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Lichenized fungi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535321/sharing-of-photobionts-in-sympatric-populations-of-thamnolia-and-cetraria-lichens-evidence-from-high-throughput-sequencing
#1
Ioana Onuț-Brännström, Mitchell Benjamin, Douglas G Scofield, Starri Heiðmarsson, Martin G I Andersson, Eva S Lindström, Hanna Johannesson
In this study, we explored the diversity of green algal symbionts (photobionts) in sympatric populations of the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungi Thamnolia and Cetraria. We sequenced with both Sanger and Ion Torrent High-Throughput Sequencing technologies the photobiont ITS-region of 30 lichen thalli from two islands: Iceland and Öland. While Sanger recovered just one photobiont genotype from each thallus, the Ion Torrent data recovered 10-18 OTUs for each pool of 5 lichen thalli, suggesting that individual lichens can contain heterogeneous photobiont populations...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529531/relative-symbiont-input-and-the-lichen-symbiotic-outcome
#2
REVIEW
Toby Spribille
The term symbiosis was first used in biology to describe the 'living together' of fungi and algae in lichens. For much of the 20th century, the fungal partner was assumed to be invested with the ability to produce the lichen body plan in presence of a photosynthesizing partner. However, studies of fungal evolution have uncovered discordance between lichen symbiotic outcomes and genome evolution of the fungus. At the same time, evidence has emerged that the structurally important lichen cortex contains lichen-specific, single-celled microbes, suggesting it may function like a biofilm...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527197/multiple-distinct-intercontinental-lineages-but-isolation-of-australian-populations-in-a-cosmopolitan-lichen-forming-fungal-taxon-psora-decipiens-psoraceae-ascomycota
#3
Steven D Leavitt, Martin Westberg, Matthew P Nelsen, John A Elix, Einar Timdal, Mohammad Sohrabi, Larry L St Clair, Laura Williams, Mats Wedin, H T Lumbsch
Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs). However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505125/uhplc-hrms-ms-based-profiling-of-algerian-lichens-and-their-antimicrobial-activities
#4
Rafika Brakni, Monia Ali Ahmed, Pauline Burger, Aurélie Schwing, Grégory Michel, Christelle Pomares, Lillia Hasseine, Laurent Boyer, Xavier Fernandez, Anne Landreau, Thomas Michel
Lichens are complex symbiotic organisms able to produce a vast array of compounds. The Algerian lichen diversity has only prompted little interest even given the 1085 species listed. Herein, the chemodiversity of four Algerian lichens including Cladonia rangiformis, Ramalina farinaceae, R. fastigiata and Roccella phycopsis was investigated. A dereplication strategy, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS), was carried out for a comprehensive characterization of their substances including phenolics, depsides, depsidones, depsones, dibenzofurans and aliphatic acids...
March 5, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496163/acetonic-extracts-of-the-endolichenic-fungus-el002332-isolated-from-endocarpon-pusillum-exhibits-anticancer-activity-in-human-gastric-cancer-cells
#5
Yi Yang, Woo Kyun Bae, Sang-Jip Nam, Min-Hye Jeong, Rui Zhou, So-Yeon Park, İsa Taş, Yun-Ho Hwang, Myong-Suk Park, Ik Joo Chung, Kyung Keun Kim, Jae-Seoun Hur, Hangun Kim
BACKGROUND: Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit the thalli of lichens and produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. PURPOSE: This study screened a library of endolichenic fungal extracts to identify novel anticancer agents capable of suppressing the tumorigenicity of human cancer cells. METHODS: Active compounds were isolated from extracts of endolichenic fungi by column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485282/lichen-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-part-ii-homology-mapping-suggests-a-functional-diversity
#6
Robert L Bertrand, Mona Abdel-Hameed, John L Sorensen
Lichens are renowned for their diverse natural products though little is known of the genetic programming dictating lichen natural product biosynthesis. We sequenced the genome of Cladonia uncialis and profiled its secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. Through a homology searching approach, we can now propose specific functions for gene products as well as the biosynthetic pathways that are encoded in several of these gene clusters. This analysis revealed that the lichen genome encodes the required enzymes for patulin and betaenones A-C biosynthesis, fungal toxins not known to be produced by lichens...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485276/lichen-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-part-i-genome-sequencing-reveals-a-rich-biosynthetic-potential
#7
Robert L Bertrand, Mona Abdel-Hameed, John L Sorensen
Lichens are symbionts of fungi and algae that produce diverse secondary metabolites with useful properties. Little is known of lichen natural product biosynthesis because of the challenges of working with lichenizing fungi. We describe the first attempt to comprehensively profile the genetic secondary metabolome of a lichenizing fungus. An Illumina platform combined with the Antibiotics and Secondary Metabolites Analysis Shell (FungiSMASH, version 4.0) was used to sequence and annotate assembled contigs of the fungal partner of Cladonia uncialis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463846/alteration-of-rocks-by-endolithic-organisms-is-one-of-the-pathways-for-the-beginning-of-soils-on-earth
#8
Nikita Mergelov, Carsten W Mueller, Isabel Prater, Ilya Shorkunov, Andrey Dolgikh, Elya Zazovskaya, Vasily Shishkov, Victoria Krupskaya, Konstantin Abrosimov, Alexander Cherkinsky, Sergey Goryachkin
Subaerial endolithic systems of the current extreme environments on Earth provide exclusive insight into emergence and development of soils in the Precambrian when due to various stresses on the surfaces of hard rocks the cryptic niches inside them were much more plausible habitats for organisms than epilithic ones. Using an actualistic approach we demonstrate that transformation of silicate rocks by endolithic organisms is one of the possible pathways for the beginning of soils on Earth. This process led to the formation of soil-like bodies on rocks in situ and contributed to the raise of complexity in subaerial geosystems...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463322/factors-influencing-microhabitat-selection-and-food-preference-of-tree-dwelling-earwigs-dermaptera-in-a-temperate-floodplain-forest
#9
M Kirstová, P Pyszko, P Kočárek
The ecology of earwigs in natural forest ecosystems is poorly understood. We used sweeping to determine the population densities of adult earwigs, by sex and species, on ten tree species in a temperate floodplain forest in southern Moravia (Czech Republic). We also determined the relationships between the properties of tree species and earwig density and diet as indicated by digestive tract contents. The densities and diet composition of earwigs differed between the three detected earwig species [Apterygida media (Hagenbach, 1822), Chelidurella acanthopygia (Genè, 1832) and Forficula auricularia Linnaeus, 1758] and among tree species...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445133/photoautotrophic-organisms-control-microbial-abundance-diversity-and-physiology-in-different-types-of-biological-soil-crusts
#10
Stefanie Maier, Alexandra Tamm, Dianming Wu, Jennifer Caesar, Martin Grube, Bettina Weber
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover about 12% of the Earth's land masses, thereby providing ecosystem services and affecting biogeochemical fluxes on a global scale. They comprise photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, which grow together with heterotrophic microorganisms, forming a model system to study facilitative interactions and assembly principles in natural communities. Biocrusts can be classified into cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated types, which reflect stages of ecological succession...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417658/reductions-in-complexity-of-mitochondrial-genomes-in-lichen-forming-fungi-shed-light-on-genome-architecture-of-obligate-symbioses
#11
Cloe S Pogoda, Kyle G Keepers, James C Lendemer, Nolan C Kane, Erin A Tripp
Symbioses among co-evolving taxa are often marked by genome reductions such as a loss of protein-coding genes in at least one of the partners as a means of reducing redundancy or intergenomic conflict. To explore this phenomenon in an iconic yet under-studied group of obligate symbiotic organisms, mitochondrial genomes of 22 newly sequenced and annotated species of lichenized fungi were compared to 167 mitochondrial genomes of non-lichenized fungi. Our results demonstrate the first broad scale loss of atp9 from mitochondria of lichenized fungi...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377146/brasilonema-lichenoides-sp-nov-and-chroococcidiopsis-lichenoides-sp-nov-cyanobacteria-two-novel-cyanobacterial-constituents-isolated-from-a-tripartite-lichen-of-headstones
#12
Chelsea D Villanueva, Petr Hašler, Petr Dvořák, Aloisie Poulíčková, Dale A Casamatta
Cyanolichens are an assemblage of fungi and cyanobacteria from diverse, cosmopolitan habitats. Typically composed of a single species of cyanobacterium, with or without another eukaryotic alga, here we present two novel cyanobionts isolated from an undescribed tripartite lichen. This endolithic lichen was isolated from a granite cemetery tombstone from Jacksonville, FL, and contains two potentially nitrogen-fixing cyanobionts. Employing a total evidence approach, we characterized the cyanobionts using molecular (the 16S rDNA and ITS gene region), morphological, and ecological data...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360617/high-diversity-high-insular-endemism-and-recent-origin-in-the-lichen-genus-sticta-lichenized-ascomycota-peltigerales-in-madagascar-and-the-mascarenes
#13
Antoine Simon, Bernard Goffinet, Nicolas Magain, Emmanuël Sérusiaux
Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI (Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands) biodiversity hotspot. We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli...
May 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280946/secondary-metabolite-profiling-of-species-of-the-genus-usnea-by-uhplc-esi-ot-ms-ms
#14
Francisco Salgado, Laura Albornoz, Carmen Cortéz, Elena Stashenko, Kelly Urrea-Vallejo, Edgar Nagles, Cesar Galicia-Virviescas, Alberto Cornejo, Alejandro Ardiles, Mario Simirgiotis, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Carlos Areche
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans...
December 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211626/molecular-analyses-uncover-the-phylogenetic-placement-of-the-lichenized-hyphomycetous-genus-cheiromycina
#15
Lucia Muggia, Riccardo Mancinelli, Tor Tønsberg, Agnieszka Jablonska, Martin Kukwa, Zdeněk Palice
The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known...
July 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180801/modification-and-functional-adaptation-of-the-mbf1-gene-family-in-the-lichenized-fungus-endocarpon-pusillum-under-environmental-stress
#16
Yanyan Wang, Xinli Wei, Jenpan Huang, Jiangchun Wei
The multiprotein-bridging factor 1 (MBF1) gene family is well known in archaea, non-lichenized fungi, plants, and animals, and contains stress tolerance-related genes. Here, we identified four unique mbf1 genes in the lichenized fungi Endocarpon spp. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein sequences showed the translated MBF1 proteins of the newly isolated mbf1 genes formed a monophyletic clade different from other lichen-forming fungi and Ascomycota groups in general, which may reflect the evolution of the biological functions of MBF1s...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155927/specialized-fungal-parasites-reduce-fitness-of-their-lichen-hosts
#17
Sonia Merinero, Yngvar Gauslaa
Background and aims: Understanding to what extent parasites affect host fitness is a focus of research on ecological interactions. Fungal parasites usually affect the functions of vascular plants. However, parasitic interactions comprising effects of fungal parasites on the fitness of lichen hosts are less well known. This study assesses the effects of the abundance of two highly specialized gall-forming fungi on growth of their two respective lichen hosts and tests whether these fungal parasites reduce lichen fitness...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105292/ediacaran-developmental-biology
#18
Frances S Dunn, Alexander G Liu, Philip C J Donoghue
Rocks of the Ediacaran System (635-541 Ma) preserve fossil evidence of some of the earliest complex macroscopic organisms, many of which have been interpreted as animals. However, the unusual morphologies of some of these organisms have made it difficult to resolve their biological relationships to modern metazoan groups. Alternative competing phylogenetic interpretations have been proposed for Ediacaran taxa, including algae, fungi, lichens, rhizoid protists, and even an extinct higher-order group (Vendobionta)...
November 3, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097759/sequencing-genomes-from-mixed-dna-samples-evaluating-the-metagenome-skimming-approach-in-lichenized-fungi
#19
Anjuli Meiser, Jürgen Otte, Imke Schmitt, Francesco Dal Grande
The metagenome skimming approach, i.e. low coverage shotgun sequencing of multi-species assemblages and subsequent reconstruction of individual genomes, is increasingly used for in-depth genomic characterization of ecological communities. This approach is a promising tool for reconstructing genomes of facultative symbionts, such as lichen-forming fungi, from metagenomic reads. However, no study has so far tested accuracy and completeness of assemblies based on metagenomic sequences compared to assemblies based on pure culture strains of lichenized fungi...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091345/a-method-for-the-direct-detection-of-airborne-dispersal-in-lichens
#20
Sally Eaton, Catalina Zúñiga, Jakub Czyzewski, Christopher Ellis, David R Genney, Daniel Haydon, Nosrat Mirzai, Rebecca Yahr
This study sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches. A low-cost device (<£200) was developed to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1 m3 of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species-specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species-specific primers and optimization of a standard DNA extraction and nested PCR protocol...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
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