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Restriction fetal

Carlos Menendez-Castro, Wolfgang Rascher, Andrea Hartner
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal pathology which leads to increased risk for certain neonatal complications. Furthermore, clinical and experimental studies revealed that IUGR is associated with a significantly higher incidence of metabolic, renal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. One hypothesis for the higher risk of CVD after IUGR postulates that IUGR induces metabolic alterations that then lead to CVD.This minireview focuses on recent studies which demonstrate that IUGR is followed by early primary cardiovascular alterations which may directly progress to CVD later in life...
March 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
M Vázquez-Gómez, C García-Contreras, L Torres-Rovira, S Astiz, C Óvilo, A González-Bulnes, B Isabel
Background: The aim of this study was to determine how maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and offspring birth-weight can affect the postnatal development of offspring under farm conditions, which may lead to consequences in its meat and carcass quality. The current study involved a total of 80 litters from Iberian sows fed a diet fulfilling daily requirements ( n  = 47; control) or providing 70% daily requirements ( n  = 33; underfed) from d 38 to d 90 of gestation when fetal tissue development begins...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
L Ormesher, E D Johnstone, E Shawkat, A Dempsey, C Chmiel, E Ingram, L E Higgins, J E Myers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of plasma Placental Growth Factor (PlGF), recommended by the recent NICE guidance, in women with suspected pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR). STUDY DESIGN: Non-randomised prospective clinical evaluation study in high-risk antenatal clinics in a tertiary maternity unit. METHODS: PlGF testing was performed in addition to routine clinical assessment in 260 women >20 weeks' gestation with chronic disease (hypertension, renal disease ± diabetes) with a change in maternal condition or in women with suspected FGR to determine the impact on clinical management...
March 13, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Şifa Turan, Özhan M Turan
The ductus venosus is a fetal vessel that functions importantly in the transfer of oxygen-and nutrient-rich blood from the umbilical vein to vital organs. Its control under active regulation and its anatomy result in a flow-velocity profile that is typically forward throughout the cardiac cycle. This forward cardiac function reflects afterload, cardiac contractility, compliance, and vascular volume changes. Ductus venosus assessment gives valuable information under different fetal conditions. For example, during first trimester screening, an abnormal ductus venosus measurement changes the screening result...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Sophie Pils, Stephanie Springer, Rudolf Seemann, Verena Wehrmann, Christof Worda, Johannes Ott
PURPOSE: To review our experience in ultrasound fetal weight estimation in our large population of triplet pregnancies. METHODS: Ninety-seven triplet pregnancies were retrospectively included between January 2003 and January 2017. Sonographic fetal weight estimation using Hadlock's and Schild's formulas was compared to actual birth weight in a tertiary-care center in Vienna, Austria. Statistical analyses were performed using a stepwise linear regression model and crosstabs...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
George P Daston, Manon Beekhuijzen
We evaluated the incidence of omphalocele, a malformation that occurs sporadically in many studies. We assembled data on external malformations using all treatment groups from every study published in three major journals over the past 35 years using New Zealand White rabbits. Fifty-eight papers were included: 4905 litters and 36,977 fetuses. Omphalocele was reported in 43% and was among the most common defects, occurring at a rate of 1.10% (litter) and 0.16% (fetus). The defect did not appear to be treatment-related, although it may have been in two studies, based on rate and dose-responsiveness...
March 14, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Sandra Heese, Kerstin Hammer, Mareike Möllers, Helen A Köster, Maria K Falkenberg, Maria Eveslage, Janina Braun, Kathrin Oelmeier de Murcia, Walter Klockenbusch, Ralf Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To compare the adrenal gland size of fetal growth restricted (FGR) and normal control fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective study the adrenal gland size of 63 FGR fetuses and 343 normal controls was measured between 20 and 41 weeks of gestation. The total width and the medulla width were measured in a new standardized transversal plane. The cortex width and a calculated ratio of the total and medulla width (adrenal gland ratio) were compared between both groups...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Michael W Pankhurst, Rebecca L Kelley, Rachel L Sanders, Savana R Woodcock, Dorothy E Oorschot, Nicola J Batchelor
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an ovarian regulator that affects folliculogenesis. AMH inhibits the developmental activation of the dormant primordial follicles and the oocyte within. In more mature follicles, AMH reduces granulosa cell sensitivity to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). We examined the effects of AMH overexpression on the stages of ovarian folliculogenesis, and the development of embryos, with a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human AMH in central nervous system neurons under the control of the mouse Thy1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Tiandong Che, Diyan Li, Long Jin, Yuhua Fu, Yingkai Liu, Pengliang Liu, Yixin Wang, Qianzi Tang, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Anan Jiang, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Genome-wide transcriptomic studies in humans and mice have become extensive and mature. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expressed during pig spleen development has not been achieved. LncRNAs are known to participate in regulatory networks for an array of biological processes. Here, we constructed 18 RNA libraries from developing fetal pig spleen (55 days before birth), postnatal pig spleens (0, 30, 180 days and 2 years after birth), and the samples from the 2-year-old Wild Boar...
2018: PloS One
Stavros Sifakis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, Artemis Pontikaki, Alexis Velegrakis, George I Papaioannou, Ourania Koukoura, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikos Papantoniou
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a gynecological disorder of varying etiology. In the present study, an expression analysis of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2) and placenta-specific-1 (PLAC-1) was conducted in pregnancies with FGR and control pregnancies. Placental tissues were collected from pregnancies with FGR (n=16) and control pregnancies (n=16) and the expression of the genes of interest was examined by qPCR. The mean expression levels of PAPPA and PAPPA2 were significantly lower (P<0...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Silvia G V Alvarez, Angela McBrien
The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a crucial part of the fetal circulation, both in the normal fetus and in critical congenital heart disease (CHD). It allows shunting between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. In physiological prenatal conditions, the DA lets the majority of right ventricular output bypass the fluid-filled, high-resistance lungs. The DA can cause hemodynamic compromise in the fetus and neonate when constricted or absent (in isolation or in patients with CHD) and may lead to pre- or postnatal sequelae within other systems when forming part of a vascular ring...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kang Yu, Chelsea L Davidson, Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Luiz Lisboa, Ting Wang, Adriana M Airo, Jean Villard, Jeremie Buratto, Tatyana Sandalova, Adnane Achour, Atul Humar, Katia Boggian, Alexia Cusini, Christian van Delden, Adrian Egli, Oriol Manuel, Nicolas Mueller, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Deborah N Burshtyn
UL18 is a human CMV (HCMV) MHC class I (MHCI) homolog that efficiently inhibits leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 1 (LILRB1)+ NK cells. We found an association of LILRB1 polymorphisms in the regulatory regions and ligand-binding domains with control of HCMV in transplant patients. Naturally occurring LILRB1 variants expressed in model NK cells showed functional differences with UL18 and classical MHCI, but not with HLA-G. The altered functional recognition was recapitulated in binding assays with the binding domains of LILRB1...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
V Jakoubek, V Hampl
Alcohol abuse during pregnancy is a well-known factor in fetal morbidity, including smaller fetal size. We have shown that chronic hypoxia, considered the main pathogenetic factor in intrauterine growth restriction, elevates fetoplacental vascular resistance (and vasoconstrictor reactivity) and thus, presumably, reduces placental blood flow. We thus hypothesized that alcohol may affect the fetus - in addition to other mechanisms - by altering fetoplacental vascular resistance and/or reactivity. Using isolated, double-perfused rat placenta model, we found that maternal alcohol intake in the last third of gestation doubled the vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II but did not affect resting vascular resistance...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Facundo Mendes Garrido Abregú, María Natalia Gobetto, Lorena Vanesa Juriol, Carolina Caniffi, Rosana Elesgaray, Analía Lorena Tomat, Cristina Arranz
Micronutrient malnutrition during intrauterine and postnatal growth may program cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We examined whether moderate zinc restriction in male and female rats throughout fetal life, lactation and/or postweaning growth induces alterations that can predispose to the onset of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. Female Wistar rats were fed low- or control zinc diets from pregnancy to offspring weaning. After weaning, offspring were fed either a low- or a control zinc diet until 81 days...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Myriam Stolz, Harald Zeisler, Florian Heinzl, Julia Binder, Alex Farr
OBJECTIVES: The ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) is increased in preeclampsia. This study evaluated perinatal outcomes in cases with an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio above 655. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed data from all consecutive women with singleton pregnancies who presented with clinically manifest preeclampsia and underwent immediate sFlt-1:PlGF assessment. Cases with an sFlt-1:PlGF ratio ≥ 655 were matched 1:1 for gestational age to controls with a ratio < 655...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Simona Cardaropoli, Tullia Todros, Anna Maria Nuzzo, Alessandro Rolfo
Preeclampsia (PE) is a multifactorial pregnancy-induced syndrome and infection could have a role in its etiopathogenesis. Hepcidin, central regulator of iron homeostasis, is an antimicrobial peptide induced by inflammatory/infective stimuli. Therefore, hepcidin could be a good nonspecific marker of infection in PE. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed maternal serum levels (ELISA) and placental expression (Real-Time PCR and ELISA) of hepcidin in PE and normal pregnancies. In a prospective study, hepcidin maternal serum levels were assessed in early pregnancy before PE onset and in age matched controls...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Beatriz Manriquez Rocha, Francisco Mbofana, Osvaldo Loquiha, Chishamiso Mudenyanga, U Vivian Ukah, Laura A Magee, Peter von Dadelszen
In well-resourced settings, reduced circulating maternal free placental growth factor (PlGF) aids in either predicting or confirming the diagnosis of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, preterm birth, and delivery within 14 days of testing when pre-eclampsia is suspected. This operational pilot implementation of maternal plasma PlGF in women with suspected preeclampsia was conducted in six antenatal clinics in Maputo, Mozambique (six control clinics for comparison). The primary outcome was transfer to higher levels of care, following the informative PlGF assay...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Jiayi Wan, Zheng Hu, Ke Zeng, Yongxiang Yin, Min Zhao, Miaoxin Chen, Qi Chen
Abnormalities in the development of placental vasculature in early pregnancy and the failure of transformation of the spiral arteries are associated with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Sex hormones influence neovascularisation during pregnancy. However the profiling of estrogen and progesterone in preeclampsia is controversial. In this study we investigated the serum levels of estrogen and progesterone in women with preeclampsia. Blood samples were collected from 86 preeclamptic and 97 gestation-matched normotensive pregnancies...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
N Varnier, M A Brown, M Reynolds, F Pettit, G Davis, G Mangos, A Henry
OBJECTIVE: Examine the frequency with which the most accepted indicators for delivery in pre-eclampsia are used in a population with predominantly late-onset (birth > 32 weeks) pre-eclampsia (PE). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the St George Public Hospital (SGH) Hypertension in Pregnancy database. Demographic, pregnancy, and outcome details were extracted and verified by comparison with data collection sheets. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2013, 908 women (970 babies) with PE were included, of which a subgroup of 303 women (33%) had clearly delineated delivery triggers available...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
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