, Hashina Parveen, Gim Song Soh, Hong Yee Low, Kristin L Wood
The unusual ability of geckos to climb vertical walls underlies a unique combination of hierarchical structural design and a stiffer material composition. While a dense array of microscopic hierarchical structures enable the gecko toe pads to adhere to various surfaces, a stiffer material (beta-keratin) composition enables them to maintain reliable adhesion over innumerable cycles. This unique strategy has been seldom implemented in engineered dry-adhesives because fabrication of high aspect ratio hierarchical structures using a stiffer polymer is challenging...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167982/successional-changes-in-trophic-interactions-support-a-mechanistic-model-of-post-fire-population-dynamics
#3
Annabel L Smith
Models based on functional traits have limited power in predicting how animal populations respond to disturbance because they do not capture the range of demographic and biological factors that drive population dynamics, including variation in trophic interactions. I tested the hypothesis that successional changes in vegetation structure, which affected invertebrate abundance, would influence growth rates and body condition in the early-successional, insectivorous gecko Nephrurus stellatus. I captured geckos at 17 woodland sites spanning a succession gradient from 2 to 48 years post-fire...
November 22, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164111/cartilage-and-muscle-cell-fate-and-origins-during-lizard-tail-regeneration
#4
Ricardo Londono, Wei Wenzhong, Bing Wang, Rocky S Tuan, Thomas P Lozito
Introduction: Human cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited capacity for repair. By contrast, certain lizards are capable of musculoskeletal tissue regeneration following tail loss throughout all stages of their lives. This extraordinary ability is the result of a complex process in which a blastema forms and gives rise to the tissues of the regenerate. Blastemal cells have been shown to originate either from dedifferentiated tissues or from existing progenitor cells in various species, but their origin has not been determined in lizards...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160556/digest-room-for-geckos-of-all-shapes-and-sizes
#5
H Christoph Liedtke
Closely related lineages co-existing geographically are expected to show morphological divergence via character displacement. Moritz et al. (2017) use high-throughput sequencing to uncover cryptic diversity in a complex of Australian geckos and, with the resulting phylogeny, discern patterns of morphological evolution in relation to patterns of geographic overlap. They found that divergence in body size is greater in species pairs occurring in sympatry than in parapatry, which is consistent with the idea that body size divergence facilitates sympatry...
November 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155264/modulation-of-adrenal-steroidogenesis-by-testosterone-in-the-lizard-coleonyx-elegans
#6
Rocco V Carsia, Patrick J McIlroy, Henry B John-Alder
Our previous work with adrenocortical cells from several Sceloporus lizard species suggests that gonadal hormones influence the steroidogenic capacity and the sensitivity to ACTH. However, there are discrepancies in these cellular response parameters suggesting that the effects of gonadal hormones on adrenocortical function vary with species, sex, age, season, and environmental/experimental conditions. To gain further insight into these complex interactions, here we report studies on Coleonyx elegans, Eublepharidae (Yucatán Banded Gecko), which is only distantly related to Sceloporus lizards via a basal common ancestor and in captivity, reproduces throughout the year...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142272/individuals-of-the-common-namib-day-gecko-vary-in-how-adaptive-simplification-alters-sprint-biomechanics
#7
Clint E Collins, Timothy E Higham
Locomotion inextricably links biomechanics to ecology as animals maneuver through mechanically challenging environments. Faster individuals are more likely to escape predators, surviving to produce more offspring. Fast sprint speed evolved several times in lizards, including geckos. However, the underlying mechanisms determining performance await discovery in many clades. Novel morphological structures influence these mechanisms by adding complexity to the government of locomotion. Gecko adhesion coevolves with modified muscles, tendons, and reflexes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067680/cryptic-lineage-diversity-body-size-divergence-and-sympatry-in-a-species-complex-of-australian-lizards-gehyra
#8
Craig C Moritz, Renae C Pratt, Sarah Bank, Gayleen Bourke, Jason G Bragg, Paul Doughty, J Scott Keogh, Rebecca J Laver, Sally Potter, Luisa C Teasdale, Leonardo G Tedeschi, Paul M Oliver
Understanding the joint evolutionary and ecological underpinnings of sympatry among close relatives remains a key challenge in biology. This problem can be addressed through joint phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of complexes of closely related lineages within, and across, species and hence representing the speciation continuum. For a complex of tropical geckos from northern Australia-Gehyra nana and close relatives-we combine mtDNA phylogeography, exon-capture sequencing, and morphological data to resolve independently evolving lineages and infer their divergence history and patterns of morphological evolution...
October 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037971/to-fight-or-mate-hormonal-control-of-sex-recognition-male-sexual-behavior-and-aggression-in-the-gecko-lizard
#9
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males...
October 23, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037458/a-new-large-species-of-gecko-of-the-genus-hemidactylus-oken-1817-reptilia-sauria-gekkonidae-from-the-eastern-ghats-india
#10
Zeeshan A Mirza, Harshal Bhosale, Rishikesh Patil
A new large species of gecko superficially resembling Hemidactylus maculatus Duméril & Bibron and its allied large Hemidactylus is described from Eastern Ghats. The new species, Hemidactylus kangerensis sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from members of the H. maculatus complex based on the number of femoral pores, i.e. 18-21 on each side, separated medially by 4 non-pored scales. A phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequence of mitochondrial gene cytochrome b shows that the gecko is a member of the "H...
October 13, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980312/neural-stem-progenitor-cells-are-activated-during-tail-regeneration-in-the-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius
#11
Eab Gilbert, M K Vickaryous
As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969628/bio-mimicking-nano-and-micro-structured-surface-fabrication-for-antibacterial-properties-in-medical-implants
#12
REVIEW
Alka Jaggessar, Hesam Shahali, Asha Mathew, Prasad K D V Yarlagadda
Orthopaedic and dental implants have become a staple of the medical industry and with an ageing population and growing culture for active lifestyles, this trend is forecast to continue. In accordance with the increased demand for implants, failure rates, particularly those caused by bacterial infection, need to be reduced. The past two decades have led to developments in antibiotics and antibacterial coatings to reduce revision surgery and death rates caused by infection. The limited effectiveness of these approaches has spurred research into nano-textured surfaces, designed to mimic the bactericidal properties of some animal, plant and insect species, and their topographical features...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953920/there-s-more-than-one-way-to-climb-a-tree-limb-length-and-microhabitat-use-in-lizards-with-toe-pads
#13
Travis J Hagey, Scott Harte, Mathew Vickers, Luke J Harmon, Lin Schwarzkopf
Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941363/maintenance-of-distal-intestinal-structure-in-the-face-of-prolonged-fasting-a-comparative-examination-of-species-from-five-vertebrate-classes
#14
Marshall D McCue, Celeste A Passement, David K Meyerholz
It was recently shown that fasting alters the composition of microbial communities residing in the distal intestinal tract of animals representing five classes of vertebrates [i.e., fishes (tilapia), amphibians (toads), reptiles (leopard geckos), birds (quail), and mammals (mice)]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the extent of tissue reorganization in the fasted distal intestine was correlated with the observed changes in enteric microbial diversity. Segments of intestine adjacent to those used for the microbiota study were examined histologically to quantify cross-sectional and mucosal surface areas and thicknesses of mucosa, submucosa, and tunica muscularis...
September 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883491/lateral-movements-of-a-massive-tail-influence-gecko-locomotion-an-integrative-study-comparing-tail-restriction-and-autotomy
#15
Kevin Jagnandan, Timothy E Higham
Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882371/comparison-of-subcutaneous-dexmedetomidine-midazolam-versus-alfaxalone-midazolam-sedation-in-leopard-geckos-eublepharis-macularius
#16
Grayson A Doss, Dustin M Fink, Kurt K Sladky, Christoph Mans
OBJECTIVE: To compare dexmedetomidine-midazolam with alfaxalone-midazolam for sedation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study. ANIMALS: Nine healthy adult leopard geckos. METHODS: Geckos were administered a combination of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and midazolam (1.0 mg kg(-1); treatment D-M) or alfaxalone (15 mg kg(-1)) and midazolam (1...
April 24, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857142/digest-different-evolutionary-dynamics-led-to-the-convergence-of-clinging-performance-in-lizard-toepads%C3%A2
#17
Sarin Tiatragul, Gopal Murali, James T Stroud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827138/venom-phenotypes-of-the-rock-rattlesnake-crotalus-lepidus-and-the-ridge-nosed-rattlesnake-crotalus-willardi-from-m%C3%A3-xico-and-the-united-states
#18
Anthony J Saviola, Anthony J Gandara, Robert W Bryson, Stephen P Mackessy
Although the Mexican Highlands has the highest diversity of small-bodied rattlesnakes in the world, studies on the species found throughout this region have been relatively scarce. This has led to challenges with examining venom phenotypic characteristics, as well as species misidentifications and misclassifications. In the current study we investigated venom variation among four subspecies of Crotalus lepidus (C. l. klaluberi, C. l. lepidus, C. l. maculosus, C. l. morulus) and four subspecies of C. willardi (C...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#19
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809032/a-sensitive-and-versatile-in-situ-hybridization-protocol-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-developing-amniote-brains
#20
Pei-Shan Hou, Takuma Kumamoto, Carina Hanashima
The detection of specific RNA molecules in embryonic tissues has wide research applications including studying gene expression dynamics in brain development and evolution. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have introduced new animal models to explore the molecular principles underlying the assembly and diversification of brain circuits between different amniote species. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for a versatile in situ hybridization method that is immediately applicable to a range of amniote embryos including zebra finch and Madagascar ground gecko, two new model organisms that have rapidly emerged for comparative brain studies over recent years...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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