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Respiratory syncytial virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906596/are-we-missing-respiratory-viral-infections-in-infants-and-children-comparison-of-a-hospital-based-quality-management-system-with-standard-of-care
#1
Maren Alchikh, Tim Conrad, Christian Hoppe, Xiaolin Ma, Eeva Broberg, Pasi Penttinen, Janine Reiche, Barbara Biere, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
OBJECTIVES: Hospital-based surveillance of influenza and acute respiratory infections relies on ICD-codes and hospital laboratory reports (Standard-of-Care). It is unclear how many cases are missed with either method, i.e. remain undiagnosed/coded as influenza and other respiratory virus infections. Various influenza-like illness (ILI) definitions co-exist with little guidance on how to use them. We are comparing the diagnostic accuracy of standard surveillance methods with a prospective quality management (QM-Program) at a Berlin children's hospital with the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906223/new-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-hypertension-induced-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis
#2
Dai Kimura, Jordy Saravia, Sridhar Jaligama, Isabella McNamara, Luan D Vu, Ryan D Sullivan, Salvatore Mancarella, Dahui You, Stephania A Cormier
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been observed in up to 75% of infants with moderate to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of PH secondary to RSV bronchiolitis that mimics the disease etiology as it occurs in infants. Neonatal mice were infected with RSV at 5 days of age, and then re-infected 4 weeks later. Serum free medium was administered to age-matched mice as control...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906044/case-report-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#3
Rosalinda Jiménez-Aguilar, María Eugenia Rodriguez-Godoy, Rodolfo Norberto Jiménez-Juarez, María del Carmen Cano-Salas
Background: The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most important viral pathogen in children under 2 years of age, which warrants hospitalization for a low respiratory infection. 0.5% of children under 5 with RSV infection require hospitalization. The aim of this case is to reaffirm the importance of this virus as a cause of severe disease and to emphasize the importance of adequate diagnosis and management to improve prognosis. Clinical case: Child of 1 year 3 months old, without risk factors for severe infection by respiratory viruses...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905317/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subtypes-a-and-b-infection-among-children-attending-primary-and-secondary-health-care-facilities-in-ibadan-nigeria
#4
O Ogunsemowo, D O Olaleye, G N Odaibo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes high morbidity and mortality in infants and young children. Although a high prevalence of HRSV has been reported in Nigeria, the subtype of the virus circulating in the country is not known. This crosssectional study was therefore designed to determine the subtypes of HRSV circulating among children in Ibadan. Two hundred and thirty-one nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children presenting with respiratory infections in Secondary Health Facility (SHF) as well as those attending immunization centers in Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in Ibadan, Nigeria...
February 2018: Archives of basic and applied medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904203/bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-igg-1-in-nasal-secretions-of-colostrum-fed-neonatal-calves
#5
John A Ellis, Manuel F Chamorro, Stacey Lacoste, Sheryl P Gow, Deborah M Haines
In order to determine whether nasal secretions of young calves contain passively derived antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and if there are differences in presence and/or subclass of these antibodies between calves fed different colostrum replacement products, 17 Holstein calves were fed 150 g of IgG in either a sprayed-dried colostrum-based (CR; n = 8) or a plasma-based colostrum replacement product (PR; n = 9) within 6 h of birth. Venous blood and nasal secretions obtained before feeding and at 24 h of age were assayed for total IgG (serum) by radial immunodiffusion and for BRSV-specific total IgG, IgG-1, and IgG-2 by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
May 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900500/structure-and-function-of-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-m2-1-protein
#6
Selvaraj Muniyandi, Georgia Pangratiou, Thomas A Edwards, John N Barr
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a non-segmented negative stranded RNA virus and is recognized as the most important viral agent of lower respiratory tract infection worldwide, responsible for up to 199,000 deaths each year. The only FDA-approved regime to prevent HRSV-mediated disease is pre-exposure administration of a humanized HRSV-specific monoclonal antibody, which although being effective, is not in widespread usage due to its cost. No HRSV vaccine exists and so there remains a strong need for alternative and complementary anti-HRSV therapies...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896913/etiology-of-viral-respiratory-infections-in-northern-lao-pdr
#7
Chantal J Snoeck, Valy Ponghsavath, Nina Luetteke, Sabine Kaufmann, Aurélie Sausy, Bounthome Samountry, Prapan Jutavijittum, Bernard Weber, Claude P Muller
In Lao PDR, acute respiratory infections overburden the healthcare system, but viral etiology, genetic diversity and seasonality, especially in light of the introduction of influenza vaccination in the country, are poorly understood. From August 2010 to April 2011, 309 outpatients were recruited at the Luang Prabang Provincial Hospital covering highland Lao communities. Nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for the presence of 13 respiratory viruses. At least one virus was detected in 69.6% and dual/triple viral infections in 12...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895499/orally-administered-adenoviral-based-vaccine-induces-respiratory-mucosal-memory-and-protection-against-rsv-infection-in-cotton-rats
#8
Christina Joyce, Ciaran D Scallan, Roberto Mateo, Robert B Belshe, Sean N Tucker, Anne C Moore
A vaccine against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major unmet need to prevent the significant morbidity and mortality that it causes in society. In addition to efficacy, such a vaccine must not induce adverse events, as previously occurred with a formalin-inactivated vaccine (FI-RSV). In this study, the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a molecularly adjuvanted adenovirus serotype 5 based RSV vaccine encoding the fusion (F) protein (Ad-RSVF) is demonstrated in cotton rats. Protective immunity to RSV was induced by Ad-RSVF when administered by an oral route as well as by intranasal and intramuscular routes...
June 9, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895452/evaluation-of-filmarray-respiratory-panel-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-pathogens-in-adult-outpatients-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#9
Norihito Kaku, Kohji Hashiguchi, Yuki Iwanaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Takeshi Kitazaki, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Masaaki Fukuda, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
Although viruses are the major pathogen that causes upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and acute bronchitis, antibiotics have been prescribed. This was a prospective observational study in influenza epidemics that enrolled adult outpatients who visited a hospital with respiratory tract infection symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of FilmArray respiratory panel (RP). Fifty patients were enrolled. FilmArray RP detected the pathogens in 28 patients. The common pathogens were influenza virus (n = 14), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 6), and human rhinovirus (n = 6)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895154/naked-dna-immunization-with-full-length-attachment-gene-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induces-safe-and-protective-immune-response
#10
M E Hamad, H M Amer, M A Farrag, A H Osman, F N Almajhdi
Development of potent vaccine for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) that confers better protection than natural infection remains a global challenge. Vaccination with naked DNA is considered successful approach for the control of many viral diseases. In this study, the potential of DNA vaccination using full-length attachment gene of HRSV type A Saudi strain cloned in pcDNA3.1+ vector (pcDNA/GA) was evaluated in BALB/c mice. The expression efficiency of pcDNA/GA was first confirmed in HEp-2 cells on RNA and protein levels...
2018: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895153/rsv-infection-in-a-macrophage-cell-line-activates-the-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression
#11
O Del Moral-Hernández, C Santiago-Olivares, E Rivera-Toledo, J Gaona, E Castillo-Villanueva, B Gómez
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a highly prevalent infectious agent that causes severe respiratory tract illnesses in infants and children worldwide. Children who have suffered severe RSV infections during infancy are prone to develop recurrent episodes of wheezing and asthma that may be associated with viral persistence. RSV infections in humans and animal models are characterized by extensive inflammatory responses. Epithelial cell lines acutely infected by RSV have shown activation of the NF-κB signaling through two independent pathways: the canonical pathway, mediated by RelA and p50 subunits, and the non-canonical pathway, mediated by the subunits RelB and p52...
2018: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891600/orally-efficacious-broad-spectrum-ribonucleoside-analog-inhibitor-of-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-viruses
#12
Jeong-Joong Yoon, Mart Toots, Sujin Lee, Myung-Eun Lee, Barbara Ludeke, Jasmina M Luczo, Ketaki Ganti, Robert M Cox, Zachary M Sticher, Vindya Edpuganti, Deborah G Mitchell, Mark A Lockwood, Alexander A Kolykhalov, Alexander L Greninger, Martin L Moore, George R Painter, Anice C Lowen, Stephen M Tompkins, Rachel Fearns, Michael G Natchus, Richard K Plemper
Morbidity and mortality resulting from influenza-like disease are a threat especially for older adults. To improve case management, next-generation broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics are urgently needed that are efficacious against major drivers of influenza-like disease including influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Using a dual-pathogen high throughput screening protocol for influenza A virus (IAV) and RSV inhibitors, we have identified N 4 -hydroxycytidine (NHC) as a potent inhibitor of RSV, influenza B viruses and IAVs of human, avian, and swine origin...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890085/rapid-and-simple-molecular-tests-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-review
#13
Catherine Hogan, Chelsea Caya, Jesse Papenburg
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory infections. The clinical manifestations of RSV are indistinguishable from other etiologies of acute respiratory infection. Therefore, accurate and timely laboratory testing is needed to impact clinical management. There are now multiple rapid, low-complexity, commercially available assays for RSV. These tests present significant performance advantages compared to older antigen detection tests. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of RSV has the potential for enabling timely cessation of unnecessary antibiotics and implementation of good infection control practices...
June 11, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889810/pathogen-clearance-and-new-respiratory-tract-infections-among-febrile-children-in-zanzibar-investigated-with-multitargeting-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-on-paired-nasopharyngeal-swab-samples
#14
Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Maria Andersson, Kimberly Baltzell, Mwinyi I Msellem, Anders Björkman, Andreas Mårtensson, Max Petzold, Birger Trollfors, Magnus Lindh
BACKGROUND: New molecular methods have revealed frequent and often polymicrobial respiratory infections in children in low-income settings. It is not known whether presence of multiple pathogens is due to prolonged infections or to frequent exposure. The aim of this study was to analyze short-term pathogen clearance from nasopharynx and the rate of new respiratory tract infections in febrile preschool children. METHODS: Children (n = 207) with uncomplicated acute febrile illness 2-59 months of age presenting to a health center in Zanzibar, Tanzania, April-July 2011, were included...
July 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886325/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-modeling-of-novel-azaspiro-dihydrotriazines-as-influenza-virus-inhibitors-targeting-the-host-factor-dihydrofolate-reductase-dhfr
#15
Valeria Francesconi, Luca Giovannini, Matteo Santucci, Elena Cichero, Maria Paola Costi, Lieve Naesens, Fabrizio Giordanetto, Michele Tonelli
Recently we identified cycloguanil-like dihydrotriazine derivatives, which provided host-factor directed antiviral activity against influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), by targeting the human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) enzyme. In this context we deemed interesting to further investigate the structure activity relationship (SAR) of our first series of cycloguanil-like dihydrotriazines, designing two novel azaspiro dihydrotriazine scaffolds. The present study allowed the exploration of the potential chemical space, around these new scaffolds, that are well tolerated for maintaining the antiviral effect by means of interaction with the hDHFR enzyme...
June 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885798/bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-enhances-pasteurella-multocida-adherence-on-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#16
Putu Eka Sudaryatma, Kimika Nakamura, Hirohisa Mekata, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Meiko Kubo, Ikuo Kobayashi, Mawar Subangkit, Yoshitaka Goto, Tamaki Okabayashi
Primary infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) predisposes cattle to secondary infection with bacteria that cause bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). However, the interaction between BRSV and bacteria is unclear. This in vitro study examined the adherence of Pasteurella multocida (PM) to BRSV-infected cells was assessed in colony forming unit assays, by flow cytometry analysis, and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) of epithelial cells (A549, HEp-2, and MDBK). An in vitro model based on infection of BRSV-infected epithelial cells revealed that PM adherence to BRSV-infected cells was 2- to 8-fold higher than uninfected cells...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883908/evaluation-of-seegene-allplex-respiratory-panel-1-kit-for-the-detection-of-influenza-virus-and-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#17
Laura Gimferrer, Cristina Andrés, Ariadna Rando, Maria Piñana, Maria Gema Codina, Maria Del Carmen Martin, Francisco Fuentes, Susana Rubio, Pilar Alcubilla, Tomàs Pumarola, Andrés Antón
BACKGROUND: Influenza (FLUV) and human respiratory syncytial (HRSV) viruses are etiological agents of respiratory infections that cause a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A rapid and accurate diagnosis of these respiratory viruses is essential for an appropriate patient management. Molecular tests are the best detection option due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Seegene's Allplex™ Respiratory Panel 1 (Allplex RP1) is a real-time one-step RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of FLUAV, FLUBV, HRSV-A and HRSV-B...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878077/muc5ac-levels-associated-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-severity
#18
Devi Rajan, Evan L O'Keefe, Curtis Travers, Courtney McCracken, Sarah Geoghegan, Mauricio T Caballero, Patricio L Acosta, Fernando Polack, Larry J Anderson
To assess MUC5AC as a biomarker for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease severity, we tested nasal aspirates from RSV+ children with mild, moderate, and severe disease. Levels were significantly higher in those in the severe and moderate groups compared to mild group, indicating MUC5AC may be a useful biomarker for RSV disease severity.
June 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877720/respiratory-virus-prophylaxis-in-congenital-heart-disease
#19
Manjiri Joshi, Robert M R Tulloh
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections and causes up to 200,000 infant deaths a year worldwide. The average rate of hospitalization for severe RSV infection is 5 per 1000 children, and the rate is three-times higher in those with congenital heart disease (CHD). Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody, reduces hospitalization rates and intensive care admissions. It is used prophylactically and is administered as monthly doses during the RSV season. Hemodynamically unstable CHD is the most susceptible CHD to a severe episode of RSV infection...
June 7, 2018: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876771/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-pathogenesis-immune-responses-and-current-vaccine-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Sara A Taleb, Asmaa A Al Thani, Khalid Al Ansari, Hadi M Yassine
Respiratory syncytial virus continues to pose a serious threat to the pediatric populations worldwide. With a genomic makeup of 15,200 nucleotides, the virus encodes for 11 proteins serving as envelope spikes, inner envelope proteins, and non-structural and ribonucleocapsid complexes. The fusion (F) and attachment (G) surface glycoproteins are the key targets for neutralizing antibodies. The highly variable G with altered glycosylations and the conformational alternations of F create challenges for vaccine development...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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