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Lichenized fungi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993960/effect-of-environmental-parameters-on-biodiversity-of-the-fungal-component-in-lithic-antarctic-communities
#1
Laura Selbmann, Silvano Onofri, Claudia Coleine, Pietro Buzzini, Fabiana Canini, Laura Zucconi
A wide sampling of rocks, colonized by microbial epi-endolithic communities, was performed along an altitudinal gradient from sea level to 3600 m asl and sea distance from the coast to 100 km inland along the Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica. Seventy-two rock samples of different typology, representative of the entire survey, were selected and studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to compare variation in fungal diversity according to environmental conditions along this altitudinal and sea distance transect...
October 9, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983096/chlorinated-emodin-as-a-natural-antibacterial-agent-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-through-dual-influence-on-bacterial-cell-membranes-and-dna
#2
Feixia Duan, Guang Xin, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
The rise in infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of effective medicines requires the discovery of new antibacterial agents. Naturally chlorinated emodin 1,3,8-trihydroxy-4-chloro-6-methyl-anthraquinone (CE) from fungi and lichens was found to markedly inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, especially common drug-resistant bacterial strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). CE was confirmed to cause significant potassium leakage, cell membrane depolarization and damage to the selective permeability of cell membranes in bacterial cells, resulting in bacterial cell death...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927934/the-calcium-binding-protein-epann-from-the-lichenized-fungus-endocarpon-pusillum-enhances-stress-tolerance-in-yeast-and-plants
#3
Yongli Zhang, Hui Li, Yanyan Wang, Jiangchun Wei
Annexins are calcium-phospholipid binding proteins that play a significant role in the Ca(2+)signaling pathway. These proteins are essential for plants to effectively respond to abiotic stresses. However, their functions and mechanisms remain largely unknown in fungi. In this study, an annexin gene, Epann, was cloned from the lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum, a drought resistant organism. Our results showed that Epann was induced by several abiotic stresses in E. pusillum. Heterologous expression of the Epann gene enhanced the stress tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 18, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892165/environment-and-host-identity-structure-communities-of-green-algal-symbionts-in-lichens
#4
Francesco Dal Grande, Gregor Rolshausen, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, Jürgen Otte, Matthias Schleuning, Imke Schmitt
An understanding of how biotic interactions shape species' distributions is central to predicting host-symbiont responses under climate change. Switches to locally adapted algae have been proposed to be an adaptive strategy of lichen-forming fungi to cope with environmental change. However, it is unclear how lichen photobionts respond to environmental gradients, and whether they play a role in determining the fungal host's upper and lower elevational limits. Deep-coverage Illumina DNA metabarcoding was used to track changes in the community composition of Trebouxia algae associated with two phylogenetically closely related, but ecologically divergent fungal hosts along a steep altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861052/expose-r2-the-astrobiological-esa-mission-on-board-of-the-international-space-station
#5
Elke Rabbow, Petra Rettberg, Andre Parpart, Corinna Panitz, Wolfgang Schulte, Ferdinand Molter, Esther Jaramillo, René Demets, Peter Weiß, Rainer Willnecker
On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860010/conserved-genomic-collinearity-as-a-source-of-broadly-applicable-fast-evolving-markers-to-resolve-species-complexes-a-case-study-using-the-lichen-forming-genus-peltigera-section-polydactylon
#6
Nicolas Magain, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Olaf Mueller, Michael Gajdeczka, Camille Truong, Asaf A Salamov, Inna Dubchak, Igor V Grigoriev, Bernard Goffinet, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, François Lutzoni
Synteny can be maintained for certain genomic regions across broad phylogenetic groups. In these homologous genomic regions, sites that are under relaxed purifying selection, such as intergenic regions, could be used broadly as markers for population genetic and phylogenetic studies on species complexes. To explore the potential of this approach, we found 125 Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR) ranging from 1 to > 10 kb across nine genomes representing the Lecanoromycetes and Eurotiomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota)...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852019/reference-based-radseq-resolves-robust-relationships-among-closely-related-species-of-lichen-forming-fungi-using-metagenomic-dna
#7
Felix Grewe, Jen-Pen Huang, Steven D Leavitt, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Despite increasing availability of phylogenomic datasets, strategies to generate genome-scale data from organisms involved in symbiotic relationships remains challenging. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) can effectively generated reduced representation genomic loci. However, when using metagenomic DNA from inseparable symbiotic organisms, RADseq loci may belong to any number of the organisms involved in these intimate associations. In this study, we explored the potential for a reference-based RADseq approach to generate data for lichen-forming fungi from metagenomic DNA extracted from intact lichens...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782804/discovery-of-long-distance-gamete-dispersal-in-a-lichen-forming-ascomycete
#8
Cecilia Ronnås, Silke Werth, Otso Ovaskainen, Gergely Várkonyi, Christoph Scheidegger, Tord Snäll
Accurate estimates of gamete and offspring dispersal range are required for the understanding and prediction of spatial population dynamics and species persistence. Little is known about gamete dispersal in fungi, especially in lichen-forming ascomycetes. Here, we estimate the dispersal functions of clonal propagules, gametes and ascospores of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. We use hierarchical Bayesian parentage analysis, which integrates genetic and ecological information from multiannual colonization and dispersal source data collected in a large, old-growth forest landscape...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771869/its1-metabarcoding-highlights-low-specificity-of-lichen-mycobiomes-at-a-local-scale
#9
Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Antonia Fleischhacker, Theodora Kopun, Martin Grube, Lucia Muggia
As self-supporting and long-living symbiotic structures, lichens provide a habitat for many other organisms beside the traditionally considered lichen symbionts-the myco- and the photobionts. The lichen-inhabiting fungi either develop diagnostic phenotypes or occur asymptomatically. Because the degree of specificity towards the lichen host is poorly known, we studied the diversity of these fungi among neighbouring lichens on rocks in an alpine habitat. Using a sequencing metabarcoding approach, we show that lichen mycobiomes clearly reflect the overlap of multiple ecological sets of taxa, which differ in their trophic association with lichen thalli...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754979/thresholds-of-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-function-in-a-forest-ecosystem-undergoing-dieback
#10
P M Evans, A C Newton, E Cantarello, P Martin, N Sanderson, D L Jones, N Barsoum, J E Cottrell, S W A'Hara, L Fuller
Ecological thresholds, which represent points of rapid change in ecological properties, are of major scientific and societal concern. However, very little research has focused on empirically testing the occurrence of thresholds in temperate terrestrial ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, we tested whether a number of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem condition metrics exhibited thresholds in response to a gradient of forest dieback, measured as changes in basal area of living trees relative to areas that lacked recent dieback...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752818/fungal-diversity-revisited-2-2-to-3-8-million-species
#11
David L Hawksworth, Robert Lücking
The question of how many species of Fungi there are has occasioned much speculation, with figures mostly posited from around half a million to 10 million, and in one extreme case even a sizable portion of the spectacular number of 1 trillion. Here we examine new evidence from various sources to derive an updated estimate of global fungal diversity. The rates and patterns in the description of new species from the 1750s show no sign of approaching an asymptote and even accelerated in the 2010s after the advent of molecular approaches to species delimitation...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736865/bioprotection-of-the-built-environment-and-cultural-heritage
#12
Geoffrey Michael Gadd, Thomas D Dyer
The growth of microbial biofilms and various biomineralization phenomena can lead to the formation of stable layers and veneers on rocks known as 'rock varnishes' that can stabilize surfaces and protect from further weathering. This article describes the potential application of fungal systems for bioprotection of rock and mineral-based substrates and the evidence to support this concept of utilizing natural or engineered colonization and metabolic properties of fungi, including lichens.
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606353/extracellular-redox-cycling-and-hydroxyl-radical-production-occurs-widely-in-lichenized-ascomycetes
#13
Calvin E Moyo, Richard P Beckett, Tatyana V Trifonova, Farida V Minibayeva
Some free-living Ascomycetes and white and brown rot Basidiomycetes can generate hydroxyl radicals using extracellular redox cycling. However, the mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production differ between white and brown rot Basidiomycetes, and are unknown for Ascomycetes. Here, we present a survey of extracellular hydroxyl radical production by a range of lichenized Ascomycetes. Results show that given a quinone and chelated ferric ions, many lichens can readily produce hydroxyl radicals, and this is accompanied by the reduction of Fe(3)(+) to Fe(2+)...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592323/antibacterial-and-anticancer-activities-of-acetone-extracts-from-in-vitro-cultured-lichen-forming-fungi
#14
Agnieszka Felczykowska, Alicja Pastuszak-Skrzypczak, Anna Pawlik, Krystyna Bogucka, Anna Herman-Antosiewicz, Beata Guzow-Krzemińska
BACKGROUND: Lichens that were used in traditional medicine for ages produce numerous secondary metabolites, however our knowledge about biological activities of substances secreted by separated bionts is scarce. The main objectives of this study were to isolate and find optimal conditions for the growth of mycelia from three common lichen-forming fungi, i.e. Caloplaca pusilla, Protoparmeliopsis muralis and Xanthoria parietina and to evaluate antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of their acetone extracts...
June 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582507/variation-in-the-reproductive-strategy-of-a-lichenized-fungus-along-a-climatic-gradient
#15
Sonia Merinero, Marcos Méndez, Gregorio Aragón, Isabel Martínez
Background and aims: Onset of reproduction and reproductive allocation patterns are key components of plant reproductive strategies. Life history theory predicts that plants in adverse environments for juvenile performance start reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocation compared to their counterparts in favourable environments. Life history theory will gain in generality if its predictions are shown to apply to a broad range of organisms and modes of reproduction...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535846/physical-contact-and-carbon-transfer-between-a-lichen-forming-trebouxia-alga-and-a-novel-alphaproteobacterium
#16
Mieko Kono, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yoshihito Ohmura, Yoko Satta, Yohey Terai
Recent progress in molecular techniques has begun to alter traditional recognition of lichens as symbiotic organisms comprised of a fungus and photosynthetic partners (green algae and/or cyanobacteria). Diverse organisms, especially various non-photosynthetic bacteria, are now indicated to be integral components of lichen symbiosis. Although lichen-associated bacteria are inferred to have functions that could support the symbiosis, little is known about their physical and nutritional interaction with fungi and algae...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513562/effects-of-growth-media-on-the-diversity-of-culturable-fungi-from-lichens
#17
Lucia Muggia, Theodora Kopun, Martin Grube
Microscopic and molecular studies suggest that lichen symbioses contain a plethora of associated fungi. These are potential producers of novel bioactive compounds, but strains isolated on standard media usually represent only a minor subset of these fungi. By using various in vitro growth conditions we are able to modulate and extend the fraction of culturable lichen-associated fungi. We observed that the presence of iron, glucose, magnesium and potassium in growth media is essential for the successful isolation of members from different taxonomic groups...
May 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457640/whole-organism-concentration-ratios-in-wildlife-inhabiting-australian-uranium-mining-environments
#18
Gillian A Hirth, Mathew P Johansen, Julia G Carpenter, Andreas Bollhöfer, Nicholas A Beresford
Wildlife concentration ratios for (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRswo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CRwo-media values originate...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448844/consequences-of-bioenergy-wood-extraction-for-landscape-level-availability-of-habitat-for-dead-wood-dependent-organisms
#19
Matthew Hiron, Mats Jonsell, Ariana Kubart, Göran Thor, Martin Schroeder, Anders Dahlberg, Victor Johansson, Thomas Ranius
Stumps and slash resulting from forest clearcutting is used as a source of low-net-carbon energy, but there are concerns about the consequences of biofuel extraction on biodiversity. Logging residues constitute potentially important habitats, since a large part of forest biodiversity is dependent on dead wood. Here we used snapshot field data from a managed forest landscape (25 000 ha) to predict landscape scale population changes of dead wood dependent organisms after extraction of stumps and slash after clearcutting...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436942/diversity-and-ecological-adaptations-in-palaeogene-lichens
#20
Ulla Kaasalainen, Alexander R Schmidt, Jouko Rikkinen
Lichens are highly specialized symbioses between heterotrophic fungi and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria. The mycobionts of many lichens produce morphologically complex thalli to house their photobionts. Lichens play important roles in ecosystems and have been used as indicators of environmental change. Here we report the finding of 152 new fossil lichens from European Palaeogene amber, and hence increase the total number of known fossil lichens from 15 to 167. Most of the fossils represent extant lineages of the Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-symbiotic class of Ascomycota...
April 24, 2017: Nature Plants
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