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Lichenized fungi

Débora O Futuro, Patricia G Ferreira, Caroline D Nicoletti, Luana P Borba-Santos, Fernando C DA Silva, Sonia Rozental, Vitor Francisco Ferreira
Naphthoquinones are the most commonly occurring type of quinones in nature. They are a diverse family of secondary metabolites that occur naturally in plants, lichens and various microorganisms. This subgroup is constantly being expanded through the discovery of new natural products and by the synthesis of new compounds via innovative techniques. Interest in quinones and the search for new biological activities within the members of this class have intensified in recent years, as evidenced by the evaluation of the potential antimicrobial activities of quinones...
2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Fiona Paul, Jürgen Otte, Imke Schmitt, Francesco Dal Grande
The implementation of HTS (high-throughput sequencing) approaches is rapidly changing our understanding of the lichen symbiosis, by uncovering high bacterial and fungal diversity, which is often host-specific. Recently, HTS methods revealed the presence of multiple photobionts inside a single thallus in several lichen species. This differs from Sanger technology, which typically yields a single, unambiguous algal sequence per individual. Here we compared HTS and Sanger methods for estimating the diversity of green algal symbionts within lichen thalli using 240 lichen individuals belonging to two species of lichen-forming fungi...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Claudia Coleine, Laura Zucconi, Silvano Onofri, Nuttapon Pombubpa, Jason E Stajich, Laura Selbmann
Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial communities dominate ice-free areas of continental Antarctica, among the harshest environments on Earth. The endolithic lifestyle is a remarkable adaptation to the exceptional environmental extremes of this area, which is considered the closest terrestrial example to conditions on Mars. Recent efforts have attempted to elucidate composition of these extremely adapted communities, but the functionality of these microbes have remained unexplored. We have tested for interactions between measured environmental characteristics, fungal community membership, and inferred functional classification of the fungi present and found altitude and sun exposure were primary factors...
June 2, 2018: Life
Yu-Ling Huang, Elizabeth A Bowman, Nicholas C Massimo, Nicholas P Garber, Jana M U'Ren, Dustin C Sandberg, A Elizabeth Arnold
Biodiversity collections contain a wealth of information encapsulated both in specimens and in their metadata, providing the foundation for diverse studies in fields such as ecology. Yet biodiversity repositories can present a challenge for ecological inferences because collections rarely are structured with ecological questions in mind: collections may be opportunistic in space or time, may focus on particular taxonomic groups, may reflect different collection strategies in different places or times, or may not be exhaustive in terms of retaining every specimen or having similar metadata for each record...
January 2018: Mycologia
Lucia Muggia, Martin Grube
Lichen symbioses develop long-living thallus structures even in the harshest environments on Earth. These structures are also habitats for many other microscopic organisms, including other fungi, which vary in their specificity and interaction with the whole symbiotic system. This contribution reviews the recent progress regarding the understanding of the lichen-inhabiting fungi that are achieved by multiphasic approaches (culturing, microscopy, and sequencing). The lichen mycobiome comprises a more or less specific pool of species that can develop symptoms on their hosts, a generalist environmental pool, and a pool of transient species...
May 22, 2018: Life
P L Chagnon, N Magain, J Miadlikowska, F Lutzoni
Identifying the drivers and evolutionary consequences of species interactions is a major goal of community ecology. Network-based analyses can provide mathematical tools to detect non-random patterns of interactions, and potentially help predicting the consequences of such patterns on evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic systems. Here, we characterize the structure of a lichen network at a very fine phylogenetic scale, by identifying the photosynthetic partners (i.e., cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc) of lichenized fungi belonging to a monophyletic section of a single genus (i...
May 14, 2018: Oecologia
Lucia Muggia, Sigrun Kraker, Theodora Gößler, Martin Grube
The thallus structure of the lichen symbiosis provides a fungal shelter for the growth of algal partners. The long-living thallus also provides a habitat for other fungi, but experimental studies, which could inform us about the details of their interactions have hardly been conducted. We present a new approach by embedding axenically cultured strains of fungi together with algae in alginate spheres, which allows easy transfer of co-cultures on solid media. As the growth rates of the organisms are differentially triggered by the underlying medium, alginate embedding can help to adjust optimal parameters for stable culture of the combined symbionts...
May 4, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Olga A Luzina, Nariman F Salakhutdinov
Usnic acid (UA) is a lichen-derived secondary metabolite with a unique dibenzofuran skeleton and is commonly found in lichenized fungi of the genera Usnea, Ramalina, and Cladonia. Usnic acid has been incorporated for years in cosmetics, perfumery, and traditional medicines. The structural characteristics of UA combined with its physicochemical properties are responsible for its pleiotropic biological effects. It has a wide range of bioactivities, including antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties...
May 2, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Pier Luigi Nimis, Josef Hafellner, Claude Roux, Philippe Clerc, Helmut Mayrhofer, Stefano Martellos, Peter O Bilovitz
This is the first attempt to provide an overview of the lichen diversity of the Alps, one of the biogegraphically most important and emblematic mountain systems worldwide. The checklist includes all lichenised species, plus a set of non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa frequently treated by lichenologists, excluding non-lichenised lichenicolous fungi. Largely based on recent national or regional checklists, it provides a list of all infrageneric taxa (with synonyms) hitherto reported from the Alps, with data on their distribution in eight countries (Austria, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland) and in 42 Operational Geographic Units, mostly corresponding to administrative subdivisions within the countries...
2018: MycoKeys
Aurélie Lagarde, Patricia Jargeat, Mélanie Roy, Marion Girardot, Christine Imbert, Marion Millot, Lengo Mambu
Fungal communities associated to three epiphytic lichens active against Candida, were investigated using culture-based methods We hypothetized that associated fungi would contribute to lichens activities. The ability of specific fungi to grow inside or outside lichens was investigated. To detect biogenesis pathways involved in the production of secondary metabolites, genes coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase I (PKS I) were screened by PCR from fungal DNA extracts. Both endo and epilichenic communities were isolated from two fructicose (Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata) and one foliose (Pleurosticta acetabulum) lichens...
June 2018: Microbiological Research
Sabrin R M Ibrahim, Gamal A Mohamed, Rwaida A Al Haidari, Amal A El-Kholy, Mohamed F Zayed, Maan T Khayat
Fungi produce a wide range of structurally unique metabolites. Depsidones represent one of the most interesting classes of metabolites, consisting of two 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid rings linked together by both ether and ester bonds. Naturally occurring depsidones are produced by lichen, fungi, and plants. They possessed a wide array of bioactivities, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, antimalarial, cytotoxic, antibacterial, radical scavenging, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and aromatase and protein kinase inhibitory...
April 25, 2018: Fitoterapia
Christos D Georgiou, Dimitrios Zisimopoulos, Vasiliki Argyropoulou, Electra Kalaitzopoulou, George Salachas, Tilman Grune
A new 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-based photometric assay is developed for the quantification of carbonyls in protein samples from any biological source by protein carbonyl-DNPH hydrazone formation at acidic pH in the presence of denaturing urea, and subsequent hydrazone solubilization in the presence of SDS and stabilization from acid hydrolysis at pH 7.0. At this neutral (ntr) pH, interfering unreacted DNPH is uncharged and its thus increased hydrophobicity permits its 100% effective removal from the solubilizate with ethyl acetate/hexane wash...
July 2018: Redox Biology
André Aptroot, Michael Stech
In the course of a multi-taxon biodiversity inventory for the island of St. Eustatius, lichens were collected from 11 plots representing different vegetation types. From these collections, 126 lichen species are reported, 54 of which are new reports for St. Eustatius. Most species could be identified to species level based on morphological and chemical characters. In a few cases, mtSSU DNA sequences were generated for a preliminary molecular identification and future phylogenetic studies. In total, 263 identified lichen species are currently known from St...
2018: MycoKeys
Ioana Onuț-Brännström, Mitchell Benjamin, Douglas G Scofield, Starri Heiðmarsson, Martin G I Andersson, Eva S Lindström, Hanna Johannesson
In this study, we explored the diversity of green algal symbionts (photobionts) in sympatric populations of the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungi Thamnolia and Cetraria. We sequenced with both Sanger and Ion Torrent High-Throughput Sequencing technologies the photobiont ITS-region of 30 lichen thalli from two islands: Iceland and Öland. While Sanger recovered just one photobiont genotype from each thallus, the Ion Torrent data recovered 10-18 OTUs for each pool of 5 lichen thalli, suggesting that individual lichens can contain heterogeneous photobiont populations...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Toby Spribille
The term symbiosis was first used in biology to describe the 'living together' of fungi and algae in lichens. For much of the 20th century, the fungal partner was assumed to be invested with the ability to produce the lichen body plan in presence of a photosynthesizing partner. However, studies of fungal evolution have uncovered discordance between lichen symbiotic outcomes and genome evolution of the fungus. At the same time, evidence has emerged that the structurally important lichen cortex contains lichen-specific, single-celled microbes, suggesting it may function like a biofilm...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Steven D Leavitt, Martin Westberg, Matthew P Nelsen, John A Elix, Einar Timdal, Mohammad Sohrabi, Larry L St Clair, Laura Williams, Mats Wedin, H T Lumbsch
Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs). However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rafika Brakni, Monia Ali Ahmed, Pauline Burger, Aurélie Schwing, Grégory Michel, Christelle Pomares, Lillia Hasseine, Laurent Boyer, Xavier Fernandez, Anne Landreau, Thomas Michel
Lichens are complex symbiotic organisms able to produce a vast array of compounds. The Algerian lichen diversity has only prompted little interest even given the 1085 species listed. Herein, the chemodiversity of four Algerian lichens including Cladonia rangiformis, Ramalina farinaceae, R. fastigiata, and Roccella phycopsis was investigated. A dereplication strategy, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), was carried out for a comprehensive characterization of their substances including phenolics, depsides, depsidones, depsones, dibenzofurans, and aliphatic acids...
April 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Yi Yang, Woo Kyun Bae, Sang-Jip Nam, Min-Hye Jeong, Rui Zhou, So-Yeon Park, İsa Taş, Yun-Ho Hwang, Myong-Suk Park, Ik Joo Chung, Kyung Keun Kim, Jae-Seoun Hur, Hangun Kim
BACKGROUND: Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit the thalli of lichens and produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. PURPOSE: This study screened a library of endolichenic fungal extracts to identify novel anticancer agents capable of suppressing the tumorigenicity of human cancer cells. METHODS: Active compounds were isolated from extracts of endolichenic fungi by column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Robert L Bertrand, Mona Abdel-Hameed, John L Sorensen
Lichens are renowned for their diverse natural products though little is known of the genetic programming dictating lichen natural product biosynthesis. We sequenced the genome of Cladonia uncialis and profiled its secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. Through a homology searching approach, we can now propose specific functions for gene products as well as the biosynthetic pathways that are encoded in several of these gene clusters. This analysis revealed that the lichen genome encodes the required enzymes for patulin and betaenones A-C biosynthesis, fungal toxins not known to be produced by lichens...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Robert L Bertrand, Mona Abdel-Hameed, John L Sorensen
Lichens are symbionts of fungi and algae that produce diverse secondary metabolites with useful properties. Little is known of lichen natural product biosynthesis because of the challenges of working with lichenizing fungi. We describe the first attempt to comprehensively profile the genetic secondary metabolome of a lichenizing fungus. An Illumina platform combined with the Antibiotics and Secondary Metabolites Analysis Shell (FungiSMASH, version 4.0) was used to sequence and annotate assembled contigs of the fungal partner of Cladonia uncialis...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
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