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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212963/clinician-reported-outcome-assessments-of-treatment-benefit-report-of-the-ispor-clinical-outcome-assessment-emerging-good-practices-task-force
#1
John H Powers, Donald L Patrick, Marc K Walton, Patrick Marquis, Stefan Cano, Jeremy Hobart, Maria Isaac, Spiros Vamvakas, Ashley Slagle, Elizabeth Molsen, Laurie B Burke
A clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) assessment is a type of clinical outcome assessment (COA). ClinRO assessments, like all COAs (patient-reported, observer-reported, or performance outcome assessments), are used to 1) measure patients' health status and 2) define end points that can be interpreted as treatment benefits of medical interventions on how patients feel, function, or survive in clinical trials. Like other COAs, ClinRO assessments can be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. A ClinRO assessment is conducted and reported by a trained health care professional and requires specialized professional training to evaluate the patient's health status...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210957/forced-treadmill-exercise-prevents-spatial-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats-probably-through-the-activation-of-na-k-atpase-in-the-hippocampus
#2
Cláudia Vanzella, Eduardo Farias Sanches, Felipe Kawa Odorcyk, Fabrício Nicola, Janaína Kolling, Aline Longoni, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Angela Terezinha de Souza Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210348/game-performance-and-length-of-rally-in-professional-padel-players
#3
Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez, Jerónimo Cañas
The purpose of this study was to analyse differences in rally length considering attack effectiveness, a players' location and a game outcome in professional padel players. A total of 1527 rallies from 10 male matches of the 2013 Masters Finals of the World Padel Tour were registered through systematic observation. Data treatment included non-parametric mean comparisons (Mann-Withney and Kruskal-Wallis tests), and association analyses (crosstabs and Chi square analysis). In overall, 40% of unforced errors were made within the first 4 s of the rally, over 50% of points were scored between the 5th and 11th s, and 30% of forced errors occurred after the 11th -s of the rally...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#4
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209802/doublet-stimulation-increases-ca-2-binding-to-troponin-c-to-ensure-rapid-force-development-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
Anthony J Bakker, Tanya R Cully, Catherine D Wingate, Christopher J Barclay, Bradley S Launikonis
Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers are often exposed to motor neuron double discharges (≥200 Hz), which markedly increase both the rate of contraction and the magnitude of the resulting force responses. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood, likely because of technical limitations in previous studies. In this study, we measured cytosolic Ca(2+) during doublet activation using the low-affinity indicator Mag-Fluo-4 at high temporal resolution and modeled the effects of doublet stimulation on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, binding of Ca(2+) to cytosolic buffers, and force enhancement in fast-twitch fibers...
February 16, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207576/relationship-between-peripheral-and-psychophysical-measures-of-amplitude-modulation-detection-in-cochlear-implant-users
#6
Viral D Tejani, Paul J Abbas, Carolyn J Brown
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex...
February 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203537/robotic-cardiac-surgery-in-brazil
#7
Robinson Poffo, Alisson P Toschi, Renato B Pope, Paola K Montanhesi, Ricardo S Santos, Alexandre Teruya, Dina M Hatanaka, Gabriel F Rusca, Claudio H Fischer, Marcelo C Vieira, Marcia R Makdisse
BACKGROUND: Brazil, the largest country and economy in South America, is a major driving force behind the development of new medical technologies in the region. Robotic cardiac surgery (RCS) has been evolving rapidly since 2010, when the first surgery using the DaVinci(®) robotic system was performed in Latin America. The aim of this article is to evaluate short and mid-term results in patients undergoing robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil. METHODS: From March 2010 to December 2015, 39 consecutive patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203220/proof-of-concept-of-an-online-emg-based-decoding-of-hand-postures-and-individual-digit-forces-for-prosthetic-hand-control
#8
Alycia Gailey, Panagiotis Artemiadis, Marco Santello
INTRODUCTION: Options currently available to individuals with upper limb loss range from prosthetic hands that can perform many movements, but require more cognitive effort to control, to simpler terminal devices with limited functional abilities. We attempted to address this issue by designing a myoelectric control system to modulate prosthetic hand posture and digit force distribution. METHODS: We recorded surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from five forearm muscles in eight able-bodied subjects while they modulated hand posture and the flexion force distribution of individual fingers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198601/the-effect-of-high-speed-strength-training-with-heavy-and-low-workloads-on-neuromuscular-function-and-maximal-concentric-quadriceps-strength
#9
Ali A Mazani, Mohamed R Hamdinia, Amir H Haghigi, Nosratollah Hedayatpour
BACKGROUND: Dynamic strength training has been widely used to increase the ability of skeletal muscle to produce muscle force. Manipulating resistance training program variables has been commonly used as a tool to optimize maximum strength. This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of high-speed strength training with low and heavy workloads on muscle strength and neuromuscular function of quadriceps muscle. METHODS: Thirty male subjects (age, mean ± SD, 20.6 ± 2...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197674/role-of-vision-in-sighted-and-blind-soccer-players-in-adapting-to-an-unstable-balance-task
#10
María Campayo-Piernas, Carla Caballero, David Barbado, Raúl Reina
This study tested whether a compensatory hypothesis exists on postural control during standing unstable balance tasks comparing blind soccer players (n = 7) to sighted soccer players (n = 15) and sighted sedentary individuals (n = 6). All subjects performed a pre-test, a training of ten practice trials on a single day, and a post-test balance test. All tests were performed on an unstable surface placed on a force platform and under closed-eyes conditions, and a final test was performed with open eyes...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197083/balb-c-mice-can-learn-touchscreen-visual-discrimination-and-reversal-tasks-faster-than-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Karly M Turner, Christopher G Simpson, Thomas H J Burne
Touchscreen technology is increasingly being used to characterize cognitive performance in rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers are attracted to the automated system and translational potential for touchscreen-based tasks. However, training time is extensive and some mouse strains have struggled to learn touchscreen tasks. Here we compared the performance of commonly used C57BL/6 mice against the BALB/c mice, which are considered a poor performing strain, using a touchscreen task. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were trained to operate the touchscreens before learning a visual discrimination (VD) and reversal task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195975/the-high-bar-and-low-bar-back-squats-a-biomechanical-analysis
#12
Daniel J Glassbrook, Scott R Brown, Eric R Helms, J Scott Duncan, Adam G Storey
No prior study has compared the joint angle and ground reaction force (Fv) differences between the high-bar back-squat (HBBS) and low-bar back-squat (LBBS) above 90% 1RM. Six male powerlifters (height: 179.2 ± 7.8 cm; bodyweight: 87.1 ± 8.0 kg; age: 27.3 ± 4.2 years) of international level, six male Olympic weightlifters (height: 176.7 ± 7.7 cm; bodyweight: 83.1 ± 13 kg; age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years) of national level, and six recreationally trained male athletes (height: 181.9 ± 8.7 cm; bodyweight: 87.9 ± 15...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194084/civil-construction-work-the-unseen-contributor-to-the-occupational-and-global-disease-burden
#13
R Sitalakshmi, P Saikumar, P Jeyachandran, Manoharan, Thangavel, Jayakar Thomas
BACKGROUND: Construction industry is the second largest employment giving industry in India with many semi-skilled or unskilled workers taking up the occupation for livelihood without any training and proper guidance. AIM: To evaluate the pathogenic association of cement exposure to occupational contact dermatoses as evidenced by immune markers and to correlate their pulmonary functions with years of exposure to cement. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among randomly selected cement workers...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193999/human-skeletal-muscle-plasmalemma-alters-its-structure-to-change-its-ca-2-handling-following-heavy-load-resistance-exercise
#14
Tanya R Cully, Robyn M Murphy, Llion Roberts, Truls Raastad, Robert G Fassett, Jeff S Coombes, Isuru D Jayasinghe, Bradley S Launikonis
High-force eccentric exercise results in sustained increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]cyto), which can cause damage to the muscle. Here we report that a heavy-load strength training bout greatly alters the structure of the membrane network inside the fibres, the tubular (t-) system, causing the loss of its predominantly transverse organization and an increase in vacuolation of its longitudinal tubules across adjacent sarcomeres. The transverse tubules and vacuoles displayed distinct Ca(2+)-handling properties...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188199/back-to-the-future-revisiting-the-physiological-cost-of-negative-work-as-a-team-based-activity-for-exercise-physiology-students
#15
Matthew A Kilgas, Steven J Elmer
We implemented a team-based activity in our exercise physiology teaching laboratory that was inspired from Abbott et al.'s classic 1952 Journal of Physiology paper titled "The physiological cost of negative work." Abbott et al. connected two bicycles via one chain. One person cycled forward (muscle shortening contractions, positive work) while the other resisted the reverse moving pedals (muscle lengthening contractions, negative work), and the cost of work was compared. This study was the first to link human whole body energetics with isolated muscle force-velocity characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188061/evidence-based-guides-in-tracheostomy-use-in-critical-patients
#16
N Raimondi, M R Vial, J Calleja, A Quintero, A Cortés Alban, E Celis, C Pacheco, S Ugarte, J M Añón, G Hernández, E Vidal, G Chiappero, F Ríos, F Castilleja, A Matos, E Rodriguez, P Antoniazzi, J M Teles, C Dueñas, J Sinclair, L Martínez, I Von der Osten, J Vergara, E Jiménez, M Arroyo, C Rodriguez, J Torres, S Fernandez-Bussy, J L Nates
OBJECTIVES: Provide evidence based guidelines for tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients and identify areas needing further research. METHODS: A task force composed of representatives of 10 member countries of the Pan-American and Iberic Federation of Societies of Critical and Intensive Therapy Medicine and of the Latin American Critical Care Trial Investigators Network developed recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system...
February 7, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185975/effect-of-geopolitical-forces-on-neurosurgical-training-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Kara E Dempsey, Mahmood M Qureshi, Solomon M Ondoma, Robert J Dempsey
BACKGROUND: The population of Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a critical shortage and maldistribution of healthcare professionals, especially highlighted in surgical subspecialties such as neurosurgery. In light of the Lancet Report and the World Health Organization's directive to provide essential surgical care through the developing world, solutions need to be found to close this training and distribution gap. METHODS: Methods correcting the situation will only succeed if one understands the geopolitical forces which have shaped the distribution of healthcare in the region and continue to this day...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183410/politics-and-graduate-medical-education-in-internal-medicine-a-dynamic-landscape
#18
Richard M Wardrop, Lee R Berkowitz
The promotion of change and growth within medical education is oftentimes the result of a complex mix of societal, cultural and economic forces. Graduate medical education in internal medicine is not immune to these forces. Several entities and organizations can be identified as having a major influence on internal medicine training and graduate medical education as a whole. We have reviewed how this is effectively accomplished through these entities and organizations. The result is a constantly changing and dynamic landscape for internal medicine training...
February 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182500/validity-of-various-methods-for-determining-velocity-force-and-power-in-the-back-squat
#19
Harry G Banyard, Ken Nosaka, Kimitake Sato, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: This investigation examined the validity of two kinematic systems for assessing mean velocity (MV), peak velocity (PV), mean force (MF), peak force (PF), mean power (MP), and peak power (PP) during the full depth free-weight back squat performed with maximal concentric effort. METHODS: Ten strength-trained men (26.1±3.0 y; 1.81±0.07 m; 82.0±10.6 kg) performed three 1-repetition maximum (1RM) trials on three separate days, encompassing lifts performed at six relative intensities including 20, 40, 60, 80, 90, and 100% of 1RM...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181002/objective-assessment-of-endovascular-navigation-skills-with-force-sensing
#20
Hedyeh Rafii-Tari, Christopher J Payne, Colin Bicknell, Ka-Wai Kwok, Nicholas J W Cheshire, Celia Riga, Guang-Zhong Yang
Despite the increasing popularity of endovascular intervention in clinical practice, there remains a lack of objective and quantitative metrics for skill evaluation of endovascular techniques. Data relating to the forces exerted during endovascular procedures and the behavioral patterns of endovascular clinicians is currently limited. This research proposes two platforms for measuring tool forces applied by operators and contact forces resulting from catheter-tissue interactions, as a means of providing accurate, objective metrics of operator skill within a realistic simulation environment...
February 8, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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