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Lichenized fungi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782804/discovery-of-long-distance-gamete-dispersal-in-a-lichen-forming-ascomycete
#1
Cecilia Ronnås, Silke Werth, Otso Ovaskainen, Gergely Várkonyi, Christoph Scheidegger, Tord Snäll
Accurate estimates of gamete and offspring dispersal range are required for the understanding and prediction of spatial population dynamics and species persistence. Little is known about gamete dispersal in fungi, especially in lichen-forming ascomycetes. Here, we estimate the dispersal functions of clonal propagules, gametes and ascospores of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. We use hierarchical Bayesian parentage analysis, which integrates genetic and ecological information from multiannual colonization and dispersal source data collected in a large, old-growth forest landscape...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771869/its1-metabarcoding-highlights-low-specificity-of-lichen-mycobiomes-at-a-local-scale
#2
Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Antonia Fleischhacker, Theodora Kopun, Martin Grube, Lucia Muggia
As self-supporting and long-living symbiotic structures, lichens provide a habitat for many other organisms beside the traditionally considered lichen symbionts - the myco- and the photobionts. The lichen-inhabiting fungi either develop diagnostic phenotypes or occur asymptomatically. Because the degree of specificity toward the lichen host is poorly known, we studied the diversity of these fungi among neighboring lichens on rocks in an alpine habitat. Using a sequencing metabarcoding approach we show that lichen mycobiomes clearly reflect the overlap of multiple ecological sets of taxa, which differ in their trophic association with lichen thalli...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754979/thresholds-of-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-function-in-a-forest-ecosystem-undergoing-dieback
#3
P M Evans, A C Newton, E Cantarello, P Martin, N Sanderson, D L Jones, N Barsoum, J E Cottrell, S W A'Hara, L Fuller
Ecological thresholds, which represent points of rapid change in ecological properties, are of major scientific and societal concern. However, very little research has focused on empirically testing the occurrence of thresholds in temperate terrestrial ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, we tested whether a number of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem condition metrics exhibited thresholds in response to a gradient of forest dieback, measured as changes in basal area of living trees relative to areas that lacked recent dieback...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752818/fungal-diversity-revisited-2-2-to-3-8-million-species
#4
David L Hawksworth, Robert Lücking
The question of how many species of Fungi there are has occasioned much speculation, with figures mostly posited from around half a million to 10 million, and in one extreme case even a sizable portion of the spectacular number of 1 trillion. Here we examine new evidence from various sources to derive an updated estimate of global fungal diversity. The rates and patterns in the description of new species from the 1750s show no sign of approaching an asymptote and even accelerated in the 2010s after the advent of molecular approaches to species delimitation...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736865/bioprotection-of-the-built-environment-and-cultural-heritage
#5
Geoffrey Michael Gadd, Thomas D Dyer
The growth of microbial biofilms and various biomineralization phenomena can lead to the formation of stable layers and veneers on rocks known as 'rock varnishes' that can stabilize surfaces and protect from further weathering. This article describes the potential application of fungal systems for bioprotection of rock and mineral-based substrates and the evidence to support this concept of utilizing natural or engineered colonization and metabolic properties of fungi, including lichens.
July 24, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606353/extracellular-redox-cycling-and-hydroxyl-radical-production-occurs-widely-in-lichenized-ascomycetes
#6
Calvin E Moyo, Richard P Beckett, Tatyana V Trifonova, Farida V Minibayeva
Some free-living Ascomycetes and white and brown rot Basidiomycetes can generate hydroxyl radicals using extracellular redox cycling. However, the mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production differ between white and brown rot Basidiomycetes, and are unknown for Ascomycetes. Here, we present a survey of extracellular hydroxyl radical production by a range of lichenized Ascomycetes. Results show that given a quinone and chelated ferric ions, many lichens can readily produce hydroxyl radicals, and this is accompanied by the reduction of Fe(3)(+) to Fe(2+)...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592323/antibacterial-and-anticancer-activities-of-acetone-extracts-from-in-vitro-cultured-lichen-forming-fungi
#7
Agnieszka Felczykowska, Alicja Pastuszak-Skrzypczak, Anna Pawlik, Krystyna Bogucka, Anna Herman-Antosiewicz, Beata Guzow-Krzemińska
BACKGROUND: Lichens that were used in traditional medicine for ages produce numerous secondary metabolites, however our knowledge about biological activities of substances secreted by separated bionts is scarce. The main objectives of this study were to isolate and find optimal conditions for the growth of mycelia from three common lichen-forming fungi, i.e. Caloplaca pusilla, Protoparmeliopsis muralis and Xanthoria parietina and to evaluate antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of their acetone extracts...
June 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582507/variation-in-the-reproductive-strategy-of-a-lichenized-fungus-along-a-climatic-gradient
#8
Sonia Merinero, Marcos Méndez, Gregorio Aragón, Isabel Martínez
Background and aims: Onset of reproduction and reproductive allocation patterns are key components of plant reproductive strategies. Life history theory predicts that plants in adverse environments for juvenile performance start reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocation compared to their counterparts in favourable environments. Life history theory will gain in generality if its predictions are shown to apply to a broad range of organisms and modes of reproduction...
June 5, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535846/physical-contact-and-carbon-transfer-between-a-lichen-forming-trebouxia-alga-and-a-novel-alphaproteobacterium
#9
Mieko Kono, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yoshihito Ohmura, Yoko Satta, Yohey Terai
Recent progress in molecular techniques has begun to alter traditional recognition of lichens as symbiotic organisms comprised of a fungus and photosynthetic partners (green algae and/or cyanobacteria). Diverse organisms, especially various non-photosynthetic bacteria, are now indicated to be integral components of lichen symbiosis. Although lichen-associated bacteria are inferred to have functions that could support the symbiosis, little is known about their physical and nutritional interaction with fungi and algae...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513562/effects-of-growth-media-on-the-diversity-of-culturable-fungi-from-lichens
#10
Lucia Muggia, Theodora Kopun, Martin Grube
Microscopic and molecular studies suggest that lichen symbioses contain a plethora of associated fungi. These are potential producers of novel bioactive compounds, but strains isolated on standard media usually represent only a minor subset of these fungi. By using various in vitro growth conditions we are able to modulate and extend the fraction of culturable lichen-associated fungi. We observed that the presence of iron, glucose, magnesium and potassium in growth media is essential for the successful isolation of members from different taxonomic groups...
May 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457640/whole-organism-concentration-ratios-in-wildlife-inhabiting-australian-uranium-mining-environments
#11
Gillian A Hirth, Mathew P Johansen, Julia G Carpenter, Andreas Bollhöfer, Nicholas A Beresford
Wildlife concentration ratios for (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRswo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CRwo-media values originate...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448844/consequences-of-bioenergy-wood-extraction-for-landscape-level-availability-of-habitat-for-dead-wood-dependent-organisms
#12
Matthew Hiron, Mats Jonsell, Ariana Kubart, Göran Thor, Martin Schroeder, Anders Dahlberg, Victor Johansson, Thomas Ranius
Stumps and slash resulting from forest clearcutting is used as a source of low-net-carbon energy, but there are concerns about the consequences of biofuel extraction on biodiversity. Logging residues constitute potentially important habitats, since a large part of forest biodiversity is dependent on dead wood. Here we used snapshot field data from a managed forest landscape (25 000 ha) to predict landscape scale population changes of dead wood dependent organisms after extraction of stumps and slash after clearcutting...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436942/diversity-and-ecological-adaptations-in-palaeogene-lichens
#13
Ulla Kaasalainen, Alexander R Schmidt, Jouko Rikkinen
Lichens are highly specialized symbioses between heterotrophic fungi and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria. The mycobionts of many lichens produce morphologically complex thalli to house their photobionts. Lichens play important roles in ecosystems and have been used as indicators of environmental change. Here we report the finding of 152 new fossil lichens from European Palaeogene amber, and hence increase the total number of known fossil lichens from 15 to 167. Most of the fossils represent extant lineages of the Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-symbiotic class of Ascomycota...
April 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372035/immunosuppressive-effects-of-bryoria-sp-lichen-forming-fungus-extracts-via-inhibition-of-cd8-t-cell-proliferation-and-il-2-production-in-cd4-t-cells
#14
Yun-Ho Hwang, Sung-Ju Lee, Kyung-Yun Kang, Jae-Seoun Hur, Sung-Tae Yee
Lichen-forming fungi are known to have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammation, and anti proliferative effects. However, the immunosuppressive effects of Bryoria sp. extract (BSE) have not previously been investigated. In this study, the inhibitory activity of BSE on the proliferation of CD8(+) T cells and the mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR) was evaluated in vitro. BSE was non-toxic in spleen cells and suppressed the growth of splenocytes induced by anti-CD3...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359299/adaptive-differentiation-coincides-with-local-bioclimatic-conditions-along-an-elevational-cline-in-populations-of-a-lichen-forming-fungus
#15
Francesco Dal Grande, Rahul Sharma, Anjuli Meiser, Gregor Rolshausen, Burkhard Büdel, Bagdevi Mishra, Marco Thines, Jürgen Otte, Markus Pfenninger, Imke Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Many fungal species occur across a variety of habitats. Particularly lichens, fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic partners, have evolved remarkable tolerances for environmental extremes. Despite their ecological importance and ubiquity, little is known about the genetic basis of adaption in lichen populations. Here we studied patterns of genome-wide differentiation in the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata along an altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region...
March 31, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290203/symbiotic-interplay-of-fungi-algae-and-bacteria-within-the-lung-lichen-lobaria-pulmonaria-l-hoffm-as-assessed-by-state-of-the-art-metaproteomics
#16
Christine Eymann, Christian Lassek, Uwe Wegner, Jörg Bernhardt, Ole Arno Fritsch, Stephan Fuchs, Andreas Otto, Dirk Albrecht, Ulf Schiefelbein, Tomislav Cernava, Ines Aschenbrenner, Gabriele Berg, Martin Grube, Katharina Riedel
Lichens are recognized by macroscopic structures formed by a heterotrophic fungus, the mycobiont, which hosts internal autotrophic photosynthetic algal and/or cyanobacterial partners, referred to as the photobiont. We analyzed the structure and functionality of the entire lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. Hoffm. collected from two different sites by state-of-the-art metaproteomics. In addition to the green algae and the ascomycetous fungus, a lichenicolous fungus as well as a complex prokaryotic community (different from the cyanobacteria) was found, the latter dominated by methanotrophic Rhizobiales...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236481/biomass-assessment-of-microbial-surface-communities-by-means-of-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-data
#17
Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Max Paul, Alexandra Tamm, Jennifer Caesar, Burkhard Büdel, Paula Escribano, Joachim Hill, Bettina Weber
Dryland vegetation developed morphological and physiological strategies to cope with drought. However, as aridity increases, vascular plant coverage gets sparse and microbially-dominated surface communities (MSC), comprising cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotropic bacteria, archaea and fungi, gain relevance. Nevertheless, the relevance of MSC net primary productivity has only rarely been considered in ecosystem scale studies, and detailed information on their contribution to the total photosynthetic biomass reservoir is largely missing...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215350/species-delimitation-and-phylogeography-of-the-pectenia-species-complex-a-misunderstood-case-of-species-pairs-in-lichenized-fungi-where-reproduction-mode-does-not-delimit-lineages
#18
Mónica A G Otálora, Isabel Martínez, Gregorio Aragón, Mats Wedin
The main goal of this work was to study species boundaries in the genus Pectenia and elucidate the biogeographic history of the four currently accepted species. To accomplish this, we included 92 specimens across the range of Pectenia in Europe and northern Africa. We used three nuclear loci and assessed species circumscription using two Bayesian coalescent-based methods and the Bayes Factor approach. We reviewed the value of reproductive mode and other morphological features as predictors of monophyletic groups...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206823/the-effect-of-high-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-the-isolated-photobiont-of-the-astrobiological-model-lichen-circinaria-gyrosa
#19
Joachim Meeßen, Theresa Backhaus, Annette Brandt, Marina Raguse, Ute Böttger, Jean-Pierre de Vera, Rosa de la Torre
Lichen symbioses between fungi and algae represent successful life strategies to colonize the most extreme terrestrial habitats. Consequently, space exposure and simulation experiments have demonstrated lichens' high capacity for survival, and thus, they have become models in astrobiological research with which to discern the limits and limitations of terrestrial life. In a series of ground-based irradiation experiments, the STARLIFE campaign investigated the resistance of astrobiological model organisms to galactic cosmic radiation, which is one of the lethal stressors of extraterrestrial environments...
February 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202453/parenchymatous-cell-division-characterizes-the-fungal-cortex-of-some-common-foliose-lichens
#20
William B Sanders, Asunción de Los Ríos
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Lichen-forming fungi produce diverse vegetative tissues, some closely resembling those of plants. Yet it has been repeatedly affirmed that none is a true parenchyma, in which cellular compartments are subdivided from all adjacent neighbors by cross walls adjoining older cross walls. METHODS: Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we tested this assumption by examining patterns of septum formation in the parenchyma-like cortex of three lichens of different phylogenetic affinities: Sticta canariensis, Leptogium cyanescens, and Endocarpon pusillum...
February 2017: American Journal of Botany
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