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Respiratory syncytial virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449938/molecular-characteristics-and-successful-management-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreak-among-pediatric-patients-with-hemato-oncological-disease
#1
Claas Baier, Sibylle Haid, Andreas Beilken, Astrid Behnert, Martin Wetzke, Richard J P Brown, Corinna Schmitt, Ella Ebadi, Gesine Hansen, Thomas F Schulz, Thomas Pietschmann, Franz-Christoph Bange
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infection in adults and children. Especially immunocompromised patients are at high risk for a severe course of infection, and mortality is increased. Moreover RSV can spread in healthcare settings and can cause outbreaks. Herein we demonstrate the successful control and characteristics of a RSV outbreak that included 8 patients in our Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Methods: We performed an epidemiologic investigation and a molecular analysis of the outbreak strains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449407/complete-genome-sequences-of-five-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-isolates-collected-in-brazil
#2
Nicholas Di Paola, Marielton Dos Passos Cunha, Giuliana Stravinskas Durigon, Eitan Naaman Berezin, Edison Durigon, Danielle Bruna Leal de Oliveira, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto
Here, we present the complete genome sequences of five human respiratory syncytial virus isolates collected from hospitalized infants suffering from acute respiratory disease. These are the first five complete genome sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus to originate from Brazil.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447989/aetiology-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-prospective-study-in-11-european-countries
#3
Margareta Ieven, Samuel Coenen, Katherine Loens, Christine Lammens, Frank Coenjaerts, Anouk Vanderstraeten, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Derrick Crook, Kris Huygen, Chris C Butler, Theo Jm Verheij, Paul Little, Kalina Zlateva, Anton van Loon, Eric Cj Claas, Herman Goossens
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of bacteria (including bacterial resistance), viruses (including those recently described), and mixed bacterial-viral infections in adults presenting to primary care with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: We enrolled 3104 adults with LRTI, 141 (4.5%) of whom had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and 2985 matched controls in a prospective study in 16 primary care networks in Europe, and followed patients up at 28-35 days...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447395/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-coronavirus-infection-in-children-the-role-of-viral-factors-and-an-immunocompromised-state
#4
Chikara Ogimi, Janet A Englund, Miranda C Bradford, Xuan Qin, Michael Boeckh, Alpana Waghmare
Background: Immunocompromised children might be predisposed to serious infections from human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including strains OC43, NL63, HKU1, and 229E; however, the virologic and clinical features of HCoV infection in immunocompromised children have not been compared to those in nonimmunocompromised children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of children who presented to Seattle Children's Hospital and in whom HCoV was detected by a multiplex respiratory polymerase chain reaction assay of a nasal sample between October 2012 and March 2016...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447284/influenza-interaction-with-cocirculating-pathogens-and-its-impact-on-surveillance-pathogenesis-and-epidemic-profile-a-key-role-for-mathematical-modelling
#5
REVIEW
Lulla Opatowski, Marc Baguelin, Rosalind M Eggo
Evidence is mounting that influenza virus interacts with other pathogens colonising or infecting the human respiratory tract. Taking into account interactions with other pathogens may be critical to determining the real influenza burden and the full impact of public health policies targeting influenza. This is particularly true for mathematical modelling studies, which have become critical in public health decision-making. Yet models usually focus on influenza virus acquisition and infection alone, thereby making broad oversimplifications of pathogen ecology...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445364/non-specific-effect-of-vaccines-immediate-protection-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-by-a-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine
#6
Young J Lee, Jeong Y Lee, Yo H Jang, Sang-Uk Seo, Jun Chang, Baik L Seong
The non-specific effects (NSEs) of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV) induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445124/efficacy-of-mucosal-polyanhydride-nanovaccine-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-the-neonatal-calf
#7
Jodi L McGill, Sean M Kelly, Pankaj Kumar, Savannah Speckhart, Shannon L Haughney, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E Sacco
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is closely related to HRSV and a significant cause of morbidity in young cattle. BRSV infection in calves displays many similarities to RSV infection in humans, including similar age dependency and disease pathogenesis. Polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have shown promise as adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles due to their ability to promote enhanced immunogenicity through the route of administration, provide sustained antigen exposure, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444701/a-case-series-on-common-cold-to-severe-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-children-following-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-sri-lanka
#8
J A A S Jayaweera, F Noordeen, S Kothalaweala, F N N Pitchai, M L M Rayes
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hMPV infections in Sri Lanka has not been reported and here we report a case series of hMPV infection in children less than 5 years. Patients with ARTI were included from Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura from March 2013 to August 2014. Indirect fluorescence assay was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates for the identification of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B and hMPV]. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to further confirm the hMPV infection...
February 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444614/in-vitro-anti-influenza-virus-effect-of-total-flavonoid-from-trollius-ledebouri-reichb
#9
Yongping Liu, Jiming Tong, Ying Tong, Ping Li, Xiaolan Cui, Hongbao Cao
Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Comprehensive molecular pathway analyses of TFTLR-H1N1 and TFTLR-H3N2 relationships were also conducted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439869/immunization-with-an-adjuvanted-low-energy-electron-irradiation-inactivated-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-shows-immunoprotective-activity-in-mice
#10
Lea Bayer, Jasmin Fertey, Sebastian Ulbert, Thomas Grunwald
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and the elderly. In spite of the great need for a vaccine against RSV, currently there is no licensed product on the market. A very early vaccine candidate developed in the 1960s based on formaldehyde inactivation (FI) turned out to instead enhance the disease. Our novel inactivation method applied low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) to produce a killed RSV vaccine. LEEI yielded inactivated virus particles with a reproducible virus antigen conservation above 70%, while FI resulted in highly variable antigen conservation...
February 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436781/rsv-prophylaxis-guideline-changes-and-outcomes-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#11
Adam S Walpert, Ian D Thomas, Merlin C Lowe, Michael D Seckeler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare inpatient outcomes and costs for children with respiratory syncytial virus and congenital heart disease before and after the change in management guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis. DESIGN: Hospital discharge data from the Vizient (formerly University HealthSystem Consortium) were queried from October 2012 to June 2014 (Era 1) and July 2014 to April 2016 (Era 2) for patients aged <24 months with an any International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for congenital heart disease (745-747...
February 13, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433478/case-report-of-severe-myocarditis-in-an-immunocompromised-child-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#12
Hiroki Miura, Fumihiko Hattori, Hidetoshi Uchida, Tadayoshi Hata, Kazuko Kudo, Masatoki Sato, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is common and may be severe among patients with preexisting cardiac anomalies, but direct involvement of myocardial damage is not common in those patients. Additionally, myocardial involvement has been rarely described among immune compromised children. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received maintenance chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
February 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430194/effectiveness-of-palivizumab-immunoprophylaxis-in-preterm-infants-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-in-qatar
#13
Ahmad Abushahin, Ibrahim Janahi, Amjad Tuffaha
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document the hospitalization rate due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compliance with palivizumab use in preterm infants receiving palivizumab immunoprophylaxis during 2009-2012 RSV seasons. Design: This is a descriptive single-center cohort study. Infants who were ≤35-week gestational age were eligible for enrollment if they received the first palivizumab dose between November 1 and March 31 (2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012)...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427996/respiratory-syncytial-virus-prolifically-infects-n2a-neuronal-cells-leading-to-tlr4-and-nucleolin-protein-modulations-and-rsv-f-protein-co-localization-with-tlr4-and-nucleolin
#14
Xiaoling Yuan, Tao Hu, Hanwen He, Huan Qiu, Xuan Wu, Jingxian Chen, Minmin Wang, Cheng Chen, Shenghai Huang
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the central nervous system, resulting in neurological symptoms. However, the precise underlying pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated. In the present study, the infectivity of RSV on N2a neuronal cells and the possible roles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nucleolin (C23) during RSV infection were investigated. METHODS: We compared two experimental groups (infected and non-infected) and monitored the RSV viral titers in the culture supernatant by a viral plaque assay...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427763/global-distribution-of-na1-genotype-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-its-evolutionary-dynamics-assessed-from-the-past-11%C3%A2-years
#15
Md Shakir Hussain Haider, Farah Deeba, Wajihul Hasan Khan, Irshad H Naqvi, Sher Ali, Anwar Ahmed, Shobha Broor, Hytham A Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M Alsenaidy, Shama Parveen
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potent pathogen having global distribution. The main purpose of this study was to gain an insight into distribution pattern of the NA1 genotype of group A RSV across the globe together with its evolutionary dynamics. We focused on the second hypervariable region of the G protein gene and used the same for Phylogenetic, Bayesian and Network analyses. Eighteen percent of the samples collected from 500 symptomatic pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) were found to be positive for RSV during 2011-15 from New Delhi, India...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427413/tgf-%C3%AE-1-suppresses-the-type-i-ifn-response-and-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alveolar-macrophages
#16
Jocelyn R Grunwell, Samantha M Yeligar, Susan Stephenson, Xiao Du Ping, Theresa W Gauthier, Anne M Fitzpatrick, Lou Ann S Brown
TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with an established role in fibrosis; however, the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-β1 are less characterized. Elevated levels of TGF-β1 are found in patients with acute and chronic lung diseases, and the underlying disease processes are exacerbated by respiratory viral infections. The alveolar macrophage is the first line of cellular defense against respiratory viral infections, and its response to infections is dependent on environmental cues. Using the mouse alveolar macrophage line, MH-S, and human CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages, we examined the effects of TGF-β1 on the type I IFN antiviral response, macrophage polarization, and mitochondrial bioenergetics following a challenge with human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426407/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-selected-respiratory-and-reproductive-tract-pathogen-exposure-in-european-bison-bison-bonasus-in-poland
#17
Michał K Krzysiak, Artur Jabłoński, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Magdalena Larska
After the complete extinction from the wild of European bison (Bison bonasus) at the beginning of the twentieth century, the worldwide species population was restored to approximately 5500 individuals, with the species however remaining endangered. Despite numerous studies on the ecology and genetics of European bison, the threats of infectious diseases have been largely unexamined. The aim of this study was to screen the exposure of the world's largest population of European bison to the pathogens, which may influence the condition and development of the endangered species...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422011/comparison-of-the-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-infections-at-different-hospital-settings-in-north-china-2012-2015
#18
Jianxing Yu, Zhengde Xie, Tiegang Zhang, Yanqin Lu, Hongwei Fan, Donghong Yang, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems, Kunling Shen, Fang Huang, Jinxiang Han, Taisheng Li, Zhancheng Gao, Lili Ren, Jianwei Wang
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. METHODS: Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays...
February 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420667/a-comparison-of-rsv-and-influenza-in-vitro-kinetic-parameters-reveals-differences-in-infecting-time
#19
Gilberto Gonzàlez-Parra, Filip De Ridder, Dymphy Huntjens, Dirk Roymans, Gabriela Ispas, Hana M Dobrovolny
Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause acute infections of the respiratory tract. Since the viruses both cause illnesses with similar symptoms, researchers often try to apply knowledge gleaned from study of one virus to the other virus. This can be an effective and efficient strategy for understanding viral dynamics or developing treatment strategies, but only if we have a full understanding of the similarities and differences between the two viruses. This study used mathematical modeling to quantitatively compare the viral kinetics of in vitro RSV and influenza virus infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414675/cooperative-rna-recognition-by-a-viral-transcription-antiterminator
#20
Ivana G Molina, Sebastian A Esperante, Cristina Marino-Buslje, Lucía B Chemes, Gonzalo de Prat-Gay
RNA transcription of mononegavirales decreases gradually from the 3' leader promoter towards the 5' end of the genome, due to a decay in polymerase processivity. In the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and metapneumovirus, the M2-1 protein ensures transcription anti-termination. Despite being a homotetramer, RSV M2-1 binds two molecules of RNA of 13mer or longer per tetramer, and temperature sensitive secondary structure in the RNA ligand is unfolded by stoichiometric interaction with M2-1. Fine quantitative analysis shows positive cooperativity, indicative of conformational asymmetry in the tetramer...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
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