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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980312/neural-stem-progenitor-cells-are-activated-during-tail-regeneration-in-the-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius
#1
Eab Gilbert, M K Vickaryous
As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969628/bio-mimicking-nano-and-micro-structured-surface-fabrication-for-antibacterial-properties-in-medical-implants
#2
REVIEW
Alka Jaggessar, Hesam Shahali, Asha Mathew, Prasad K D V Yarlagadda
Orthopaedic and dental implants have become a staple of the medical industry and with an ageing population and growing culture for active lifestyles, this trend is forecast to continue. In accordance with the increased demand for implants, failure rates, particularly those caused by bacterial infection, need to be reduced. The past two decades have led to developments in antibiotics and antibacterial coatings to reduce revision surgery and death rates caused by infection. The limited effectiveness of these approaches has spurred research into nano-textured surfaces, designed to mimic the bactericidal properties of some animal, plant and insect species, and their topographical features...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953920/there-s-more-than-one-way-to-climb-a-tree-limb-length-and-microhabitat-use-in-lizards-with-toe-pads
#3
Travis J Hagey, Scott Harte, Mathew Vickers, Luke J Harmon, Lin Schwarzkopf
Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941363/maintenance-of-distal-intestinal-structure-in-the-face-of-prolonged-fasting-a-comparative-examination-of-species-from-five-vertebrate-classes
#4
Marshall D McCue, Celeste A Passement, David K Meyerholz
It was recently shown that fasting alters the composition of microbial communities residing in the distal intestinal tract of animals representing five classes of vertebrates [i.e., fishes (tilapia), amphibians (toads), reptiles (leopard geckos), birds (quail), and mammals (mice)]. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the extent of tissue reorganization in the fasted distal intestine was correlated with the observed changes in enteric microbial diversity. Segments of intestine adjacent to those used for the microbiota study were examined histologically to quantify cross-sectional and mucosal surface areas as well as thicknesses of mucosa, submucosa, and tunica muscularis...
September 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883491/lateral-movements-of-a-massive-tail-influence-gecko-locomotion-an-integrative-study-comparing-tail-restriction-and-autotomy
#5
Kevin Jagnandan, Timothy E Higham
Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882371/comparison-of-subcutaneous-dexmedetomidine-midazolam-versus-alfaxalone-midazolam-sedation-in-leopard-geckos-eublepharis-macularius
#6
Grayson A Doss, Dustin M Fink, Kurt K Sladky, Christoph Mans
OBJECTIVE: To compare dexmedetomidine-midazolam with alfaxalone-midazolam for sedation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study. ANIMALS: Nine healthy adult leopard geckos. METHODS: Geckos were administered a combination of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and midazolam (1.0 mg kg(-1); treatment D-M) or alfaxalone (15 mg kg(-1)) and midazolam (1...
April 24, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857142/digest-different-evolutionary-dynamics-led-to-the-convergence-of-clinging-performance-in-lizard-toepads%C3%A2
#7
Sarin Tiatragul, Gopal Murali, James T Stroud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827138/venom-phenotypes-of-the-rock-rattlesnake-crotalus-lepidus-and-the-ridge-nosed-rattlesnake-crotalus-willardi-from-m%C3%A3-xico-and-the-united-states
#8
Anthony J Saviola, Anthony J Gandara, Robert W Bryson, Stephen P Mackessy
Although the Mexican Highlands has the highest diversity of small-bodied rattlesnakes in the world, studies on the species found throughout this region have been relatively scarce. This has led to challenges with examining venom phenotypic characteristics, as well as species misidentifications and misclassifications. In the current study we investigated venom variation among four subspecies of Crotalus lepidus (C. l. klaluberi, C. l. lepidus, C. l. maculosus, C. l. morulus) and four subspecies of C. willardi (C...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#9
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809032/a-sensitive-and-versatile-in-situ-hybridization-protocol-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-developing-amniote-brains
#10
Pei-Shan Hou, Takuma Kumamoto, Carina Hanashima
The detection of specific RNA molecules in embryonic tissues has wide research applications including studying gene expression dynamics in brain development and evolution. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have introduced new animal models to explore the molecular principles underlying the assembly and diversification of brain circuits between different amniote species. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for a versatile in situ hybridization method that is immediately applicable to a range of amniote embryos including zebra finch and Madagascar ground gecko, two new model organisms that have rapidly emerged for comparative brain studies over recent years...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776504/effect-of-counterface-roughness-on-the-friction-of-bionic-wall-shaped-microstructures-for-gecko-like-attachments
#11
Haytam Kasem, Yossi Cohen
Hairy adhesive systems involved in gecko locomotion have drawn the interest of many researchers regarding the development of bionic solutions for fast and reversible adhesive technologies. To date, despite extensive efforts to design gecko-inspired adhesive surfaces, adhesion and friction capacities are often evaluated using smooth and rigid counterfaces, in general glass, whereas most natural and artificial surfaces inevitably have a certain level of roughness. For that reason, in this study experiments tested the effects of the substrate roughness on the friction of bionic wale-shaped microstructures for gecko-like attachments...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767644/cryptic-diversity-in-ptyodactylus-reptilia-gekkonidae-from-the-northern-hajar-mountains-of-oman-and-the-united-arab-emirates-uncovered-by-an-integrative-taxonomic-approach
#12
Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Margarita Metallinou, Philip de Pous, Johannes Els, Sithum Jayasinghe, Erika Péntek-Zakar, Thomas Wilms, Saleh Al-Saadi, Salvador Carranza
The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760959/lizards-on-newly-created-islands-independently-and-rapidly-adapt-in-morphology-and-diet
#13
Mariana Eloy de Amorim, Thomas W Schoener, Guilherme Ramalho Chagas Cataldi Santoro, Anna Carolina Ramalho Lins, Jonah Piovia-Scott, Reuber Albuquerque Brandão
Rapid adaptive changes can result from the drastic alterations humans impose on ecosystems. For example, flooding large areas for hydroelectric dams converts mountaintops into islands and leaves surviving populations in a new environment. We report differences in morphology and diet of the termite-eating gecko Gymnodactylus amarali between five such newly created islands and five nearby mainland sites located in the Brazilian Cerrado, a biodiversity hotspot. Mean prey size and dietary prey-size breadth were larger on islands than mainlands, expected because four larger lizard species that also consume termites, but presumably prefer larger prey, went extinct on the islands...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745397/tempo-and-mode-of-performance-evolution-across-multiple-independent-origins-of-adhesive-toe-pads-in-lizards
#14
Travis J Hagey, Josef C Uyeda, Kristen E Crandell, Jorn A Cheney, Kellar Autumn, Luke J Harmon
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics...
October 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739371/trans-biome-diversity-in-australian-grass-specialist-lizards-diplodactylidae-strophurus
#15
Rebecca J Laver, Stuart V Nielsen, Dan F Rosauer, Paul M Oliver
Comparisons of biodiversity patterns within lineages that occur across major climate gradients and biomes, can provide insights into the relative roles that lineage history, landscape and climatic variation, and environmental change have played in shaping regional biotas. In Australia, while there has been extensive research into the origins and patterns of diversity in the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ), how diversity is distributed across this biome and the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) to the north, has been less studied...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739370/molecular-systematics-species-delimitation-and-diversification-patterns-of-the-phyllodactylus-lanei-complex-gekkota-phyllodactylidae-in-mexico
#16
Tonatiuh Ramírez-Reyes, Daniel Piñero, Oscar Flores-Villela, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
The description of cryptic gecko species worldwide has revealed both that many putative species are, in fact, conformed by a complex of morphologically conserved species that are genetically distinct and highly divergent, and that gecko species diversity could be underestimated. The taxonomy and species delimitation of geckos belonging to the genus Phyllodactylus is still controversial, 16 of which are distributed in Mexico and 13 are endemic. Although the large morphological variation shown by the Phyllodactylus species from Mexico has been amply documented, little is known about their genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships, and much less regarding cryptic speciation...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727845/emergent-multisystemic-enterococcus-infection-threatens-endangered-christmas-island-reptile-populations
#17
Karrie Rose, Jessica Agius, Jane Hall, Paul Thompson, John-Sebastian Eden, Mukesh Srivastava, Brendan Tiernan, Cheryl Jenkins, David Phalen
Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717207/barcoding-utility-in-a-mega-diverse-cross-continental-genus-keeping-pace-with-cyrtodactylus-geckos
#18
Ian G Brennan, Aaron M Bauer, Ngo Van Tri, Yun-Yu Wang, Wen-Zhi Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang, Robert W Murphy
Over the past decade, DNA barcoding has become a staple of low-cost molecular systematic investigations. The availability of universal primers and subsidized sequencing projects (PolarBOL, SharkBOL, SpongeBOL) have driven this popularity, often without appropriate investigation into the utility of barcoding data for the taxonomic group of interest. Here, our primary aim is to determine the phylogenetic value of DNA barcoding (mitochondrial locus COI) within the gecko genus Cyrtodactylus. With >40 new species described since last systematic investigation, Cyrtodactylus represents one of the most diverse extant squamate genera, and their contemporary distribution spans the Indian subcontinent, eastward through Indochina, and into AustraloPapua...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680663/sticking-to-rough-surfaces-using-functionally-graded-bio-inspired-microfibres
#19
Serdar Gorumlu, Burak Aksak
Synthetic fibrillar adhesives inspired by nature, most commonly by the gecko lizard, have been shown to strongly and repeatedly attach to smooth surfaces. These adhesives, mostly of monolithic construction, perform on par with their natural analogues on smooth surfaces but exhibit far inferior adhesive performance on rough surfaces. In this paper, we report on the adhesive performance of functionally graded microfibrillar adhesives based on a microfibre with a divergent end and a thin soft distal layer on rough surfaces...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659411/leaping-lizards-landing-on-leaves-escape-induced-jumps-in-the-rainforest-canopy-challenge-the-adhesive-limits-of-geckos
#20
Timothy E Higham, Anthony P Russell, Karl J Niklas
The remarkable adhesive capabilities of geckos have garnered attention from scientists and the public for centuries. Geckos are known to have an adhesive load-bearing capacity far in excess (by 100-fold or more) of that required to support their body mass or accommodate the loading imparted during maximal locomotor acceleration. Few studies, however, have investigated the ecological contexts in which geckos use their adhesive system and how this may influence its properties. Here we develop a modelling framework to assess whether their prodigious adhesive capacity ever comes under selective challenge...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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