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neuromuscular ultrasound

Amilton Vieira, Angelina F Siqueira, João B Ferreira-Junior, Paulo Pereira, Dale Wagner, Martim Bottaro
Background: Different ultrasound parameters have been frequently used to assess changes associated with training, aging, immobilization, and neuromuscular diseases. However, an exploratory reliability analysis of the echo intensity (EI) and muscle thickness (MT) of the forearm flexors is scarce, especially in women. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the intra-rater reliability of MT and EI assessed by ultrasound in young women. Method: Ultrasonographic MT and EI were acquired in the forearm flexors of 41 young women (22±2 yrs)...
September 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Navid Taheri, Asghar Rezasoltani, Farshad Okhovatian, Mehdi Karami, Sayed Mohsen Hosseini, Hosein Kouhzad Mohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a neuromuscular dysfunction consisting of both motor and sensory abnormalities. Considering the high prevalence of MPS and its related disabilities and costs, this study was designed to determine the reliability of new ultrasonographic indexes of the upper trapezius muscle as well as the sensitivity and specificity of 2D ultrasound imaging for diagnostic purposes. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling (DN) on studied ultrasonographic indexes...
July 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Neil G Simon, Yu-Ichi Noto, Craig M Zaidman
Skeletal muscle imaging is increasingly used as a complement to clinical and electrophysiological examination in neuromuscular disease. Ultrasound and MRI have developed as the modalities of choice, each with strengths and limitations. Characteristic changes of muscle denervation and myopathy are seen on imaging which may delineate the nature of the disease process or help guide muscle biopsy. Identifying patterns of muscle involvement in hereditary myopathies may inform genetic testing. This review discusses skeletal muscle imaging in neuromuscular disease focusing on practical applications of current and emerging ultrasound and MRI techniques...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Robert D Henderson, Pamela A McCombe
The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units...
September 6, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Sean W Colio, Jay Smith, Adam M Pourcho
Acute and chronic wrist and hand conditions are commonly seen by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography (US) has facilitated advances in the diagnosis and interventional management of wrist and hand disorders. US provides excellent soft tissue resolution, accessibility, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and the ability to dynamically assess disorders and precisely guide interventional procedures. This article review the relevant anatomy, indications, and interventional techniques for common disorders of the wrist and hand, including radiocarpal joint arthritis, scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal joint arthritis, trapeziometacarpal joint arthritis, phalangeal joint arthritis, first dorsal compartment tenosynovitis, ganglion cysts, and stenosing tenosynovitis...
August 2016: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Sigrid Pillen, Andrea Boon, Nens Van Alfen
Muscle ultrasound is an ideal imaging modality that allows for noninvasive, radiation-free point-of-care neuromuscular imaging. There are many potential applications of muscle ultrasound, including identification of abnormal muscle movements such as fasciculations, evaluation of muscle trauma, identification of physiologic parameters such as pennation angle, accurate performance of chemodenervation, and improved accuracy of challenging electrodiagnostic studies such as phrenic nerve conduction studies or needle electromyogram (EMG) of the diaphragm...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Robin S Howard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the mechanisms and abnormalities of respiratory function in neuromuscular disease is critical to supporting the patient and maintaining ventilation in the face of acute or chronic progressive impairment. RECENT FINDINGS: Retrospective clinical studies reviewing the care of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia have shown a disturbingly high mortality following step-down from intensive care. This implies high dependency and rehabilitation management is failing despite evidence that delayed improvement can occur with long-term care...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
A Konrad, S Stafilidis, M Tilp
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis...
July 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Daniel E Lidstone, Herman van Werkhoven, Justin A Stewart, Reed Gurchiek, Madison Burris, Paige Rice, Garrett Feimster, Jeffrey M McBride
BACKGROUND: Previous literature has shown in vivo changes in muscle-tendon interaction during exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise. It is unclear whether these changes in muscle-tendon length during exhaustive SSC exercise are associated with changes in mechanical efficiency (ME). The purpose of the study was to investigate whether changes in platarflexor contractile component (CC) length, tendon length, and changes in plantarflexor muscle activity could explain reduction in ME during exhaustive SSC exercise...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Seung Ok Baek, Hee Kyung Cho, So Yeon Kim, Rodney Jones, Yun Woo Cho, Sang Ho Ahn
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is known to stimulate contraction of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in deep lumbar stabilizing muscle thickness during transcutaneous NMES on specific abdominal wall and paraspinal regions. METHODS: Thirty patients with low back pain (LBP) were recruited. Three sessions were preformed: Session 1: NMES on abdominal wall, Session 2: NMES on lumbar paraspinal area, and Session 3: concurrent NMES on abdominal wall and lumbar paraspinal area...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Xiguang Wei, Jinyong Zhang, Shing-Chow Chan, Ho-Chun Wu, Yongjin Zhou, Yong-Ping Zheng
Ultrasonography is an important diagnostic imaging technique for visualization of tendons, which provides useful health diagnostic and fundamental information in neuromuscular studies of human motion systems. Conventional ultrasonic-based tendon studies, however, are highly dependent on subjective experience of operators due to various impairments of ultrasound images. Dynamic changes of muscle and tendon deformation in a sequence can hardly be manually processed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for automatic analysis of tendon behavior...
June 14, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Anne Cc Lee, Luke C Mullany, Karima Ladhani, Jamal Uddin, Dipak Mitra, Parvez Ahmed, Parul Christian, Alain Labrique, Sushil K DasGupta, R Peter Lokken, Mohammed Quaiyum, Abdullah H Baqui
BACKGROUND: Gestational age (GA) is frequently unknown or inaccurate in pregnancies in low-income countries. Early identification of preterm infants may help link them to potentially life-saving interventions. METHODS: We conducted a validation study in a community-based birth cohort in rural Bangladesh. GA was determined by pregnancy ultrasound (<20 weeks). Community health workers conducted home visits (<72 hours) to assess physical/neuromuscular signs and measure anthropometrics...
July 2016: Pediatrics
F Ehsani, A M Arab, M Salavati, S Jaberzadeh, A Hajihasani
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) imaging can be used for the measurement of trunk muscle activity. However, the displacements of US transducer, especially during more dynamic situations, may disturb the measurement results. To control this variable, some studies used transducer fixator (TF), but no study evaluated the effect of using TF on US reliability in dynamic situations. The present study discriminated this issue. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intra-session and inter-session reliability of lateral abdominal muscle thickness measurement in dynamic standing postural tasks using US with and without TF in participants with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP)...
May 19, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, José Peña Amaro, Paula Esteban, Susana Mendizábal, José Fernando Jiménez
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyse gender differences in neuromuscular behaviour of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis during the take-off phase of a countermovement jump (CMJ), using direct measures (ground reaction forces, muscle activity and dynamic ultrasound). METHODS: Sixty-four young adults (aged 18-25 years) participated voluntarily in this study, 35 men and 29 women. The firing of the trigger allowed obtainment of data collection vertical ground reaction forces (GRF), surface electromyography activity (sEMG) and dynamic ultrasound gastrocnemius of both legs...
May 19, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Samuel K Chu, Monica E Rho
Hamstring injuries are very common in athletes. Acute hamstring strains can occur with high-speed running or with excessive hamstring lengthening. Athletes with proximal hamstring tendinopathy often do not report a specific inciting event; instead, they develop the pathology from chronic overuse. A thorough history and physical examination is important to determine the appropriate diagnosis and rule out other causes of posterior thigh pain. Conservative management of hamstring strains involves a rehabilitation protocol that gradually increases intensity and range of motion, and progresses to sport-specific and neuromuscular control exercises...
May 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Travis G O'Brien, Robert J Spinner, Andrea J Boon
INTRODUCTION: Neuromuscular choristomas (NMCs) are rare benign peripheral nerve lesions in which skeletal muscle tissue is admixed with nerve fascicles. METHODS: We describe a case of sciatic nerve NMC presenting with unilateral limb hypoplasia, monoparesis, and equinovarus contracture in a pediatric patient. We outline the unique clinical presentation and diagnostic work-up for our patient, including electromyographic and imaging studies. RESULTS: MRI revealed fusiform enlargement of the sciatic nerve, <50% intralesional fat, and signal characteristics similar to those of muscle tissue...
October 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Ashraf S Gorgey, Mark K Timmons, David R Dolbow, Justin Bengel, Kendall C Fugate-Laus, Lori A Michener, David R Gater
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise on wrist extensors cross-sectional area (CSA), torque and hand functions compared NMES only in individuals with incomplete tetraplegia. The acute effect of an acute bout of NMES with BFR on flow mediated dilation (FMD) was compared with BFR only. METHOD: Nine men completed 6 weeks twice weekly of bilateral NMES training of the wrist extensor muscles...
June 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Tobias Morat, Kevin J Gilmore, Charles L Rice
This study applied the screening tool developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) on seniors aged over 65years and concurrently tested various laboratory-based indices of neuromuscular function. Twenty-four healthy and independent living older adults (9 men, 15 women) with a mean age of 79.1±5.8years participated. Based on gait speed, handgrip strength and muscle mass all subjects were categorized into one of the three conceptual sarcopenia stages (pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia, severe sarcopenia)...
August 2016: Experimental Gerontology
So Yeon Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Gil Su Jung, Seung Ok Baek, Rodney Jones, Sang Ho Ahn
[Purpose] To investigate the effectiveness of three different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols for the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with LDK were recruited. Three stimulation protocols were investigated: stimulation of the abdominal muscles (protocol A); stimulation of the lumbar muscles (protocol B); and simultaneous stimulation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles (protocol A+B). Images of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI), transversus abdominis (TrA), and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles were captured by real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI)...
January 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Mallory R Selzo, Christopher J Moore, Md Murad Hossain, Mark L Palmeri, Caterina M Gallippi
Viscoelastic response (VisR) ultrasound is an acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based imaging method that fits induced displacements to a one-dimensional (1-D) mass-spring-damper (MSD) model to estimate the ratio of viscous to elastic moduli, τ, in viscoelastic materials. Error in VisR τ estimation arises from inertia and acoustic displacement underestimation. These error sources are herein evaluated using finite-element method (FEM) simulations, error correction methods are developed, and corrected VisR τ estimates are compared with true simulated τ values to assess VisR's relevance to quantifying viscoelasticity...
September 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
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