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Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Camilla Pedersen, Edith Gallagher, Felicity Horton, Richard J Ellis, Umer Z Ijaz, Huihai Wu, Etana Jaiyeola, Onyinye Diribe, Thibaut Duparc, Patrice D Cani, Glenn R Gibson, Paul Hinton, John Wright, Roberto La Ragione, M Denise Robertson
Aberrant microbiota composition and function have been linked to several pathologies, including type 2 diabetes. In animal models, prebiotics induce favourable changes in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability (IP) and endotoxaemia, which are linked to concurrent improvement in glucose tolerance. This is the first study to investigate the link between IP, glucose tolerance and intestinal bacteria in human type 2 diabetes. In all, twenty-nine men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes were randomised to a prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharide mixture) or placebo (maltodextrin) supplement (5·5 g/d for 12 weeks)...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Ana Beloqui, Mireille Alhouayek, Dario Carradori, Kevin Vanvarenberg, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Véronique Préat
L cells have attracted particular interest because of the pleiotropic effects of their secreted peptides (i.e., glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and 2, peptide YY (PYY)). L cells express different G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be activated by endogenous ligands found in the gut lumen. We herein hypothesized that lipid-based nanoparticles could mimic endogenous ligands and thus activate GLP-1 secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. To assess this hypothesis, lipid-based nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), lipid nanocapsules (LNC), and liposomes) and PLGA nanoparticles were added to the L cells and GLP-1 secretion was quantified...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Hubert Plovier, Amandine Everard, Céline Druart, Clara Depommier, Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Julien Chilloux, Noora Ottman, Thibaut Duparc, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Antonis Myridakis, Nathalie M Delzenne, Judith Klievink, Arnab Bhattacharjee, Kees C H van der Ark, Steven Aalvink, Laurent O Martinez, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Maiter, Audrey Loumaye, Michel P Hermans, Jean-Paul Thissen, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos, Patrice D Cani
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low-grade inflammation and specific changes in gut microbiota composition. We previously demonstrated that administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to mice prevents the development of obesity and associated complications. However, the underlying mechanisms of this protective effect remain unclear. Moreover, the sensitivity of A. muciniphila to oxygen and the presence of animal-derived compounds in its growth medium currently limit the development of translational approaches for human medicine...
January 2017: Nature Medicine
Herbert Tilg, Patrice D Cani, Emeran A Mayer
The gut microbiota has recently evolved as a new important player in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The liver is the organ which is in closest contact with the intestinal tract, and is exposed to a substantial amount of bacterial components and metabolites. Various liver disorders such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis have been associated with an altered microbiome. This dysbiosis may influence the degree of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis through multiple interactions with the host's immune system and other cell types...
October 8, 2016: Gut
Julia König, Jerry Wells, Patrice D Cani, Clara L García-Ródenas, Tom MacDonald, Annick Mercenier, Jacqueline Whyte, Freddy Troost, Robert-Jan Brummer
The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
BACKGROUND: Changes in gut microbiota composition and activity have been associated with different metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiometabolic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that different organs are directly under the influence of bacterial metabolites that may directly or indirectly regulate physiological and pathological processes. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We reviewed seminal as well as recent papers showing that gut microbes influence energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis by controlling different metabolic routes such as endocrine, enteric and central nervous system...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Patrice D Cani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Owein Guillemot-Legris, Julien Masquelier, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G Muccioli
BACKGROUND: Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. METHODS: We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Anne Drougard, Audren Fournel, Alysson Marlin, Etienne Meunier, Anne Abot, Tereza Bautzova, Thibaut Duparc, Katie Louche, Aurelie Batut, Alexandre Lucas, Sophie Le-Gonidec, Jean Lesage, Xavier Fioramonti, Cedric Moro, Philippe Valet, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
Apelin is a bioactive peptide involved in the control of energy metabolism. In the hypothalamus, chronic exposure to high levels of apelin is associated with an increase in hepatic glucose production, and then contributes to the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms behind deleterious effects of chronic apelin in the brain and consequences on energy expenditure and thermogenesis are currently unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of apelin in normal mice on hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression, energy expenditure, thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue functions...
August 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Audrey M Neyrinck, Barbara Pachikian, Bernard Taminiau, Georges Daube, Raphaël Frédérick, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans. The potential contribution of ITF as modulators of sugar digestion by host enzymes has not been evaluated yet. A sucrose challenge has been performed on naive mice fed a standard diet supplemented with or without native chicory inulin (Fibruline 5%) for 3 weeks. The area under the curve of glycemia as well as sucrase activity in the small intestine were lowered after inulin treatment...
2016: PloS One
Thibaut Duparc, Hubert Plovier, Vannina G Marrachelli, Matthias Van Hul, Ahmed Essaghir, Marcus Ståhlman, Sébastien Matamoros, Lucie Geurts, Mercedes M Pardo-Tendero, Céline Druart, Nathalie M Delzenne, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Schalk W van der Merwe, Jos van Pelt, Fredrik Bäckhed, Daniel Monleon, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani
OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of hepatocyte myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) on glucose and lipid metabolism. DESIGN: To study the impact of the innate immune system at the level of the hepatocyte and metabolism, we generated mice harbouring hepatocyte-specific deletion of MyD88. We investigated the impact of the deletion on metabolism by feeding mice with a normal control diet or a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. We evaluated body weight, fat mass gain (using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance), glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis (using metabolic chambers)...
May 5, 2016: Gut
Emilie Catry, Audrey M Neyrinck, Irina Lobysheva, Barbara D Pachikian, Matthias Van Hul, Patrice D Cani, Chantal Dessy, Nathalie M Delzenne
SCOPE: Western diets are characterized by low intake of n-3 PUFA compensated by constant amounts of n-6 PUFA. Reduced intake of n-3 PUFA is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, as observed in NAFLD patients. The study aimed evaluating the impact of dietary n-3 PUFA depletion on endothelial function, an early key event of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS & RESULTS: C57Bl/6J or apoE(-/-) mice were fed control or n-3 PUFA depleted-diets for 12 weeks. Mice fed n-3 PUFA depleted-diet developed a hepatic steatosis, linked to changes in hepatic expression of genes controlled by Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1 and -2...
May 2, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Audrey M Neyrinck, Usune Etxeberria, Bernard Taminiau, Georges Daube, Matthias Van Hul, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
SCOPE: Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Acute ethanol intoxication is characterized by hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress, which could be promoted by gut barrier function alterations. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis of the hepatoprotective effect of rhubarb extract in a mouse model of binge drinking and we explored the contribution of the gut microbiota in the related metabolic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a control diet supplemented with or without 0...
January 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Audren Fournel, Alysson Marlin, Anne Abot, Charles Pasquio, Carla Cirillo, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
The gastrointestinal tract is an important interface of exchange between ingested food and the body. Glucose is one of the major dietary sources of energy. All along the gastrointestinal tube, e.g., the oral cavity, small intestine, pancreas, and portal vein, specialized cells referred to as glucosensors detect variations in glucose levels. In response to this glucose detection, these cells send hormonal and neuronal messages to tissues involved in glucose metabolism to regulate glycemia. The gastrointestinal tract continuously communicates with the brain, especially with the hypothalamus, via the gut-brain axis...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Owein Guillemot-Legris, Valentin Mutemberezi, Patrice D Cani, Giulio G Muccioli
Oxysterols are bioactive lipids derived from cholesterol that are linked to inflammatory processes. Because obesity and metabolic syndrome are characterized by inflammation and altered cholesterol metabolism, we sought to investigate the variations of oxysterol levels and their metabolic pathways induced by obesity in the liver, hypothalamus, adipose tissue and plasma. To this end, we used diet-induced and genetic (ob/ob and db/db) models of obesity. Among the oxysterols measured, we found that 4β-oxysterol levels were consistently decreased in the high-fat diet study, at different time-points, and in the ob/ob model...
2016: Scientific Reports
Patrice D Cani, Hubert Plovier, Matthias Van Hul, Lucie Geurts, Nathalie M Delzenne, Céline Druart, Amandine Everard
Various metabolic disorders are associated with changes in inflammatory tone. Among the latest advances in the metabolism field, the discovery that gut microorganisms have a major role in host metabolism has revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and numerous diseases. However, to date, few mechanisms have been clearly established. Accumulating evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system and related bioactive lipids strongly contribute to several physiological processes and are a characteristic of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and inflammation...
March 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Laure B Bindels, Audrey M Neyrinck, Sandrine P Claus, Caroline I Le Roy, Corinne Grangette, Bruno Pot, Inés Martinez, Jens Walter, Patrice D Cani, Nathalie M Delzenne
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that includes muscle wasting and inflammation. As gut microbes influence host immunity and metabolism, we investigated the role of the gut microbiota in the therapeutic management of cancer and associated cachexia. A community-wide analysis of the caecal microbiome in two mouse models of cancer cachexia (acute leukaemia or subcutaneous transplantation of colon cancer cells) identified common microbial signatures, including decreased Lactobacillus spp. and increased Enterobacteriaceae and Parabacteroides goldsteinii/ASF 519...
June 2016: ISME Journal
Audren Fournel, Anne Drougard, Thibaut Duparc, Alysson Marlin, Stuart M Brierley, Joel Castro, Sophie Le-Gonidec, Bernard Masri, André Colom, Alexandre Lucas, Perrine Rousset, Nicolas Cenac, Nathalie Vergnolle, Philippe Valet, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
OBJECTIVE: The gut-brain axis is considered as a major regulatory checkpoint in the control of glucose homeostasis. The detection of nutrients and/or hormones in the duodenum informs the hypothalamus of the host's nutritional state. This process may occur via hypothalamic neurons modulating central release of nitric oxide (NO), which in turn controls glucose entry into tissues. The enteric nervous system (ENS) modulates intestinal contractions in response to various stimuli, but the importance of this interaction in the control of glucose homeostasis via the brain is unknown...
February 2017: Gut
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