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carotid body and OSA

Li-Jen Liao, Tsung-Yi Cho, Tsung-Wei Huang
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in different severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, and assesses the role of OSA in carotid artery vasculopathy with control of multiple co-morbidities. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-control study SETTING: Tertiary referral center PARTICIPANTS: This study recruited 36 volunteers without the complaints of sleep-disordered breathing, 27 patients with mild-moderate OSA and 39 patients with severe OSA...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
Jayasri Nanduri, Ying-Jie Peng, Ning Wang, Shakil A Khan, Gregg L Semenza, Ganesh K Kumar, Nanduri R Prabhakar
KEY POINTS: The effects of short-term (ST; 10 days) and long-term (LT; 30 days) intermittent hypoxia (IH) on blood pressure (BP), breathing and carotid body (CB) chemosensory reflex were examined in adult rats. ST- and LT-IH treated rats exhibited hypertension, irregular breathing with apnoea and augmented the CB chemosensory reflex, with all these responses becoming normalized during recovery from ST- but not from LT-IH. The persistent cardiorespiratory responses to LT-IH were associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the CB and adrenal medulla, which were a result of DNA methylation-dependent suppression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes (AOEs)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Guo-She Lee, Li-Ang Lee, Chao-Yung Wang, Ning-Hung Chen, Tuan-Jen Fang, Chung-Guei Huang, Wen-Nuan Cheng, Hsueh-Yu Li
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis. We investigated the association of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) with snoring sounds in OSA patients. A total of 30 newly diagnosed OSA patients with no history of cardiovascular diseases were prospectively enrolled for measuring mean CCA-IMT with B-mode ultrasonography, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine. Good-quality signals of full-night snoring sounds in an ordinary sleep condition obtained from 15 participants were further acoustically analyzed (Included group)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Harun Karamanli, Aysel Kiyici, Bilal Arik, Duran Efe, Recep Akgedik
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is strongly associated with the presence of significant risk factors for cardiovascular disturbances. A disturbance in the oxidative/antioxidative balance is involved in the pathogenesis of OSA and cardiovascular diseases. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is suggested as a novel marker of oxidative stress; IMA can be defined as decreased binding of transitional metal ions to serum albumin in oxidative status...
June 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Clare J Ray, Ben Dow, Prem Kumar, Andrew M Coney
Models of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main feature of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), have demonstrated dysregulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems resulting in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) due to changes in sympathetic and respiratory control by the carotid body. In the UK, treatment of OSA is only offered to patients with an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >15, we investigated whether mild CIH produced significant pathophysiological changes, which might inform treatment guidelines...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eftal Murat Bakırcı, Edhem Ünver, Hüsnü Değirmenci, Tülay Kıvanç, Murat Günay, Hikmet Hamur, Mutlu Büyüklü, Gökhan Ceyhun, Ergun Topal, Taha Abdulkadir Çoban
OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory process plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular complications in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). YKL-40/chitinase 3-like protein 1 is a novel biomarker of systemic inflammation. This study aimed to investigate whether carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a useful marker for early atherosclerosis, is associated with serum YKL-40/chitinase 3-like protein 1 levels in patients with normotensive and nondiabetic OSAS...
June 2015: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Gregg L Semenza, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common causes of hypertension in western societies. OSA causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in specialized O2-sensing glomus cells of the carotid body. CIH generates increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger a feedforward mechanism in which increased intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i) trigger increased HIF-1α synthesis and increased HIF-2α degradation. As a result, the normal homeostatic balance between HIF-1α-dependent prooxidant and HIF-2α-dependent antioxidant enzymes is disrupted, leading to further increases in ROS...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
D Koren, J A Chirinos, L E L Katz, E R Mohler, P R Gallagher, G F Mitchell, C L Marcus
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may be a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor independently of obesity in adults. Pediatric studies have associated OSAS with endothelial dysfunction, but few studies have examined relationships between OSAS and macrovascular sequelae. Our objective was to examine OSAS's independent contribution to macrovascular CVD risk measures in obese adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Clinical Research and Academic Sleep Centers, and University of Pennsylvania Vascular Research Unit...
July 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Rodrigo Iturriaga, David C Andrade, Rodrigo Del Rio
The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Sílvia V Conde, Joana F Sacramento, Maria P Guarino, Constancio Gonzalez, Ana Obeso, Lucilia N Diogo, Emilia C Monteiro, Maria J Ribeiro
The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in arterial blood O2, CO2, and pH levels. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis activate the CB, which respond by increasing the action potential frequency in their sensory nerve, the carotid sinus nerve (CSN). CSN activity is integrated in the brain stem to induce a panoply of cardiorespiratory reflexes aimed, primarily, to normalize the altered blood gases, via hyperventilation, and to regulate blood pressure and cardiac performance, via sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Hulya Gunbatar, Bunyamin Sertogullarindan, Selami Ekin, Serkan Akdag, Ahmet Arisoy, Havva Sayhan
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) increases platelet activation and has been reported as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in the general population and is believed to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) as a severity index in OSAS and the relationship between carotid intima media thickness and pulmonary hypertension...
2014: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
M Kostrzewska, T Piorunek, K Hoffmann, H Batura-Gabryel, S Cofta
In this study we determined the relationship between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 30 hypertensive male patients, aged 30-70, with newly diagnosed OSA (15 with moderate OSA - Group A, and 15 with severe OSA - Group B) and 20 non-OSA hypertensive individuals (Group C). We revealed significant differences in cIMT between Groups B and C (0.9 ± 0.3 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 mm and 1.0 ± 0...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lucilia N Diogo, Emília C Monteiro
Sleep apnea/hypopnea disorders include centrally originated diseases and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This last condition is renowned as a frequent secondary cause of hypertension (HT). The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HT can be summarized in relation to two main pathways: sympathetic nervous system stimulation mediated mainly by activation of carotid body (CB) chemoreflexes and/or asphyxia, and, by no means the least important, the systemic effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The use of animal models has revealed that CIH is the critical stimulus underlying sympathetic activity and hypertension, and that this effect requires the presence of functional arterial chemoreceptors, which are hyperactive in CIH...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Elena Olea, Maria Teresa Agapito, Teresa Gallego-Martin, Asuncion Rocher, Angela Gomez-Niño, Ana Obeso, Constancio Gonzalez, Sara Yubero
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of sleep-related repetitive obstructions of upper airways that generate episodes of recurrent or intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA commonly generates cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies defining the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Literature usually links OSA-associated pathologies to IH episodes that would cause an oxidative status and a carotid body-mediated sympathetic hyperactivity. Because cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies in obese patients and those with OSAS are analogous, we used models (24-wk-old Wistar rats) of IH (applied from weeks 22 to 24) and diet-induced obesity (O; animals fed a high-fat diet from weeks 12 to 24) to define the effect of each individual maneuver and their combination on the oxidative status and sympathetic tone of animals, and to quantify cardiovascular and metabolic parameters and their deviation from normality...
October 1, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
François Abboud, Ravinder Kumar
Nearly two decades ago, we evaluated ten patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We determined that alarming nocturnal oscillations in arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were caused by regulatory coupling and neural interactions among SNA, apnea, and ventilation. Patients with OSA exhibited high levels of SNA when awake, during normal ventilation, and during normoxia, which contributed to hypertension and organ damage. Additionally, we achieved a beneficial and potentially lifesaving reduction in SNA through the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which remains a primary therapeutic approach for patients with OSA...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Marco Matteo Ciccone, Pietro Scicchitano, Annapaola Zito, Francesca Cortese, Barbara Boninfante, Vito Antonio Falcone, Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta, Valentina Anna Ventura, Antonietta Zucano, Francesca Di Serio, Mario Francesco Damiani, Onofrio Resta
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular complications in OSA patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and inflammatory markers plasma levels in OSA patients. We enrolled 80 OSA patients and 40 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). The presence and severity of sleep apnea was determined by in-laboratory portable monitoring (PM)...
2014: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Arcangelo Iannuzzi, Maria Rosaria Licenziati, Fausto De Michele, Maria Carmela Verga, Carlo Santoriello, Luigi Di Buono, Maurizio Renis, Loredana Lembo, Bruno D'Agostino, Donato Cappetta, Mario Polverino, Francesca Polverino
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) are predictive of cardiovascular morbidity in adults, and CRP levels are associated with over-weight. Increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors. We evaluated the effect of SDB on CRP levels and IMT in lean and obese children not selected for snoring. METHODS: 101 children (age 5-15 years) attending a weight clinic or scheduled for routine visit...
May 15, 2013: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Constancio Gonzalez, Sara Yubero, M Angela Gomez-Niño, Teresa Agapito, Asuncion Rocher, Ricardo Rigual, Ana Obeso, Jose M Montserrat
The views presented in this article are the fruit of reflections and discussion with my colleagues at Valladolid and with the members of the Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome Group of the CIBERES (Spain). We have assembled the article in three sections. In the first one we provide a mechanistic description of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and all of its components, including the repetitive episodes of upper airways (UA) obstruction and accompanying hypoxic hypoxia, the respiratory efforts to fight and overcome the obstruction, and the sleep fragmentation due to the hypoxia-triggered arousal reactions, all events occurring during sleep hours with frequencies that might reach up >40-50 episodes/sleep hour...
2012: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Carla Lubrano, Maurizio Saponara, Giuseppe Barbaro, Palma Specchia, Eliana Addessi, Daniela Costantini, Marta Tenuta, Gabriella Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe Genovesi, Lorenzo M Donini, Andrea Lenzi, Lucio Gnessi
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome, both closely related to obesity, often coexist in affected individuals; however, body mass index is not an accurate indicator of body fat and thus is not a good predictor of OSA and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of OSA could be associated with an altered body fat distribution and a more evident cardio metabolic risk independently from obesity and metabolic syndrome...
2012: PloS One
Stefania Mariani, Daniela Fiore, Giuseppe Barbaro, Sabrina Basciani, Maurizio Saponara, Enzo D'Arcangelo, Salvatore Ulisse, Costanzo Moretti, Andrea Fabbri, Lucio Gnessi
BACKGROUND: The correlation between obesity and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is controversial. Although fat excess is a predisposing factor for the development of OSA, it has not been determined whether fat distribution rather than obesity per se is associated with OSA severity. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) is an independent index of visceral adiposity and cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the relation between fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors, including EFT and common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), with the severity of OSA in obese patients...
September 1, 2013: International Journal of Cardiology
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