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Respiratory syncytial virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822646/the-crucial-role-of-maternal-care-providers-as-vaccinators-for-pregnant-women
#1
Maria Luz Vilca, Susanna Esposito
Vaccination during pregnancy is increasingly being recognised internationally a useful means of preventing illness in pregnant women and their newborns. It has been used since the 1960s, when it was found that tetanus vaccine was highly effective in preventing neonatal tetanus, but interest has greatly increased over the last few years. As new data become available showing the numerous benefits of maternal immunisation and its potential for improving maternal and neonatal health in relation to a number of infectious conditions, it is being increasingly incorporated into the national vaccination programmes around the world...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822433/-molecular-biological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-children-with-bronchiolitis
#2
T H Zhang, J Deng, Y Qian, R N Zhu, Y Sun, F Wang, R Tian, L Q Zhao
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus(RSV)bronchiolitis and molecular biological characteristics of RSV in children in Beijing. Method: In a systematic retrospective study, 2 296 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from children diagnosed with bronchiolitis from July 2006 to June 2016 for respiratory virus screening using direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). For specimens positive for RSV, subgroup A or B was confirmed by real time RT-PCR and genotype of RSV was determined by amplifying the full G glycoprotein gene and sequencing...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822432/-clinical-analysis-of-children-with-pertussis-and-significance-of-respiratory-virus-detection-in-the-combined-diagnosis
#3
H Huang, L Deng, F Xiao, J Fu, J Deng, F Wang, J Yang
Objective: To analyze the clinical data of children with pertussis and explore the necessity of respiratory virus detection in the combined diagnosis so as to improve the clinician's understanding and standardize the diagnosis and treatment of pertussis in children. Method: Clinical data and laboratory examination of 195 suspected pertussis children between Jan. 2015 and Dec. 2016 in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatric were analyzed retrospectively. Result: The nasopharyngeal secretions were collected from 195 suspected pertussis children, PCR was employed to detect the nucleic acid of Bordetella pertussis...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819777/qingkailing-injection-for-treatment-of-children-pneumonia-induced-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Shuai He, Wen-Shi Li, Ya-Jun Luo, Chen-Li Ye, Zhong-Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Qingkailing Injection (, QKL) for treatment of children pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing QKL with ribavirin injection in the treatment of children pneumonia induced by RSV were searched in PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Chinese VIP database, CNKI and Wanfang databases from their inception to March 2014. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5...
August 17, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818691/multi-center-evaluation-of-the-cobas-%C3%A2-liat-%C3%A2-influenza-a-b-rsv-assay-for-rapid-point-of-care-diagnosis
#5
Jane Gibson, Elissa M Schechter-Perkins, Patricia Mitchell, Sharon Mace, Yu Tian, Kemi Williams, Robert Luo, Belinda Yen-Lieberman
Point of Care Testing (POCT) provides the capability for rapid laboratory test results in patient care environments where a traditional clinical laboratory is not available. POCTs have shorter turn-around times (TATs), they may be performed by non-laboratory personnel, and the need for transport time is eliminated. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendment (CLIA) waiver status to the cobas(®) Influenza A/B & RSV assay, a rapid, accurate point-of-care test for Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) performed on the Liat(®) System...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818563/-lower-lymphocyte-response-in-severe-cases-of-acute-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#6
José Miguel Ramos-Fernández, David Moreno-Pérez, Cristina Antúnez-Fernández, Guillermo Milano-Manso, Ana María Cordón-Martínez, Antonio Urda-Cardona
INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015...
August 14, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818113/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-entry-is-inhibited-by-serine-protease-inhibitor-aebsf-when-present-during-an-early-stage-of-infection
#7
Winke Van der Gucht, Annelies Leemans, Marjorie De Schryver, Annick Heykers, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
BACKGROUND: Host proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. Therefore, these cellular proteases are putative targets for the development of antivirals that inhibit their activity. Host proteases have been described to play essential roles in Ebola, HCV, HIV and influenza, such that specific protease inhibitors are able to reduce infection. RSV utilizes a host protease in its replication cycle but its potential as antiviral target is unknown...
August 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815644/role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-exacerbated-airway-inflammation-during-reinfection-of-neonatally-primed-mice-in-adulthood
#8
Jianqi Wu, Lei Xu, Xu Han, Haiyan Hu, Feifei Qi, Song Bai, Ruonan Chai, Yuee Teng, Beixing Liu
Age at primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of reinfection. However, how neonatal RSV infection affects the immune system and renders the host more susceptible to reinfection in later life is poorly understood. In the present study, by using BALB/c mice that were first infected with RSV as neonates, the role of γδ T cells in the development of airway inflammation during reinfection in adulthood was investigated. We found that neonatal RSV infection resulted in an aggravated infiltration of mononuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, in parallel with a significant increase in the levels of type 2 cytokines in lungs on day 4 after reinfection...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814240/structure-properties-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-naturally-originated-phenolic-acids-and-their-derivatives-against-human-viral-infections
#9
Yi-Hang Wu, Bing-Yi Zhang, Li-Peng Qiu, Rong-Fa Guan, Zi-Hong Ye, Xiao-Ping Yu
BACKGROUND: A great effort has been made to develop efficacious antiviral drugs, but many viral infections are still lack of efficient antiviral therapies so far. The related exploration of natural products to fight viruses has been raised in recent years. Natural compounds with structural diversity and complexity offer a great chance to find new antiviral agents. Particularly, phenolic acids have attracted considerable attention owing to their potent antiviral abilities and unique mechanisms...
August 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813765/bronchiolitis-in-infants-and-children
#10
Alexandra Schaller, Carl S Galloway
Bronchiolitis is among the most common illnesses in infants and children, and is the most common cause for hospitalization in infants in the U.S. This illness can be caused by many viruses, most commonly respiratory syncytial virus. It is diagnosed clinically by history and physical exam findings, with a narrow role for ancillary testing. Management is supportive, with medications demonstrating limited utility in multiple studies. Preventive measures include hand hygiene, breastfeeding, avoiding tobacco smoke exposure, and isolation precautions for hospitalized patients...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#11
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804787/burden-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-and-potential-effect-of-different-immunisation-strategies-a-modelling-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-for-england
#12
Deborah Cromer, Albert Jan van Hoek, Anthony T Newall, Andrew J Pollard, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Vaccines and prophylactic antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are in development and likely to be available in the next 5-10 years. The most efficient way to use these products when they become available is an important consideration for public health decision makers. METHODS: We performed a multivariate regression analysis to estimate the burden of RSV in children younger than 5 years in England (UK), a representative high-income temperate country, and used these results to assess the potential effect of different RSV immunisation strategies (targeting vaccination for infants, or pregnant women, or prophylactic antibodies for neonates)...
August 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800119/new-insights-contributing-to-the-development-of-effective-vaccines-and-therapies-to-reduce-the-pathology-caused-by-hrsv
#13
REVIEW
Nicolás M S Gálvez, Jorge A Soto, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. Its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. It is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hRSV is due in part to the activity of several viral proteins that modulate the host immune response, enhancing a Th2-like pro-inflammatory state, with the secretion of cytokines that promote the infiltration of immune cells to the lungs, with consequent damage...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797733/propagation-of-respiratory-viruses-in-human-airway-epithelia-reveals-persistent-virus-specific-signatures
#14
Manel Essaidi-Laziosi, Francisco Brito, Sacha Benaoudia, Léna Royston, Valeria Cagno, Mélanie Fernandes-Rocha, Isabelle Piuz, Evgeny Zdobnov, Song Huang, Samuel Constant, Marc-Olivier Boldi, Laurent Kaiser, Caroline Tapparel
BACKGROUND: Leading etiologies of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses typically cause self-limited diseases, though severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses, respiratory enteroviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but due to the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797053/the-epidemiology-of-medically-attended-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-older-adults-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#15
Ann D Colosia, Jin Yang, Eric Hillson, Josephine Mauskopf, Catherine Copley-Merriman, Vivek Shinde, Jeffrey Stoddard
OBJECTIVE: This review was undertaken to assess the historical evidence of the disease incidence and burden of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in medically attended older adults. DESIGN: A qualitative systematic literature review was performed; no statistical synthesis of the data was planned, in anticipation of expected heterogeneity across studies in this population. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was conducted for studies of medically attended RSV in older adults (≥ 50 years) published in the last 15 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794038/in-vitro-enhancement-of-rsv-infection-by-maternal-antibodies-does-not-explain-disease-severity-in-infants
#16
Elisabeth A van Erp, Puck B van Kasteren, Teun Guichelaar, Inge M L Ahout, Cornelis A M de Haan, Willem Luytjes, Gerben Ferwerda, Oliver Wicht
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. At this young age, infants typically depend on maternally transferred antibodies (matAbs) and their innate immune system for protection against infections. RSV-specific matAbs are thought to protect from severe illness, yet severe RSV disease occurs mainly below 6 months of age, when neutralizing matAb levels are present. To investigate this discrepancy, we asked if disease severity is related to antibody properties other than neutralization...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783457/platelets-modulate-innate-immune-response-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-vitro
#17
Vesla I Kullaya, Quirijn de Mast, Andre van der Ven, Hicham elMoussaoui, Gibson Kibiki, Elles Simonetti, Marien I de Jonge, Gerben Ferwerda
Detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in blood, including mononuclear leukocytes and organs other than the lung, suggests that RSV disseminates outside the respiratory tract. In this study, the role of platelets in host defense against RSV was explored using an in vitro model. Platelets, also produced in the lungs, are increasingly recognized as an important part of host immune responses and may therefore play a role in modulating lung infections and clearing RSV viremia. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), platelets significantly reduced RSV infection of monocytes, monocyte activation, and interferon (IFN)α/γ production...
August 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783400/is-immunoprophylaxis-with-palivizumab-justified-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
Siba P Paul, Georgina M Ball
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783078/respiratory-syncytial-virus-the-influence-of-serotype-and-genotype-variability-on-clinical-course-of-infection
#19
REVIEW
Silvia Vandini, Carlotta Biagi, Marcello Lanari
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the recently defined Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. It is the leading cause of acute bronchiolitis and one of the most common causes of infant viral death worldwide, with infection typically occurring as recurrent seasonal epidemics. There are two major RSV subtypes, A and B, and multiple genotypes, which can coexist during RSV epidemic season every year and result in different disease severity. Recently, new RSV genomic sequences and analysis of RSV genotypes have provided important data for understanding RSV pathogenesis...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780505/local-dornase-alfa-treatment-reduces-nets-induced-airway-obstruction-during-severe-rsv-infection
#20
Bart Cortjens, Rineke de Jong, Judith G Bonsing, Job B M van Woensel, Adriaan F G Antonis, Reinout A Bem
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is characterised by airway obstruction with mucus plugs, containing DNA networks in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We investigated the effect of dornase alfa on histopathological NETs-induced airway obstruction and viral load in an age-relevant calf model of severe bovine RSV disease. As compared with the control animals, dornase alfa treatment resulted in a strong reduction of NETs-induced airway obstruction. Viral load in the lower respiratory tract was not different between the two groups...
August 5, 2017: Thorax
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