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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325214/antibody-based-cancer-therapy-successful-agents-and-novel-approaches
#1
D Hendriks, G Choi, M de Bruyn, V R Wiersma, E Bremer
Since their discovery, antibodies have been viewed as ideal candidates or "magic bullets" for use in targeted therapy in the fields of cancer, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammatory disorders. A wave of antibody-dedicated research followed, which resulted in the clinical approval of a first generation of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy such as rituximab (1997) and cetuximab (2004), and infliximab (2002) for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. More recently, the development of antibodies that prevent checkpoint-mediated inhibition of T cell responses invigorated the field of cancer immunotherapy...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321813/harnessing-the-immune-system-against-leukemia-monoclonal-antibodies-and-checkpoint-strategies-for-aml
#2
Lucia Masarova, Hagop Kantarjian, Guillermo Garcia-Mannero, Farhad Ravandi, Padmanee Sharma, Naval Daver
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia among adults and is associated with a poor prognosis, especially in patients with adverse prognostic factors, older age, or relapsed disease. The last decade has seen a surge in successful immune-based therapies in various solid tumors; however, the role of immune therapies in AML remains poorly defined. This chapter describes the rationale, clinical data, and toxicity profiles of immune-based therapeutic modalities in AML including naked and conjugated monoclonal antibodies, bispecific T-cell engager antibodies, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells, and checkpoint blockade via blockade of PD1/PDL1 or CTLA4...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315359/antibodies-and-associates-partners-in-targeted-drug-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Patrick J Kennedy, Carla Oliveira, Pedro L Granja, Bruno Sarmento
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are well established in the clinic due to their specificity and affinity to a diverse array of biochemical targets. More recently, mAbs are being exploited as targeting agents in modern drug delivery systems, aiming to bypass normal host tissue and to accumulate a therapeutic agent to a specific tissue or cell for enhanced pharmacology. At sizes ranging from ~10-100nm, antibody-based bioconjugates have opened up a whole new realm of clinical possibilities with several platforms emerging on the market...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303311/-immunotherapy-of-cancer-with-checkpoint-inhibitors-not-only-in-malignant-melanoma
#4
A Neubauer
The newest weapon in cancer therapy is checkpoint inhibition, which is the result of basic immunology research. The success of this therapy is based on the fact that upon light microscopy, many solid tumors harbor lymphocytic cells infiltrating the tumor (TILs), and in many solid tumors, the presence of these TILs are prognostic. Ipilimumab was the first monoclonal antibody developed against a target present on T cells after becoming activated, CTLA-4. In malignant melanoma, ipilimumab showed its beneficial effect as compared to a placebo peptide...
March 16, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273193/-drug-therapy-of-lymphomas
#5
Lajos Gergely
The therapy of lymphomas has undergone a major expansion during the last decade. Novel therapeutic targets have appeared beyond classical chemotherapeutic combinations. These novel drugs have very pronounced action across lymphoma types, and their toxicity profile is usually better tolerable compared to standard chemotherapies. These new therapies are enabling us to offer treatment to those patients who have refractory disease, and we had no option to treat them before these drugs. The author describes several new therapeutic options...
March 8, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269762/cloning-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-cdnas-encoding-the-variable-regions-of-an-anti-cd20-monoclonal-antibody
#6
Dariush Shanehbandi, Jafar Majidi, Tohid Kazemi, Behzad Baradaran, Leili Aghebati-Maleki
BACKGROUND: CD20-based targeting of B-cells in hematologic malignancies and autoimmune disorders is associated with outstanding clinical outcomes. Isolation and characterization of VH and VL cDNAs encoding the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is necessary to produce next generation MAbs and their derivatives such as and bispecific antibodies (bsAb) and single-chain variable fragments (scFv). OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at cloning and characterization of the VH and VL cDNAs from a hybridoma cell against the CD20 antigen...
February 24, 2017: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262952/mirna-engineering-of-cho-cells-facilitates-production-of-difficult-to-express-proteins-and-increases-success-in-cell-line-development
#7
Simon Fischer, Kim F Marquart, Lisa A Pieper, Juergen Fieder, Martin Gamer, Ingo Gorr, Patrick Schulz, Harald Bradl
In recent years, coherent with growing biologics portfolios also the number of complex and thus difficult-to-express (DTE) therapeutic proteins has increased considerably. DTE proteins challenge bioprocess development and can include various therapeutic protein formats such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), multi-specific affinity scaffolds (e.g. bispecific antibodies), cytokines or fusion proteins. Hence, the availability of robust and versatile Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell factories is fundamental for high-yielding bioprocesses...
March 6, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257797/bispecific-t-cell-engaging-antibody-constructs-targeting-a-universally-conserved-part-of-the-viral-m2-ectodomain-cure-and-prevent-influenza-a-virus-infection
#8
Jochen Pendzialek, Kenny Roose, Anouk Smet, Bert Schepens, Peter Kufer, Tobias Raum, Patrick A Baeuerle, Markus Muenz, Xavier Saelens, Walter Fiers
The ectodomain of the influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved amongst all influenza virus A subtypes. M2e is present on the surface of influenza A virus-infected cells, and therefore a suitable target for broadly protective therapies. We designed bispecific T cell engaging (BiTE(®)) antibody constructs specific for M2e by genetically fusing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from an M2e-specific murine monoclonal antibody with a CD3ɛ-specific scFv. These so-called FLU BiTE(®) antibody constructs selectively mediate T cell dependent lysis of M2-expressing and influenza A virus infected cells and protect BALB/c mice against challenge with different influenza A virus subtypes...
March 1, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249243/a-recombinant-igg-like-bispecific-antibody-acting-as-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-interleukin-17a-inhibitor-exhibits-a-promising-efficacy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Yunxin Wang, Qiang Wu, Zhihang Liu, Xiaochen Guo, Lijiao Zhou, Yuyang Wang, Liying Song, Nan Wang, Qi Zheng, Wenfei Wang, Guiping Ren, Deshan Li
Recently, targeting inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenic process of rheumatoid arthritis is now performed as a feasible biological method in therapy. However, treatments against single cytokine are often difficult to achieve the ideal therapeutic effect. Multi-target drugs permit more effective suppression of inflammation. In this study, we constructed an IgG-like bispecific antibody targeting IL-1β and IL-17A and expressed it in mammalian cells. The therapeutic efficacy was studied in CIA (collagen-induced arthritis) mice, which were administrated with either FL-BsAb1/17 (IgG-like bispecific antibody targeting IL-1β and IL-17A) or monovalent IL-1β Mab or IL-17A Mab (anti-IL-1β/IL-17A monoclonal antibody)...
February 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249141/blinatumomab-versus-chemotherapy-for-advanced-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hagop Kantarjian, Anthony Stein, Nicola Gökbuget, Adele K Fielding, Andre C Schuh, Josep-Maria Ribera, Andrew Wei, Hervé Dombret, Robin Foà, Renato Bassan, Önder Arslan, Miguel A Sanz, Julie Bergeron, Fatih Demirkan, Ewa Lech-Maranda, Alessandro Rambaldi, Xavier Thomas, Heinz-August Horst, Monika Brüggemann, Wolfram Klapper, Brent L Wood, Alex Fleishman, Dirk Nagorsen, Christopher Holland, Zachary Zimmerman, Max S Topp
Background Blinatumomab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody construct that enables CD3-positive T cells to recognize and eliminate CD19-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts, was approved for use in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL on the basis of single-group trials that showed efficacy and manageable toxic effects. Methods In this multi-institutional phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adults with heavily pretreated B-cell precursor ALL, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive either blinatumomab or standard-of-care chemotherapy...
March 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188692/bioreactor-scale-up-and-protein-product-quality-characterization-of-piggybac-transposon-derived-cho-pools
#11
Yashas Rajendra, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Robert B Peery, James R Swartling, Neil A McCracken, Dawn L Norris, Christopher C Frye, Gavin C Barnard
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells remain the most popular host for the production of biopharmaceutical drugs, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bispecific antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins. Creating and characterizing the stable CHO clonally-derived cell lines (CDCLs) needed to manufacture these therapeutic proteins is a lengthy and laborious process. Therefore, CHO pools have increasingly been used to rapidly produce protein to support and enable preclinical drug development. We recently described the generation of CHO pools yielding mAb titers as high as 7...
February 11, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184223/fc-engineering-for-developing-therapeutic-bispecific-antibodies-and-novel-scaffolds
#12
REVIEW
Hongyan Liu, Abhishek Saxena, Sachdev S Sidhu, Donghui Wu
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become molecules of choice to treat autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Moreover, bispecific/multispecific antibodies that target more than one antigen or epitope on a target cell or recruit effector cells (T cell, natural killer cell, or macrophage cell) toward target cells have shown great potential to maximize the benefits of antibody therapy. In the past decade, many novel concepts to generate bispecific and multispecific antibodies have evolved successfully into a range of formats from full bispecific immunoglobulin gammas to antibody fragments...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125314/bisfabs-tools-for-rapidly-screening-hybridoma-iggs-for-their-activities-as-bispecific-antibodies
#13
Sanket Patke, Ji Li, Peiyin Wang, Dion Slaga, Jennifer Johnston, Sunil Bhakta, Siler Panowski, Liping L Sun, Teemu Junttila, Justin M Scheer, Diego A Ellerman
Bispecific antibodies are a growing class of therapeutic molecules. Many of the current bispecific formats require DNA engineering to convert the parental monoclonal antibodies into the final bispecific molecules. We describe here a method to generate bispecific molecules from hybridoma IgGs in 3-4 days using chemical conjugation of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) (bisFabs). Proteolytic digestion conditions for each IgG isotype were analyzed to optimize the yield and quality of the final conjugates. The resulting bisFabs showed no significant amounts of homodimers or aggregates...
January 26, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100773/targeted-fc%C3%AE-receptor-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-clearance-by-a-biparatopic-bispecific-antibody
#14
Srinath Kasturirangan, G Jonah Rainey, Linda Xu, Xinwei Wang, Alyse Portnoff, Tracy Chen, Christine Fazenbaker, Helen Zhong, Jared Bee, Zhutian Zeng, Craig Jenne, Herren Wu, Changshou Gao
Soluble ligands have commonly been targeted by antibody therapeutics for cancers and other diseases. Although monoclonal antibodies targeting such ligands can block their interactions with their cognate receptors, they can also significantly increase the half-life of their ligands by FcRn-mediated antibody recycling, thereby evading ligand renal clearance and requiring increasingly high antibody doses to neutralize the increasing pool of target. To overcome this issue, we generated a bispecific/biparatopic antibody (BiSAb) that targets two different epitopes on IL-6 to block IL-6-mediated signaling...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067179/cd20-based-immunotherapy-of-b-cell-derived-hematologic-malignancies
#15
Dariush Shanehbandi, Jafar Majidi, Tohid Kazemi, Behzad Baradaran, Leili Aghebati-Maleki
CD20 is a surface antigen which is expressed at certain stages of B-cell differentiation. Targeting the CD20-positive B-cells with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been an effectual strategy in the treatment of hematologic malignancies such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Initial success with Rituximab (RTX) has encouraged the creation and development of more effective CD20 based therapeutics. However, treatment with conventional MAbs has not been adequate to overcome the problems such as refractory/relapsed disease...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035914/antibody-mimicry-receptors-and-clinical-applications
#16
Alberto L Horenstein, Antonella Chillemi, Valeria Quarona, Andrea Zito, Valentina Mariani, Angelo C Faini, Fabio Morandi, Ilaria Schiavoni, Clara Maria Ausiello, Fabio Malavasi
This review focuses on the concept of antibodies acting as receptor agonists and antagonists, and on the potential relevance of this notion in applied medicine. Antibodies are composed of three functional units: two antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) that confer antigen specificity and one constant fragment (Fc) linking antibodies to immune effector functions. The proof-of-concept that large amounts of highly specific and homogeneous antibodies could be produced was provided in 1975 by César Milstein and Georges Köhler...
December 23, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981887/insertion-of-scfv-into-the-hinge-domain-of-full-length-igg1-monoclonal-antibody-results-in-tetravalent-bispecific-molecule-with-robust-properties
#17
Binyam Bezabeh, Ryan Fleming, Christine Fazenbaker, Haihong Zhong, Karen Coffman, Xiang-Qing Yu, Ching Ching Leow, Nerea Gibson, Susan Wilson, C Kendall Stover, Herren Wu, Changshou Gao, Nazzareno Dimasi
By simultaneous binding two disease mediators, bispecific antibodies offer the opportunity to broaden the utility of antibody-based therapies. Herein, we describe the design and characterization of Bs4Ab, an innovative and generic bispecific tetravalent antibody platform. The Bs4Ab format comprises a full-length IgG1 monoclonal antibody with a scFv inserted into the hinge domain. The Bs4Ab design demonstrates robust manufacturability as evidenced by MEDI3902, which is currently in clinical development. To further demonstrate the applicability of the Bs4Ab technology, we describe the molecular engineering, biochemical, biophysical, and in vivo characterization of a bispecific tetravalent Bs4Ab that, by simultaneously binding vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-2, inhibits their function...
February 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978993/leverage-nonclinical-development-of-bispecifics-by-translational-science
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Baumann, Stephanie Fischmann, Guenter Blaich, Matthias Friedrich
Bispecific antibody constructs (Bispecifics, bsAbs) may have greater functionality compared to established monoclonal antibodies because they bind to 2 different targets or, potentially, to 2 epitopes on the same target (dual targeting). This may result in enhanced binding avidity with preferential binding to cells that express both targets or binding to targets on different cells. However, development of these next-generation biologics, including new formats, creates unique challenges due to their increased complexity...
September 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913998/immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer-past-present-and-future
#19
Alison Spellman, Shou-Ching Tang
Immunotherapy has shown promise in many solid tumors including melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer with an evolving role in breast cancer. Immunotherapy encompasses a wide range of therapies including immune checkpoint inhibition, monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, vaccinations, antibody-drug conjugates, and identifying other emerging interventions targeting the tumor microenvironment. Increasing efficacy of these treatments in breast cancer patients requires identification of better biomarkers to guide patient selection; recognizing when to initiate these therapies in multi-modality treatment plans; establishing novel assays to monitor immune-mediated responses; and creating combined systemic therapy options incorporating conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and endocrine therapy...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913544/treatment-of-rare-factor-deficiencies-in-2016
#20
Flora Peyvandi, Marzia Menegatti
Rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) are a heterogeneous group of coagulation disorders characterized by fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, X, XI, or XIII (FV, FVII, FX, FXI, or FXIII, respectively), and the combined factor V + VIII and vitamin K-dependent proteins deficiencies, representing roughly 5% of all bleeding disorders. They are usually transmitted as autosomal, recessive disorders, and the prevalence of the severe forms could range from 1 case in 500 000 for FVII up to 1 in 2-3 million for FXIII in the general population...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
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