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Lichenized fungi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445133/photoautotrophic-organisms-control-microbial-abundance-diversity-and-physiology-in-different-types-of-biological-soil-crusts
#1
Stefanie Maier, Alexandra Tamm, Dianming Wu, Jennifer Caesar, Martin Grube, Bettina Weber
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover about 12% of the Earth's land masses, thereby providing ecosystem services and affecting biogeochemical fluxes on a global scale. They comprise photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, which grow together with heterotrophic microorganisms, forming a model system to study facilitative interactions and assembly principles in natural communities. Biocrusts can be classified into cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated types, which reflect stages of ecological succession...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417658/reductions-in-complexity-of-mitochondrial-genomes-in-lichen-forming-fungi-shed-light-on-genome-architecture-of-obligate-symbioses
#2
Cloe S Pogoda, Kyle G Keepers, James C Lendemer, Nolan C Kane, Erin A Tripp
Symbioses among co-evolving taxa are often marked by genome reductions such as a loss of protein-coding genes in at least one of the partners as a means of reducing redundancy or intergenomic conflict. To explore this phenomenon in an iconic yet under-studied group of obligate symbiotic organisms, mitochondrial genomes of 22 newly sequenced and annotated species of lichenized fungi were compared to 167 mitochondrial genomes of non-lichenized fungi. Our results demonstrate the first broad scale loss of atp9 from mitochondria of lichenized fungi...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377146/brasilonema-lichenoides-sp-nov-and-chroococcidiopsis-lichenoides-sp-nov-cyanobacteria-two-novel-cyanobacterial-constituents-isolated-from-a-tripartite-lichen-of-headstones
#3
Chelsea D Villanueva, Petr Hašler, Petr Dvořák, Aloisie Poulíčková, Dale A Casamatta
Cyanolichens are an assemblage of fungi and cyanobacteria from diverse, cosmopolitan habitats. Typically composed of a single species of cyanobacterium, with or without another eukaryotic alga, here we present two novel cyanobionts isolated from an undescribed tripartite lichen. This endolithic lichen was isolated from a granite cemetery tombstone from Jacksonville, FL, and contains two potentially nitrogen-fixing cyanobionts. Employing a total evidence approach, we characterized the cyanobionts using molecular (the 16S rDNA and ITS gene region), morphological, and ecological data...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360617/high-diversity-high-insular-endemism-and-recent-origin-in-the-lichen-genus-sticta-lichenized-ascomycota-peltigerales-in-madagascar-and-the-mascarenes
#4
Antoine Simon, Bernard Goffinet, Nicolas Magain, Emmanuël Sérusiaux
Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI1 biodiversity hotspot (including Madagascar and the neighboring Mascarene archipelago, formed by Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues). We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280946/secondary-metabolite-profiling-of-species-of-the-genus-usnea-by-uhplc-esi-ot-ms-ms
#5
Francisco Salgado, Laura Albornoz, Carmen Cortéz, Elena Stashenko, Kelly Urrea-Vallejo, Edgar Nagles, Cesar Galicia-Virviescas, Alberto Cornejo, Alejandro Ardiles, Mario Simirgiotis, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Carlos Areche
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans...
December 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211626/molecular-analyses-uncover-the-phylogenetic-placement-of-the-lichenized-hyphomycetous-genus-cheiromycina
#6
Lucia Muggia, Riccardo Mancinelli, Tor Tønsberg, Agnieszka Jablonska, Martin Kukwa, Zdeněk Palice
The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known...
November 1, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180801/modification-and-functional-adaptation-of-the-mbf1-gene-family-in-the-lichenized-fungus-endocarpon-pusillum-under-environmental-stress
#7
Yanyan Wang, Xinli Wei, Jenpan Huang, Jiangchun Wei
The multiprotein-bridging factor 1 (MBF1) gene family is well known in archaea, non-lichenized fungi, plants, and animals, and contains stress tolerance-related genes. Here, we identified four unique mbf1 genes in the lichenized fungi Endocarpon spp. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein sequences showed the translated MBF1 proteins of the newly isolated mbf1 genes formed a monophyletic clade different from other lichen-forming fungi and Ascomycota groups in general, which may reflect the evolution of the biological functions of MBF1s...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155927/specialized-fungal-parasites-reduce-fitness-of-their-lichen-hosts
#8
Sonia Merinero, Yngvar Gauslaa
Background and aims: Understanding to what extent parasites affect host fitness is a focus of research on ecological interactions. Fungal parasites usually affect the functions of vascular plants. However, parasitic interactions comprising effects of fungal parasites on the fitness of lichen hosts are less well known. This study assesses the effects of the abundance of two highly specialized gall-forming fungi on growth of their two respective lichen hosts and tests whether these fungal parasites reduce lichen fitness...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105292/ediacaran-developmental-biology
#9
Frances S Dunn, Alexander G Liu, Philip C J Donoghue
Rocks of the Ediacaran System (635-541 Ma) preserve fossil evidence of some of the earliest complex macroscopic organisms, many of which have been interpreted as animals. However, the unusual morphologies of some of these organisms have made it difficult to resolve their biological relationships to modern metazoan groups. Alternative competing phylogenetic interpretations have been proposed for Ediacaran taxa, including algae, fungi, lichens, rhizoid protists, and even an extinct higher-order group (Vendobionta)...
November 3, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097759/sequencing-genomes-from-mixed-dna-samples-evaluating-the-metagenome-skimming-approach-in-lichenized-fungi
#10
Anjuli Meiser, Jürgen Otte, Imke Schmitt, Francesco Dal Grande
The metagenome skimming approach, i.e. low coverage shotgun sequencing of multi-species assemblages and subsequent reconstruction of individual genomes, is increasingly used for in-depth genomic characterization of ecological communities. This approach is a promising tool for reconstructing genomes of facultative symbionts, such as lichen-forming fungi, from metagenomic reads. However, no study has so far tested accuracy and completeness of assemblies based on metagenomic sequences compared to assemblies based on pure culture strains of lichenized fungi...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091345/a-method-for-the-direct-detection-of-airborne-dispersal-in-lichens
#11
S Eaton, C Zuniga, J Czyzewski, C J Ellis, D Genney, D Haydon, N Mirzai, R Yahr
This paper sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches. A low-cost device (<£200) was developed in order to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1m(3) of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species-specific primers and optimization of a standard DNA extraction and nested PCR protocol...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084151/metabolomic-analysis-of-two-parmotrema-lichens-p-robustum-degel-hale-and-p-andinum-mull-arg-hale-using-uhplc-esi-ot-ms-ms
#12
Alfredo Torres-Benítez, María Rivera-Montalvo, Beatriz Sepúlveda, Olivio N Castro, Edgar Nagles, Mario J Simirgiotis, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Carlos Areche
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Lichens belonging to the Parmeliaceae family comprise 2700 species of lichens, including the Parmotrema genus which is composed of 300 species. The metabolites of this genus include depsides, depsidones, phenolics, polysaccharides, lipids, diphenylethers and dibenzofurans, which are responsible for the biological activities reported including antidiabetic, antihelmintic, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimitotic, antitumoral, antifungal, and antioxidant enzyme inhibitory...
October 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057470/origin-and-evolution-of-chloroplast%C3%A2-group-i-introns-in-lichen-algae
#13
Alicia Del Hoyo, Raquel Álvarez, Francisco Gasulla, Leonardo Mario Casano, Eva María Del Campo
The history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, even among phylogenetically distant species. The symbiogenetic thalli of lichens are good candidates for the horizontal transfer of genetic material among distantly related organisms, such as fungi and green algae. The main goal of this study was to determine whether there were different trends in intron distribution and properties among Chlorophyte algae based on their phylogenetic relationships and living conditions. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence, distribution and properties of group I introns within the chloroplast LSU rDNA in 87 Chlorophyte algae including lichen and free-living Trebouxiophyceae compared to free-living non-Trebouxiophyceae species...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993960/effect-of-environmental-parameters-on-biodiversity-of-the-fungal-component-in-lithic-antarctic-communities
#14
Laura Selbmann, Silvano Onofri, Claudia Coleine, Pietro Buzzini, Fabiana Canini, Laura Zucconi
A wide sampling of rocks, colonized by microbial epi-endolithic communities, was performed along an altitudinal gradient from sea level to 3600 m asl and sea distance from the coast to 100 km inland along the Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica. Seventy-two rock samples of different typology, representative of the entire survey, were selected and studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to compare variation in fungal diversity according to environmental conditions along this altitudinal and sea distance transect...
November 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983096/chlorinated-emodin-as-a-natural-antibacterial-agent-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-through-dual-influence-on-bacterial-cell-membranes-and-dna
#15
Feixia Duan, Guang Xin, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
The rise in infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of effective medicines requires the discovery of new antibacterial agents. Naturally chlorinated emodin 1,3,8-trihydroxy-4-chloro-6-methyl-anthraquinone (CE) from fungi and lichens was found to markedly inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, especially common drug-resistant bacterial strains, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). CE was confirmed to cause significant potassium leakage, cell membrane depolarization and damage to the selective permeability of cell membranes in bacterial cells, resulting in bacterial cell death...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927934/the-calcium-binding-protein-epann-from-the-lichenized-fungus-endocarpon-pusillum-enhances-stress-tolerance-in-yeast-and-plants
#16
Yongli Zhang, Hui Li, Yanyan Wang, Jiangchun Wei
Annexins are calcium-phospholipid binding proteins that play a significant role in the Ca(2+)signaling pathway. These proteins are essential for plants to effectively respond to abiotic stresses. However, their functions and mechanisms remain largely unknown in fungi. In this study, an annexin gene, Epann, was cloned from the lichenized fungus Endocarpon pusillum, a drought resistant organism. Our results showed that Epann was induced by several abiotic stresses in E. pusillum. Heterologous expression of the Epann gene enhanced the stress tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 18, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892165/environment-and-host-identity-structure-communities-of-green-algal-symbionts-in-lichens
#17
Francesco Dal Grande, Gregor Rolshausen, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, Jürgen Otte, Matthias Schleuning, Imke Schmitt
An understanding of how biotic interactions shape species' distributions is central to predicting host-symbiont responses under climate change. Switches to locally adapted algae have been proposed to be an adaptive strategy of lichen-forming fungi to cope with environmental change. However, it is unclear how lichen photobionts respond to environmental gradients, and whether they play a role in determining the fungal host's upper and lower elevational limits. Deep-coverage Illumina DNA metabarcoding was used to track changes in the community composition of Trebouxia algae associated with two phylogenetically closely related, but ecologically divergent fungal hosts along a steep altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861052/expose-r2-the-astrobiological-esa-mission-on-board-of-the-international-space-station
#18
Elke Rabbow, Petra Rettberg, Andre Parpart, Corinna Panitz, Wolfgang Schulte, Ferdinand Molter, Esther Jaramillo, René Demets, Peter Weiß, Rainer Willnecker
On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860010/conserved-genomic-collinearity-as-a-source-of-broadly-applicable-fast-evolving-markers-to-resolve-species-complexes-a-case-study-using-the-lichen-forming-genus-peltigera-section-polydactylon
#19
Nicolas Magain, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Olaf Mueller, Michael Gajdeczka, Camille Truong, Asaf A Salamov, Inna Dubchak, Igor V Grigoriev, Bernard Goffinet, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, François Lutzoni
Synteny can be maintained for certain genomic regions across broad phylogenetic groups. In these homologous genomic regions, sites that are under relaxed purifying selection, such as intergenic regions, could be used broadly as markers for population genetic and phylogenetic studies on species complexes. To explore the potential of this approach, we found 125 Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR) ranging from 1 to >10kb across nine genomes representing the Lecanoromycetes and Eurotiomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota)...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852019/reference-based-radseq-resolves-robust-relationships-among-closely-related-species-of-lichen-forming-fungi-using-metagenomic-dna
#20
Felix Grewe, Jen-Pen Huang, Steven D Leavitt, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Despite increasing availability of phylogenomic datasets, strategies to generate genome-scale data from organisms involved in symbiotic relationships remains challenging. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) can effectively generated reduced representation genomic loci. However, when using metagenomic DNA from inseparable symbiotic organisms, RADseq loci may belong to any number of the organisms involved in these intimate associations. In this study, we explored the potential for a reference-based RADseq approach to generate data for lichen-forming fungi from metagenomic DNA extracted from intact lichens...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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