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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534661/characterization-of-human-fetal-brain-endothelial-cells-reveals-barrier-properties-suitable-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-modeling-of-the-bbb-with-syngenic-co-cultures
#1
Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Lee A Cannella, Nancy Reichenbach, Roshanak Razmpour, Matthew J Seasock, Steven J Kaspin, Steven F Merkel, Dianne Langford, Yuri Persidsky, Servio H Ramirez
Endothelial cells (ECs) form the basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a physical barrier that selectively restricts transport into the brain. In vitro models can provide significant insight into BBB physiology, mechanisms of human disease pathology, toxicology, and drug delivery. Given the limited availability of primary human adult brain microvascular ECs ( aBMVECs), human fetal tissue offers a plausible alternative source for multiple donors and the opportunity to build syngenic tri-cultures from the same host...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533516/asd-restricted-and-repetitive-behaviors-associated-at-17q21-33-genes-prioritized-by-expression-in-fetal-brains
#2
R M Cantor, L Navarro, H Won, R L Walker, J K Lowe, D H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined condition that manifests in infancy or early childhood as deficits in communication skills and social interactions. Often, restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) accompany this disorder. ASD is polygenic and genetically complex, so we hypothesized that focusing analyses on intermediate core component phenotypes, such as RRBs, can reduce genetic heterogeneity and improve statistical power. Applying this approach, we mined Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from two of the largest ASD family cohorts, the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange and Autism Genome Project (AGP)...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532678/selective-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-monochorionic-diamniotic-twin-pregnancies
#3
REVIEW
Mar Bennasar, Elisenda Eixarch, Josep Maria Martinez, Eduard Gratacós
Selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) affects 10-15% of all monochorionic pregnancies. Early severe forms are associated with intrauterine demise or neurological adverse outcome for both twins. The characteristics of umbilical artery (UA) Doppler in the IUGR fetus determine three clinical types: (I) normal UA Doppler and associated with good prognosis; (II) persistently absent/reverse UA end-diastolic flow and associated with early deterioration of the IUGR twin and very preterm delivery; (III) intermittently absent/reverse end-diastolic flow in the UA, and associated with unexpected fetal demise or neurological injury in one or both twins...
May 19, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529976/de-novo-generation-and-characterization-of-new-zika-virus-isolate-using-sequence-data-from-a-microcephaly-case
#4
Yin Xiang Setoh, Natalie A Prow, Nias Peng, Leon E Hugo, Gregor Devine, Jessamine E Hazlewood, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged and is the etiological agent of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), a spectrum of congenital abnormalities arising from neural tissue infections in utero. Herein, we describe the de novo generation of a new ZIKV isolate, ZIKVNatal, using a modified circular polymerase extension reaction protocol and sequence data obtained from a ZIKV-infected fetus with microcephaly. ZIKVNatal thus has no laboratory passage history and is unequivocally associated with CZS. ZIKVNatal could be used to establish a fetal brain infection model in IFNAR(-/-) mice (including intrauterine growth restriction) without causing symptomatic infections in dams...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528582/searching-the-web-a-survey-on-the-quality-of-advice-on-postnatal-sequelae-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-the-implication-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease
#5
S Perzel, H Huebner, W Rascher, C Menendez-Castro, A Hartner, F B Fahlbusch
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are pregnancy complications associated with morbidity in later life. Despite a growing body of evidence from current research on developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), little information is currently provided to parents on long-term metabolic, cardiovascular and neurologic consequences. As parents strongly rely on internet-based health-related information, we examined the quality of information on IUGR/FGR sequelae and DOHaD in webpages used by laypersons...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527483/single-fetal-death-in-monochorionic-twin-pregnancy-co-twin-prognosis-and-neonatal-outcome
#6
Emídio Vale-Fernandes, Joana Dias, Belandina Gil, Alexandra Cadilhe
The incidence of single fetal death in twin pregnancy varies from 0.5% - 6.8%, leaving the surviving fetus with increased morbi-mortality. The prognosis is worse in monochorionic pregnancies. In addressing these cases it should be noted referral to tertiary center with differentiated perinatal support, induction of fetal lung maturation and termination of pregnancy if there's loss of fetal well-being or possibility of maternal complications and suspected neurological sequelae in the surviving fetus. The risk of iatrogenic prematurity should always be weighed with the possible consequences arising from the fetus staying in a hostile uterine environment...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526753/altered-feto-placental-vascularization-feto-placental-malperfusion-and-fetal-growth-restriction-in-mice-with-egfl7-loss-of-function
#7
Lauretta A Lacko, Romulo Hurtado, Samantha Hinds, Michael G Poulos, Jason M Butler, Heidi Stuhlmann
EGFL7 is a secreted, angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7(-/-) placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522651/pregnancy-and-glomerular-disease-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-with-management-guidelines
#8
Kimberly Blom, Ayodele Odutayo, Kate Bramham, Michelle A Hladunewich
During pregnancy, CKD increases both maternal and fetal risk. Adverse maternal outcomes include progression of underlying renal dysfunction, worsening of urine protein, and hypertension, whereas adverse fetal outcomes include fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery. As such, pregnancy in young women with CKD is anxiety provoking for both the patient and the clinician providing care, and because the heterogeneous group of glomerular diseases often affects young women, this is an area of heightened concern...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522033/placenta-directed-gene-therapy-for-fetal-growth-restriction
#9
REVIEW
Tara Krishnan, Anna L David
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious pregnancy complication affecting ∼8% of all pregnancies. There is no treatment to increase fetal growth in the uterus. Gene therapy presents a promising treatment strategy for FGR, with the use of adenoviral vectors encoding for proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor demonstrating improvements in fetal growth, placental function, and neonatal outcome in preclinical studies. Safety assessments suggest no adverse risk to the mother or fetus for VEGF maternal gene therapy; a clinical trial is in development...
May 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520809/antenatal-coffee-and-tea-consumption-and-the-effect-on-birth-outcome-and-hypertensive-pregnancy-disorders
#10
Timothy van der Hoeven, Joyce L Browne, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Cornelis K van der Ent, Diederick E Grobbee, Geertje W Dalmeijer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Coffee and tea are commonly consumed during pregnancy. While several of their components, like caffeine, have strong pharmacological effects, the effect on the unborn fetus remains unclear. Caffeine intake has been associated with abortion, preterm birth and fetal growth restriction, but a general consensus on caffeine restriction is still lacking. We aimed to investigate antenatal coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and the effect on birth weight and length, gestational age at birth and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514879/growth-restriction-identifying-fetuses-at-risk
#11
Heidi K Leftwich, Bethany Stetson, Bethany Sabol, Katherine Leung, Judith U Hibbard, Isabelle Wilkins
PURPOSE: Examine risks of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and composite perinatal outcomes with estimated fetal weights (EFW) 10-20(th)%, and compare outcomes using umbilical artery Doppler (UAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, cohort evaluating ultrasound (US) EFW 10th-20(th)%, between 2002-2012. Cases were identified with EFW % 10-20. Controls, EFW >20(th)% were obtained for each case, matched by gestational age and US date. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression was used for outcomes...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508694/online-versus-offline-spatiotemporal-image-correlation-stic-m-mode-for-the-evaluation-of-cardiac-longitudinal-annular-displacement-in-fetal-growth-restriction
#12
Jozien C Tanis, Nuruddin Mohammed, Mar Bennasar, Josep Maria Martinez, Bart Bijnens, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos
PURPOSE: Our first aim was to compare online M-mode with offline spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) M-mode for assessing longitudinal annular displacement (LAD) in growth restricted fetuses (FGR). Our second aim was to compare LAD measures of FGR cases with controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study including 40 FGR cases (defined estimated fetal weight and birth weight <10(th) centile) and 72 normally grown fetuses matched to cases by gestational age at scan...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506493/strategies-for-investigating-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-what-can-we-learn-about-pathology
#13
Judith E Cartwright, Guy StJ Whitley
The pathologies of the pregnancy complications pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are established in the first trimester of human pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy, decidual spiral arteries are transformed into wide diameter, non-vasoactive vessels capable of meeting the increased demands of the developing fetus for nutrients and oxygen. Disruption of this transformation is associated with PE and FGR. Very little is known of how these first trimester changes are regulated normally and even less is known about how they are compromised in complicated pregnancies...
May 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503744/treatment-using-tadalafil-for-severe-pre-eclampsia-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#14
Hiroaki Tanaka, Michiko Kubo, Masafumi Nii, Sintarou Maki, Takashi Umekawa, Tomoaki Ikeda
For severe pre-eclampsia (PE) with fetal growth restriction (FGR), the only effective treatment is early delivery of the placenta. Clinicians are often forced to end the pregnancy because of maternal indications. We report a case of severe PE with FGR in which the PE was temporarily improved and pregnancy successfully prolonged with tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor. A 35-year-old primigravid woman presented at 27 3/7 weeks of gestation with severe PE and FGR. After commencing tadalafil administration, biochemical and angiogenic markers improved...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502262/effects-of-combined-iugr-and-prenatal-stress-on-the-development-of-the-hippocampus-in-a-fetal-guinea-pig-model
#15
A L Cumberland, H K Palliser, P Rani, D W Walker, J J Hirst
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal stress during pregnancy are two compromises that negatively impact neurodevelopment and increase the risk of developing later life neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and behavioural disorders. Neurosteroids, particularly allopregnanolone, are important in protecting the developing brain and promoting many essential neurodevelopmental processes. Individually, IUGR and prenatal stress (PS) reduce myelination and neurogenesis within affected fetal brains, however less information is available on the combined effects of these two disorders on the term fetal brain...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501282/proteinuria-in-preeclampsia-not-essential-to-diagnosis-but-related-to-disease-severity-and-fetal-outcomes
#16
Xin Dong, Wenli Gou, Chunfang Li, Min Wu, Zhen Han, Xuelan Li, Qi Chen
Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality globally and proteinuria can be one of the cardinal features of this disease. However, studies about the association of the amount of proteinuria and the severity of preeclampsia, and perinatal outcomes are limited. Data on 239 women with preeclampsia were retrospectively collected from a university teaching hospital from September 2011 to June 2013 and analysed. Data included all clinical parameters and proteinuria in a 24h urine collection...
April 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501276/diagnosis-of-preeclampsia-and-fetal-growth-restriction-with-the-sflt-1-plgf-ratio-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-automated-immunoassay-kryptor%C3%A2
#17
Lisa Antonia Dröge, Alice Höller, Laura Ehrlich, Stefan Verlohren, Wolfgang Henrich, Frank Holger Perschel
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the diagnostic accuracy of the Kryptor® assay for sFlt-1 and PlGF in maternal serum samples of uneventful singleton pregnancies and subjects with preeclampsia (PE) and PE-related outcomes such as fetal growth restriction (FGR). Longitudinal reference ranges of the sFlt-1 and PlGF level in the course of normal pregnancies were generated. METHODS: A cohort of subjects with PE and PE-related outcomes including FGR in the third trimester was compared to a cohort of women with uneventful outcome...
April 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500823/aflatoxin-exposure-during-pregnancy-maternal-anemia-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#18
Laura E Smith, Andrew J Prendergast, Paul C Turner, Jean H Humphrey, Rebecca J Stoltzfus
AbstractPregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia...
April 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500672/telomere-length-and-fetal-programming-a-review-of-recent-scientific-advances
#19
Valerie E Whiteman, Anjali Goswami, Hamisu M Salihu
We sought to synthesize a comprehensive literature review comprising recent research linking fetal programming to fetal telomere length. We also explored the potential effects fetal telomere length shortening has on fetal phenotypes. Utilizing the PubMed database as our primary search engine, we retrieved and reviewed 165 articles of published research. The inclusion criteria limited the articles to those that appeared within the last ten years, were pertinent to humans, and without restriction to language of publication...
May 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493842/mesenchymal-stem-cell-infiltration-during-neoplastic-transformation-of-the-human-prostate
#20
W Nathaniel Brennen, Baohui Zhang, Ibrahim Kulac, L Nelleke Kisteman, Lizamma Antony, Hao Wang, Alan K Meeker, Angelo M De Marzo, Isla P Garraway, Samuel R Denmeade, John T Isaacs
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been identified in prostate cancer, raising the critical question of their physical and temporal source. Therefore, MSCs were quantified and characterized in benign and malignant prostate tissue representing different disease states and a wide range of age groups from fetal development through adult death using analytical and functional methodologies. In contrast to lineage-restricted Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells (MPCs) found in normal prostate tissue, MSCs with tri-lineage differentiation potential (adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis) are identified in prostate tissue from a subset of men with prostate cancer, consistent with an influx of more stem-like progenitors (i...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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