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bispecific monoclonal

Joachim R Kalden
Diverse strategies to develop novel treatments for rheumatoid arthritis which specifically target those patients who do not respond to available medications, including biologics, are currently being explored. New potential therapeutic approaches which may become available as part of standard therapeutic regimens include the propagation of regulatory T cells and-in the future-of regulatory B cells. New biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (b-DMARDs) against interleukin-17 and -6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and complement component 5 are now standard components of clinical treatment programs...
June 2016: Rheumatol Ther
Ming Sun, Yue Li, Huiwen Zheng, Yiming Shao
The recent discoveries of broadly potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies represent a new generation of antiretrovirals for the treatment and prophylaxis. Antibodies are generally considered more effective and safer and have been proved to provide passive protection against mucosal challenge in humanized mice and macaques. Several neutralizing Abs could protect animals against HIV-1 but are not effective when used in an established infected model for therapy. In order to overcome the limitation of antiviral activities, multiple antibody-engineering technologies have been explored to generate "the better" neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 since bNAbs attack viral entry by various mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Jörg T Regula, Peter Lundh von Leithner, Richard Foxton, Veluchamy A Barathi, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Yeo Sia Wey, Daiju Iwata, Miroslav Dostalek, Jörg Moelleken, Kay G Stubenrauch, Everson Nogoceke, Gabriella Widmer, Pamela Strassburger, Michael J Koss, Christian Klein, David T Shima, Guido Hartmann
Anti-angiogenic therapies using biological molecules that neutralize vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) have revolutionized treatment of retinal vascular diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study reports preclinical assessment of a strategy to enhance anti-VEGF-A monotherapy efficacy by targeting both VEGF-A and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), a factor strongly upregulated in vitreous fluids of patients with retinal vascular disease and exerting some of its activities in concert with VEGF-A...
October 14, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Guido Ferrari, Barton F Haynes, Scott Koenig, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, David M Margolis, Georgia D Tomaras
HIV-1 is a retrovirus that integrates into host chromatin and can remain transcriptionally quiescent in a pool of immune cells. This characteristic enables HIV-1 to evade both host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs, leading to persistent infection. Upon reactivation of proviral gene expression, HIV-1 envelope (HIV-1 Env) glycoproteins are expressed on the cell surface, transforming latently infected cells into targets for HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can engage immune effector cells to kill productively infected CD4(+) T cells and thus limit the spread of progeny virus...
October 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Feng Wang, Hong Wang, Yudong Shen, Yongjun Li, Jie-Xian Dong, Zhenlin Xu, Jinyi Yang, Yuanming Sun, Zhili Xiao
A new multi-analyte immunoassay was designed to screen furaltadone metabolite 5-morpholinomethyl-3-amino-2-oxazolidone (AMOZ), malachite green (MG), and leucomalachite green (LMG) in aquatic products using a bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb). Gradient drug mutagenesis methods were separately used to prepare an anti-3-nitrobenzaldehyde-derivatized AMOZ (3-NPAMOZ) hybridoma cell line that was hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase (HGRPT) deficient and an anti-LMG hybridoma cell line that was thymidine kinase (TK) deficient...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Karen Manoutcharian, Roxanna Perez-Garmendia, Goar Gevorkian
Recombinant antibody fragments are promising alternatives to full-length immunoglobulins and offer important advantages compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies: extreme specificity, higher affinity, superior stability and solubility, reduced immunogenicity as well as easy and inexpensive large-scale production. Different antibody formats such as single-chain fragment variable (scFv), single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or sdAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), intrabodies and nanobodies, are currently being studied in pre-clinical models of cancer as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases and many of them are being tested as therapeutics in clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Whitney Shatz, Domingos Ng, George Dutina, Athena W Wong, Diana Ronai Dunshee, Junichiro Sonoda, Amy Shen, Justin M Scheer
Bispecific antibodies have shown promise in the clinic as medicines with novel mechanisms of action. Lack of efficient production of bispecific IgGs, however, has limited their rapid advancement. Here, we describe a single-reactor process using mammalian cell co-culture production to efficiently produce a bispecific IgG with four distinct polypeptide chains without the need for parallel processing of each half-antibody or additional framework mutations. This method resembles a conventional process, and the quality and yield of the monoclonal antibodies are equal to those produced using parallel processing methods...
September 28, 2016: MAbs
Anna Z Wec, Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Andrew S Herbert, Katie A Howell, Frederick W Holtsberg, Russell R Bakken, Eva Mittler, John R Christin, Sergey Shulenin, Rohit K Jangra, Sushma Bharrhan, Ana I Kuehne, Zachary A Bornholdt, Andrew I Flyak, Erica Ollmann Saphire, James E Crowe, M Javad Aman, John M Dye, Jonathan R Lai, Kartik Chandran
There is an urgent need for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies that broadly protect against Ebola virus and other filoviruses. The conserved, essential interaction between the filovirus glycoprotein, GP, and its entry receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides an attractive target for such mAbs, but is shielded by multiple mechanisms, including physical sequestration in late endosomes. Here, we describe a bispecific antibody strategy to target this interaction, in which mAbs specific for NPC1 or the GP receptor-binding site are coupled to a mAb against a conserved, surface-exposed GP epitope...
September 8, 2016: Science
Raffaella Castoldi, Jürgen Schanzer, Christian Panke, Ute Jucknischke, Natalie J Neubert, Rebecca Croasdale, Werner Scheuer, Johannes Auer, Christian Klein, Gerhard Niederfellner, Sebastian Kobold, Claudio Sustmann
Monoclonal antibody-based targeted tumor therapy has greatly improved treatment options for patients. Antibodies against oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), especially the ErbB receptor family, are prominent examples. However, long-term efficacy of such antibodies is limited by resistance mechanisms. Tumor evasion by a priori or acquired activation of other kinases is often causative for this phenomenon. These findings led to an increasing number of combination approaches either within a protein family, e...
October 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Matthew Ku, Geoff Chong, Eliza A Hawkes
Recent proliferation of novel targeted therapies in lymphoma has been substantial. B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been a major focus, however significant advances in monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) which directly target malignant cells have also occurred. These MoAbs continue to make significant impact in lymphoma management. Novel dosing schedules of anti-CD20 MoAb rituximab potentially optimise efficacy in specific lymphoma subgroups, as certain populations may be receiving suboptimal doses using current schedules...
August 12, 2016: Blood Reviews
Futa Mimoto, Taichi Kuramochi, Hitoshi Katada, Tomoyuki Igawa, Kunihiro Hattori
Monoclonal antibodies are currently the most attractive therapeutic modality in a broad range of disease areas, including infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and oncology. Fc engineering is one attractive application to maximize the value or overcome the drawbacks of monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic use. With the Fc region, antibodies bind to several types of receptors, such as Fc gamma receptors, a complement receptor, and a neonatal Fc receptor. Through this interaction with the receptors, antibodies demonstrate unique functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, complement dependent cytotoxicity, agonistic activity, and endosomal recycling...
August 24, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Marie Godar, Virginia Morello, Ava Sadi, Anna Hultberg, Natalie De Jonge, Cristina Basilico, Valérie Hanssens, Michael Saunders, Bart N Lambrecht, Mohamed El Khattabi, Hans de Haard, Paolo Michieli, Christophe Blanchetot
Bispecific antibodies are of great interest due to their ability to simultaneously bind and engage different antigens or epitopes. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to assemble, produce and/or purify them. Here we present an innovative dual anti-idiotypic purification process, which provides pure bispecific antibodies with native immunoglobulin format. Using this approach, a biparatopic IgG1 antibody targeting two distinct, HGF-competing, non-overlapping epitopes on the extracellular region of the MET receptor, was purified with camelid single-domain antibody fragments that bind specifically to the correct heavy chain/light chain pairings of each arm...
2016: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Waqas Khan, Zartash Gul
Blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager monoclonal antibody used to manage Philadelphia chromosome-negative relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can be used to treat patients by inducing graft versus leukemia reaction post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a feature which it was post allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, a feature which this drug was not aimed to do.
August 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Nosha Farhadfar, Mark R Litzow
Monoclonal antibodies represent a major advance in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Targeted delivery of these agents based on leukemic cell-surface receptor recognition, improves efficacy and minimizes off-target toxicity. The antigens CD19, CD20, CD22 and CD52, are the most common antigens to which monoclonal antibodies in B-cell ALL have been directed. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, in combination with conventional chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival in newly diagnosed CD20 positive B-cell ALL...
October 2016: Leukemia Research
Even Walseng, Christopher G Nelson, Junpeng Qi, Alex R Nanna, William R Roush, Rajib K Goswami, Subhash C Sinha, Terrence R Burke, Christoph Rader
Chemically programmed bispecific antibodies (biAbs) endow target cell-binding small molecules with the ability to recruit and activate effector cells of the immune system. Here we report a platform of chemically programmed biAbs aimed at redirecting cytotoxic T cells to eliminate cancer cells. Two different antibody technologies were merged together to make a novel chemically programmed biAb. This was achieved by combining the humanized anti-hapten monoclonal antibody (mAb) h38C2 with the humanized anti-human CD3 mAb v9 in a clinically investigated diabody format known as Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting (DART)...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vivian Thimsen, Annett Hölsken, Michael Buchfelder, Jörg Flitsch, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Harald Stefanits, Marco Losa, David T W Jones, Rolf Buslei
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a type I glycoprotein located on the surface of epithelial cells. It is strongly expressed in many neoplasms and already used in the diagnosis and distinction of various tumour subtypes. Comparative studies about EpCAM expression in cystic sellar lesions are lacking. Therefore, we analysed its distribution pattern in adamantinomatous (aCP) and papillary (pCP) craniopharyngiomas (CP) and Rathke's Cleft Cysts (RCC) using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sherri Dudal, Heather Hinton, Anna M Giusti, Marina Bacac, Magali Muller, Tanja Fauti, Sara Colombetti, Tobias Heckel, Nicolas Giroud, Christian Klein, Pablo Umaña, Lisa Benincosa, Juergen Bachl, Thomas Singer, Katharine Bray-French
CEA TCB is a novel T-cell-bispecific (TCB) antibody targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expressed on tumor cells and the CD3 epsilon chain (CD3e) present on T cells, which is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials (NCT02324257) for the treatment of CEA-positive solid tumors. Because the human CEA (hCEA) binder of CEA TCB does not cross-react with cynomolgus monkey and CEA is absent in rodents, alternative nonclinical safety evaluation approaches were considered. These included the development of a cynomolgus monkey cross-reactive homologous (surrogate) antibody (cyCEA TCB) for its evaluation in cynomolgus monkey and the development of double-transgenic mice, expressing hCEA and human CD3e (hCEA/hCD3e Tg), as a potential alternative species for nonclinical safety studies...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
Hongbing Yang, Sandrine Buisson, Giovanna Bossi, Zoë Wallace, Gemma Hancock, Chun So, Rebecca Ashfield, Annelise Vuidepot, Tara Mahon, Peter Molloy, Joanne Oates, Samantha J Paston, Milos Aleksic, Namir J Hassan, Bent K Jakobsen, Lucy Dorrell
Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a latent state in long-lived CD4+ T-cells is a major barrier to eradication. Latency-reversing agents that induce direct or immune-mediated cell death upon reactivation of HIV are a possible solution. However, clearance of reactivated cells may require immunotherapeutic agents that are fine-tuned to detect viral antigens when expressed at low levels. We tested the antiviral efficacy of immune-mobilizing monoclonal T-cell receptors against viruses (ImmTAVs), bispecific molecules that redirect CD8+ T-cells to kill HIV-infected CD4+ T-cells...
July 12, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Mohammed Alcharakh, Seongseok Yun, Yimin Dong, Nicole D Vincelette, Madiha Daud, Saima Manzoor, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Faiz Anwer
Post-stem cell transplantation (SCT) relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has extremely poor prognosis with median survival of less than 1 year. Donor lymphocyte infusion, second transplantation, chemotherapy or cytokine treatment have been tried as a salvage regimen without significant clinical benefit. Recently, blinatumomab, a bispecific monoclonal antibody targeting CD3-expressing T cells and CD19-expressing B-cell lineage malignant cells demonstrated promising outcomes in relapsed/refractory ALL patients...
July 2016: Immunotherapy
Renée C G de Bruin, Sinéad M Lougheed, Liza van der Kruk, Anita G Stam, Erik Hooijberg, Rob C Roovers, Paul M P van Bergen En Henegouwen, Henk M W Verheul, Tanja D de Gruijl, Hans J van der Vliet
Vγ9Vδ2-T cells constitute the predominant subset of γδ-T cells in human peripheral blood and have been shown to play an important role in antimicrobial and antitumor immune responses. Several efforts have been initiated to exploit these cells for cancer immunotherapy, e.g. by using phosphoantigens, adoptive cell transfer, and by a bispecific monoclonal antibody based approach. Here, we report the generation of a novel set of Vγ9Vδ2-T cell specific VHH (or nanobody). VHH have several advantages compared to conventional antibodies related to their small size, stability, ease of generating multispecific molecules and low immunogenicity...
August 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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