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Fetal lung mature

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188034/follistatin-like-1-expression-is-decreased-in-the-alveolar-epithelium-of-hypoplastic-rat-lungs-with-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#1
Toshiaki Takahashi, Julia Zimmer, Florian Friedmacher, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), characterized by incomplete alveolar development, remains a major therapeutic challenge associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a crucial regulator of alveolar formation and maturation, which is strongly expressed in distal airway epithelium. Fstl1-deficient mice exhibit reduced airspaces, impaired alveolar epithelial cell differentiation, and insufficient production of surfactant proteins similar to PH in human CDH...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178756/the-effect-of-freezing-amniotic-fluid-on-lamellar-body-count-fetal-lung-maturity-testing
#2
Sarah Carroll, Craig V Towers, Lynlee Wolfe, Lisa Duncan, Beth Weitz, Stephanie Porter
A short freeze-thaw process had little effect on the reliability of a mature lamellar body count test result. When evaluating fetal lung maturity, many laboratories analyze amniotic fluid to test the lamellar body count (LBC). In clinical practice, amniotic fluid is sometimes inadvertently placed on dry ice during transport and the sample can become frozen. To the best of our knowledge, no study has analyzed whether this short freeze-thaw process affects LBC test results. Several studies have evaluated the effect of freezing amniotic fluid on LBC test results; however, the samples have been frozen in a freezer over a long duration that would not occur inadvertently in a clinical setting [1-3]...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170341/the-effects-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-on-fetal-and-neonatal-skin-maturation
#3
Deanne August, Yogavijayan Kandasamy
AIMS: The use of antenatal glucocorticoids in women with preterm labor has dramatically improved outcomes for premature infants. The most commonly used antenatal glucocorticoids are betamethasone and dexamethasone. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung growth by several mechanisms, including the maturation of type II pneumocytes enabling surfactant production. Furthermore, the lipids in the lung share similarity with those in the skin. Therefore, antenatal administration of glucocorticoids may have effects on the structure and function of the developing epidermal barrier in fetuses and neonates...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152282/human-fetal-lung-morphometry-at-autopsy-with-new-modeling-to-quantitate-structural-maturity
#4
Jill Lipsett
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a simplified morphometric procedure, including a new model for acinar structural maturity, applicable to autopsy fetal lung and present reference values for these parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Cases with autopsy consent for research were studied. To simplify analysis only critical morphometric parameters were measured to allow calculation of gas-exchange surface area. SUBJECT SELECTION: A total of 58 fetuses, 16-40 weeks were included...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152192/effects-of-tracheal-occlusion-with-retinoic-acid-administration-on-normal-lung-development
#5
Delabaere Amélie, Marceau Geoffroy, Coste Karen, Blanchon Loïc, Déchelotte Pierre Jean, Blanc Pierre, Sapin Vincent, Gallot Denis
INTRODUCTION: Tracheal occlusion (TO) is an investigational therapy for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) that decreases pulmonary hypoplasia, but sustained TO also induces deficient surfactant synthesis. Intramuscular maternal administration of retinoic acid (RA) in a surgical rabbit model of CDH showed a beneficial effect on lung maturation. We evaluated the potential of RA delivery into the trachea and studied the combined effects of TO and RA on normal lung development...
February 2, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#6
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978593/fetal-neurosonogaphy-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-competition
#7
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918476/antenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-in-preterm-infants-is-associated-with-allergic-diseases-and-the-mental-development-index-in-children
#8
Wan-Ning Tseng, Chih-Cheng Chen, Hong-Ren Yu, Li-Tung Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo
Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861467/antenatal-dexamethasone-vs-betamethasone-dosing-for-lung-maturation-in-fetal-sheep
#9
Augusto F Schmidt, Matthew W Kemp, Paranthaman S Kannan, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Suhas G Kallapur, Alan H Jobe
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone-phosphate (Dex-PO4) and the combination betamethasone-phosphate (Beta-PO4) + betamethasone-acetate (Beta-Ac) are the most used antenatal corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturation. We compared fetal lung maturation induced by Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4, or Beta-PO4 alone. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received two intramuscular doses 24 h apart of 0.25 mg/kg/dose of Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4 or Beta-PO4; or 2 doses of 0.125 mg/kg/dose of Beta-PO4 at 6, 12, or 24 h intervals...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818799/retracted-antenatal-steroid-therapy-for-fetal-lung-maturation-and-the-subsequent-risk-of-childhood-asthma-a-longitudinal-analysis
#10
Journal Of Pregnancy
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2010/789748.].
2016: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799556/precise-gene-editing-paves-the-way-for-derivation-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-leukotoxin-resistant-cattle
#11
Sudarvili Shanthalingam, Ahmed Tibary, Jonathan E Beever, Poothapillai Kasinathan, Wendy C Brown, Subramaniam Srikumaran
Signal peptides of membrane proteins are cleaved by signal peptidase once the nascent proteins reach the endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we reported that, contrary to the paradigm, the signal peptide of ruminant CD18, the β subunit of β2 integrins, is not cleaved and hence remains intact on mature CD18 molecules expressed on the surface of ruminant leukocytes. Leukotoxin secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica binds to the intact signal peptide and causes cytolysis of ruminant leukocytes, resulting in acute inflammation and lung tissue damage...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764015/progesterone-as-a-tocolytic-agent-for-preterm-labor-a-systematic-review
#12
Reshama Navathe, Vincenzo Berghella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tocolytic agents have been used for over 60 years in the fight against preterm labor, which ultimately can lead to preterm birth. Currently, clinicians can choose from a variety of drug classes to achieve the primary goal of delaying delivery by 48 h, thereby allowing time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity, and if appropriate, starting magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. However, there are currently no known therapies to maintain the tocolytic effect beyond those initial 48 h...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758872/alveolar-macrophage-development-in-mice-requires-l-plastin-for-cellular-localization-in-alveoli
#13
Elizabeth M Todd, Julie Y Zhou, Taylor P Szasz, Lauren E Deady, June A D'Angelo, Matthew D Cheung, Alfred H J Kim, Sharon Celeste Morley
Alveolar macrophages are lung-resident sentinel cells that develop perinatally and protect against pulmonary infection. Molecular mechanisms controlling alveolar macrophage generation have not been fully defined. Here, we show that the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) is required for the perinatal development of alveolar macrophages. Mice expressing a conditional allele of LPL (CD11c.Cre(pos)-LPL(fl/fl)) exhibited significant reductions in alveolar macrophages and failed to effectively clear pulmonary pneumococcal infection, showing that immunodeficiency results from reduced alveolar macrophage numbers...
December 15, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745655/bisphenol-a-exposure-alters-release-of-immune-and-developmental-modulators-and-expression-of-estrogen-receptors-in-human-fetal-lung-fibroblasts
#14
Laziyan Mahemuti, Qixuan Chen, Melanie C Coughlan, Min Zhang, Maria Florian, Ryan J Mailloux, Xu-Liang Cao, Kylie A Scoggan, William G Willmore, Xiaolei Jin
Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to exert biological effects through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may increase the risk of childhood asthma. To investigate the underlying mechanisms in the actions of BPA, human fetal lung fibroblasts (hFLFs) were exposed to varying doses of BPA in culture for 24hr. Effects of BPA on localization and uptake of BPA, cell viability, release of immune and developmental modulators, cellular localization and expression of ERα, ERβ and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30), and effects of ERs antagonists on BPA-induced changes in endothelin-1 (ET-1) release were examined...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692868/chronic-hypoxaemia-as-a-molecular-regulator-of-fetal-lung-development-implications-for-risk-of-respiratory-complications-at-birth
#15
REVIEW
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Exposure to altered intrauterine conditions during pregnancy influences both fetal growth and organ development. Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that may influence the risk of infants experiencing respiratory complications at birth. There are a variety of signalling pathways that contribute to normal fetal lung development at the molecular level. The specific molecular effects of chronic hypoxaemia associated with IUGR on lung development are likely to be dependent on the specific aetiology (maternal, placental and/or fetal factors) that can alter hormone concentrations, oxygen and nutrient transport to the fetus...
August 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677847/a-bioengineered-niche-promotes-in-vivo-engraftment-and-maturation-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-human-lung-organoids
#16
Briana R Dye, Priya H Dedhia, Alyssa J Miller, Melinda S Nagy, Eric S White, Lonnie D Shea, Jason R Spence
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derived tissues often remain developmentally immature in vitro, and become more adult-like in their structure, cellular diversity and function following transplantation into immunocompromised mice. Previously we have demonstrated that hPSC-derived human lung organoids (HLOs) resembled human fetal lung tissue in vitro (Dye et al., 2015). Here we show that HLOs required a bioartificial microporous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffold niche for successful engraftment, long-term survival, and maturation of lung epithelium in vivo...
September 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665512/diabetes-in-pregnancy-and-lung-health-in-offspring-developmental-origins-of-respiratory-disease
#17
REVIEW
M B Azad, B L Moyce, L Guillemette, C D Pascoe, B Wicklow, J M McGavock, A J Halayko, V W Dolinsky
Diabetes is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy. In parallel with this trend, a rise in chronic lung disease in children has been observed in recent decades. While several adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to diabetes in utero have been documented in epidemiological and experimental studies, few have examined the impact of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring lung health and respiratory disease. We provide a comprehensive overview of current literature on this topic, finding suggestive evidence that exposure to diabetes in utero may have adverse effects on lung development...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659865/preeclampsia-short-and-long-term-consequences-for-mother-and-neonate
#18
REVIEW
Anouk Bokslag, Mirjam van Weissenbruch, Ben Willem Mol, Christianne J M de Groot
Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy specific disease, that presents with hypertension and a variety of organ failures, including malfunction of kidneys, liver and lungs. At present, the only definitive treatment of preeclampsia is end the pregnancy and deliver the neonate and placenta. For women with mild preeclampsia in the preterm phase of pregnancy, expectant management is generally indicated to improve fetal maturity, often requiring maternal medical treatment. Last decades, more evidence is available that the underlying mechanism of preeclampsia, endothelial disease, is not limited to pregnancy but increases cardiovascular risk in later life...
November 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651617/role-of-l-arginine-in-oligohydramnios
#19
Anita Soni, Seeru Garg, Khushboo Patel, Zarna Patel
BACKGROUND: Oligohydramnios is a known obstetric complication which is associated with operative interferences and perinatal morbidity and mortality. l-arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide and may play a role in local vasodilatation. Administration of l-arginine has been suggested to improve amniotic fluid index (AFI) in oligohydramnios. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of l-arginine in optimizing fetal outcome in cases of oligohydramnios. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at Dr L H Hiranandani hospital consisting of 100 antenatal patients diagnosed with oligohydramnios [AFI < 8 cm] remote from term...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636897/antenatal-corticosteroids-and-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-adolescents-born-preterm
#20
Andrew M South, Patricia A Nixon, Mark C Chappell, Debra I Diz, Gregory B Russell, Beverly M Snively, Hossam A Shaltout, James C Rose, T Michael O'Shea, Lisa K Washburn
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroid (ANCS) treatment hastens fetal lung maturity and improves survival of premature infants, but the long-term effects of ANCS are not well-described. Animal models suggest that ANCS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through programmed changes in the renin-angiotensin (Ang)-aldosterone system (RAAS). We hypothesized that ANCS exposure alters the RAAS in adolescents born prematurely. METHODS: A cohort of 173 adolescents born prematurely was evaluated, of whom 92 were exposed to ANCS...
January 2017: Pediatric Research
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