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Respiratory syncytial virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684148/antiviral-activity-of-oral-jnj-53718678-in-healthy-adult-volunteers-challenged-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-placebo-controlled-study
#1
Marita Stevens, Sarah Rusch, John DeVincenzo, Young-In Kim, Lisa Harrison, Elizabeth A Meals, Alison Boyers, Juin Fok-Seang, Dymphy Huntjens, Nacer Lounis, Kris Mari N, Bart Remmerie, Dirk Roymans, Anil Koul, René Verloes
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease has no effective treatment. JNJ-53718678 is a fusion inhibitor with selective activity against RSV. Methods: After confirmation of RSV infection or 5 days post inoculation with RSV, participants (n=69) were randomized to JNJ-53718678 75 mg (n=15), 200 mg (n=17), 500 mg (n=18), or placebo (n=17), orally once-daily for 7 days. Antiviral effects were evaluated by assessing RSV RNA viral load (VL) area-under-the-curve (AUC) from baseline (prior to the first dose) until discharge, time-to-peak VL, duration of viral shedding, clinical symptoms, and quantity of nasal secretions...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680810/association-of-seasonal-viral-acute-respiratory-infection-with-pneumococcal-disease-a-systematic-review-of-population-based-studies
#2
You Li, Meagan E Peterson, Harry Campbell, Harish Nair
OBJECTIVE: Animal and in vitro studies suggest that viral acute respiratory infection (VARI) can predispose to pneumococcal infection. These findings suggest that the prevention of VARI can yield additional benefits for the control of pneumococcal disease (PD). In population-based studies, however, the evidence is not in accordance, possibly due to a variety of methodological challenges and problems in these studies. We aimed to summarise and critically review the methods and results from these studies in order to inform future studies...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680224/clinical-evaluation-of-a-novel-and-simple-to-use-molecular-platform-for-diagnosis-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#3
Karoliina Liikonen, Tuomas Ojalehto, Sonja Elf, Minna Mäki, Pirjo Matero, Kevin Eboigbodin
Rapid molecular diagnostic testing for respiratory infections can improve patient care and minimize unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics. We present the preliminary clinical evaluation of Orion GenRead® RSV, a novel, rapid, and easy-to-use molecular test for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The sensitivity and specificity of Orion GenRead RSV were 99% and 100%, respectively. Orion GenRead RSV detected RSV-positive specimens within 15 min. The performance of Orion GenRead RSV was similar to that of the reference method and this test could rapidly detect RSV within minutes...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678551/anti-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-g-monoclonal-antibodies-reduce-lung-inflammation-and-viral-lung-titers-when-delivered-therapeutically-in-a-balb-c-mouse-model
#4
Hayat Caidi, Congrong Miao, Natalie J Thornburg, Ralph A Tripp, Larry J Anderson, Lia M Haynes
RSV continues to be a high priority for vaccine and antiviral drug development. Unfortunately, no safe and effective RSV vaccine is available and treatment options are limited. Over the past decade, several studies have focused on the role of RSV G protein on viral entry, viral neutralization, and RSV-mediated pathology. Anti-G murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 131-2G treatment has been previously shown to reduce weight loss, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number, airway reactivity, and Th2-type cytokine production in RSV-infected mice more rapidly than a commercial humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) against RSV F protein (Palivizumab)...
April 17, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678177/healthcare-resource-use-and-economic-burden-attributable-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-the-united-states-a-claims-database-analysis
#5
Caroline Amand, Sabine Tong, Alexia Kieffer, Moe H Kyaw
BACKGROUND: Despite several studies that have estimated the economic impact of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in infants, limited data are available on healthcare resource use and costs attributable to RSV across age groups. The aim of this study was to quantify age-specific RSV-related healthcare resource use and costs on the US healthcare system. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study identified patients aged ≥1 year with an RSV event in the Truven Health Marketscan® Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits databases between August 31, 2012 and August 1, 2013...
April 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677457/improved-protocol-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-leukocyte-subsets-and-epithelial-cells-from-murine-and-human-lung
#6
Christine Happle, Lena Meyer-Decking, Anika Dreier, Martin Wetzke, Stephanie Gläsener, Ruth Grychtol, Peter Braubach, Alexandra Jablonka, Sibylle Haid, Adan Chari Jirmo, Anika Habener, Jelena Skuljec, Gesine Hansen
PURPOSE: To study and isolate lung cells by flow cytometry, enzymatic digestion and generation of single cell suspensions is required. This significantly influences expression of cellular epitopes and protocols need to be adapted for the best isolation and subsequent analysis of specific cellular subsets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We optimized protocols for the simultaneous isolation and characterization of specific human and murine lung cell types. For alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), a primarily dispase based digestion method and for leukocytes, a primarily collagenase based technique was adapted...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677209/osteopontin-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-increasing-severity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#7
Viviana Sampayo-Escobar, Ryan Green, Michael B Cheung, Raminder Bedi, Subhra Mohapatra, Shyam S Mohapatra
The molecular mechanisms underlying susceptibility to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remain poorly understood. Herein, we report on the role of osteopontin (OPN) in regulation of RSV infection in human epithelial cells and how interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), a cytokine secreted soon after RSV infection, when persistently expressed can induce OPN expression leading to increased viral infection. We first compared OPN expression in two human epithelial cell lines: HEK-293 and HEp-2. In contrast to HEp-2, HEK-293 expresses low levels of pro-caspase-1 resulting in decreased IL-1β expression in response to RSV infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676365/rapid-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-by-chromatographic-assay
#8
Surinder Kumar, Bhanu Mehra, Gulshan Rai Sethi, Sanjeev R Saigal
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important viral agent causing pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) worldwide. To evaluate the role of RSV in pediatric LRTIs, we studied 85 children <2 years of age hospitalized for community-acquired LRTIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained on admission for the detection of RSV antigen by immunochromatographic assay. Demographic, clinical, and radiological findings for RSV antigen were compared. Data analysis was performed by Chi-square test...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674556/complete-genome-sequence-of-an-on1-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-strain-isolated-in-lebanon-in-2015
#9
Amani Ezzeddine, Nadia Soudani, Chun Kiat Lee, Ghassan Dbaibo, Husni Elbahesh, Hassan Zaraket
We report here the complete genome sequence of a human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strain obtained from an infant who presented to the emergency room with an acute respiratory illness during the 2014/2015 HRSV season in Lebanon. Analysis revealed that this virus belongs to the ON1 genotype that has recently emerged worldwide.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672626/engystol-reduces-onset-of-experimental-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-respiratory-inflammation-in-mice-by-modulating-macrophage-phagocytic-capacity
#10
Sabine Wronski, Julia Dannenmaier, Sabine Schild, Olaf Macke, Laura Müller, Yvonne Burmeister, Bernd Seilheimer, Meike Müller
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus are one of the major causes for respiratory tract infections causing common cold disease. Respiratory viral infections range from mild symptoms in adults to serious illness especially in the very young or elderly as well as patients suffering from lung diseases or being immunocompromised due to other reasons. Engystol (EGY-2) is a multicomponent, multitarget preparation consisting of Vincetoxicum hirundinaria and Sulfur in various dilutions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668861/continuous-invasion-by-respiratory-viruses-observed-in-rural-households-during-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonal-outbreak-in-coastal-kenya
#11
Patrick K Munywoki, Dorothy C Koech, Charles N Agoti, Patricia A Cane, Graham F Medley, D James Nokes
Background: Households are high intensity close-contact environments favorable for transmission of respiratory viruses, yet little is known for low-income settings. Methods: Active surveillance was completed on 47 households in rural coastal Kenya over six months during a respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) season. Nasopharyngeal swabs(NPS) were taken from 483 household members twice-weekly irrespective of symptoms. NPS from 6 households were screened for 15 respiratory viruses by molecular diagnostics and the remainder only for the most frequent viruses observed: rhinovirus (RV), human coronaviruses(hCoV; comprising 229E, OC43 and NL63), adenovirus(AdV) and RSV(A and B)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666961/a-novel-sampling-method-to-detect-airborne-influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-feasibility-study
#12
Alicia B Mitchell, Benjamin Tang, Maryam Shojaei, Lachlan S Barnes, Marek Nalos, Brian G Oliver, Anthony S McLean
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses circulate constantly in the ambient air. The risk of opportunistic infection from these viruses can be increased in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study evaluates the feasibility of detecting airborne respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients using a novel sample collection method involving ventilator filters. METHODS: We collected inspiratory and expiratory filters from the ventilator circuits of mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit over a 14-month period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665348/identification-of-etiologic-agents-of-the-pertussis-like-syndrome-in-children-by-real-time-pcr-method
#13
Shima Mahmoudi, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Hediyeh Sadat Alavi, Hamid Eshaghi, Alireza Aziz Ahari, Setareh Mamishi
The aim of this study was to recognize the identity and frequency of etiologic agents of the pertussis-like syndrome in children &lt; 2 years of age. A cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted from August 2014 to August 2015. All children &lt; 2 years of age (n=100) who were suspected as pertussis infected were enrolled in this study and tested for Bordetella pertussis, adenovirus (Adv), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and influenza virus A (INF-A) by real-time PCR technique...
2018: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663810/dual-catalytic-synthesis-of-antiviral-compounds-based-on-metallocarbene-azide-cascade-chemistry
#14
Bren Jordan P Atienza, Lionel Dylan Jensen, Sarah L Noton, Anil Kumar Victoria Ansalem, Tom Hobman, Rachel Fearns, David J Marchant, F G West
Aryl azides trap ortho metallocarbene intermediates to generate indolenones possessing a reactive C-acylimine moiety, which can react with added indole nucleophiles to afford the 2-(3-indolyl)indolin-3-one scaffold found in the antiviral natural product isatisine A. This overall process occurs through a dual catalytic sequence at room temperature. Redox activation of the Cu(OTf)2 precatalyst by indole results in catalytically competent Cu(I) required for azide-metallocarbene coupling. The Brønsted acid that is also formed from Cu(OTf)2 reduction is responsible for catalysis of the C-C bond-forming indole addition step...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663437/usefulness-of-national-respiratory-virus-surveillance-data-for-clinicians-who-manage-adult-patients
#15
Eun Been Cho, Seong-Ho Choi, Jin-Won Chung, Mi-Kyung Lee
The Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) provides weekly respiratory virus (RV) surveillance reports on its website (the KCDC data). Clinicians in clinical settings wherein the use of PCR for RVs is not a routine laboratory test for adult patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) may question the clinical utility of such a national RV surveillance dataset in predicting RV outbreaks among their adult patients. We compared the KCDC data to the RV PCR data of adult patients who visited a tertiary care center...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663420/phase-1-first-in-human-single-and-multiple-ascending-dose-and-food-effect-studies-to-assess-the-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-presatovir-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#16
Polina German, Yan Xin, Jason W Chien, Winnie Weng, Richard Mackman, Sandra A Lewis, Amy Meng, John Ling, Anita Mathias
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of hospitalizations in infants for which no effective treatment exists. RSV infection is also an important cause of respiratory disease in adults and immunocompromised patients. Presatovir (GS-5806) is an orally bioavailable antiviral agent that inhibits fusion of RSV with host cell membranes. Here, results from 2 phase 1 studies that evaluated safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of presatovir in healthy adults following administration of single and multiple (7 days) once- or twice-daily ascending doses (first-in-human study) and in the presence or absence of food (food effect study) are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660819/increase-of-ctgf-mrna-expression-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-is-abrogated-by-caffeine-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#17
Steffen Kunzmann, Christine Krempl, Silvia Seidenspinner, Kirsten Glaser, Christian P Speer, Markus Fehrholz
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Underlying pathomechanisms of elevated pulmonary morbidity in later infancy are largely unknown. We found that RSV-infected H441 cells showed increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key factor in airway remodeling. Additional dexamethasone treatment led to further elevated mRNA levels, indicating additive effects. Caffeine treatment prevented RSV-mediated increase of CTGF mRNA...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660756/use-of-palivizumab-in-germany-report-from-the-german-synagis%C3%A2-registry-2009-2016
#18
Arne Simon, Susanne Gehrmann, Gudrun Wagenpfeil, Stefan Wagenpfeil
BACKGROUND: Following national recommendations, palivizumab is administered in Germany to high-risk infants to prevent hospitalizations related to Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection. METHODS: In this post marketing observational study (German SYNAGIS™ Registry) data on risk factors and the clinical course of children, who received at least one palivizumab injection between 2009-2016 (01 September to June 30) were entered into an internet-based data entry system by the attending physicians after informed consent...
April 16, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659748/burden-etiology-and-risk-factors-of-respiratory-virus-infections-among-symptomatic-preterm-infants-in-the-tropics-a-retrospective-single-center-cohort-study
#19
Kee Thai Yeo, Rowena de la Puerta, Nancy Wen Sim Tee, Koh Cheng Thoon, Victor S Rajadurai, Chee Fu Yung
Background: The burden of respiratory viral infections (RVIs) among preterm infants in the first few years of life, especially those living in the tropics with year-long transmissions of respiratory viruses, remains unknown. We aimed to describe the clinical epidemiology and associated risk factors for RVIs among symptomatic preterm infants ≤32 weeks up to two years of life. Methods: We performed a data linkage analysis of clinical and hospital laboratory databases for preterm infants born at KK Women's & Children's Hospital, Singapore, from 2005 - 2015...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#20
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
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