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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382744/heterogeneity-within-the-frontoparietal-control-network-and-its-relationship-to-the-default-and-dorsal-attention-networks
#1
Matthew L Dixon, Alejandro De La Vega, Caitlin Mills, Jessica Andrews-Hanna, R Nathan Spreng, Michael W Cole, Kalina Christoff
The frontoparietal control network (FPCN) plays a central role in executive control. It has been predominantly viewed as a unitary domain general system. Here, we examined patterns of FPCN functional connectivity (FC) across multiple conditions of varying cognitive demands, to test for FPCN heterogeneity. We identified two distinct subsystems within the FPCN based on hierarchical clustering and machine learning classification analyses of within-FPCN FC patterns. These two FPCN subsystems exhibited distinct patterns of FC with the default network (DN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN)...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374914/-regional-homogeneity-in-the-patients-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-complicated-with-depression-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#2
J Li, G X Li, Y Guo, X Q Lu, L Li, J P Ding
Objective: To explore the changes of the brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the patients of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) complicated with depression by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and to investigate the relation between abnormal brain function and depression in those patients. Methods: A total of 35 patients with IBS were included in this study, collected in Gastroenterology Department of Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University from June 2015 to June 2017...
January 16, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249961/gait-speed-and-gait-variability-are-associated-with-different-functional-brain-networks
#3
On-Yee Lo, Mark A Halko, Junhong Zhou, Rachel Harrison, Lewis A Lipsitz, Brad Manor
Gait speed and gait variability are clinically meaningful markers of locomotor control that are suspected to be regulated by multiple supraspinal control mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between these gait parameters and the functional connectivity of brain networks in functionally limited older adults. Twelve older adults with mild-to-moderate cognition "executive" dysfunction and relatively slow gait, yet free from neurological diseases, completed a gait assessment and a resting-state fMRI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235506/differential-contributions-of-the-middle-frontal-gyrus-functional-connectivity-to-literacy-and-numeracy
#4
Maki S Koyama, David O'Connor, Zarrar Shehzad, Michael P Milham
Literacy and numeracy equally affect an individual's success in and beyond schools, but these two competencies tend to be separately examined, particularly in neuroimaging studies. The current resting-state fMRI study examined the neural correlates of literacy and numeracy in the same sample of healthy adults. We first used an exploratory "Multivariate Distance Matrix Regression" (MDMR) approach to examine intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), highlighting the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) for both competencies...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209069/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-dampens-mind-wandering-in-men
#5
Elena Bertossi, Ludovica Peccenini, Andrea Solmi, Alessio Avenanti, Elisa Ciaramelli
Mind-wandering, the mind's capacity to stray from external events and generate task-unrelated thought, has been associated with activity in the brain default network. To date, little is understood about the contribution of individual nodes of this network to mind-wandering. Here, we investigated the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mind-wandering, by perturbing this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Young healthy participants performed a choice reaction time task both before and after receiving cathodal tDCS over mPFC, and had their thoughts periodically sampled...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161362/the-hierarchical-organization-of-the-default-dorsal-attention-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#6
Yuan Zhou, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Jie Chen, Shu Li, Adeel Razi
An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Our analysis revealed an asymmetric effective connectivity, such that the regions in the SN and DAN exerted an inhibitory influence on the cDN regions; whereas the cDN exerted an excitatory influence on the SN and DAN regions...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136310/brain-networks-of-the-imaginative-mind-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-default-and-cognitive-control-networks-relates-to-openness-to-experience
#7
Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Alexander P Christensen, Jiang Qiu, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128784/insular-subdivisions-functional-connectivity-dysfunction-within-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Xiaolong Peng, Pan Lin, Xiaoping Wu, Ruxue Gong, Rui Yang, Jue Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045587/differential-contributions-of-default-and-dorsal-attention-networks-to-remembering-thoughts-and-external-stimuli-from-real-life-events
#9
David Stawarczyk, Olivier Jeunehomme, Arnaud D'Argembeau
Episodic memories are typically composed of perceptual information derived from the external environment and representations of internal states (e.g., one's thoughts during prior episodes). To date, however, research has mostly focused on the remembrance of external stimuli, such that little is known about how internal mentation is represented within episodic memory. In the present fMRI study, we examined the neural correlates of these 2 components of episodic memories using a novel method of cuing memories from photographs taken during real-life events...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965143/changes-in-connectivity-of-the-posterior-default-network-node-during-visual-processing-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-staged-decline-between-normal-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Lenka Krajcovicova, Marek Barton, Nela Elfmarkova-Nemcova, Michal Mikl, Radek Marecek, Irena Rektorova
Visual processing difficulties are often present in Alzheimer's disease (AD), even in its pre-dementia phase (i.e. in mild cognitive impairment, MCI). The default mode network (DMN) modulates the brain connectivity depending on the specific cognitive demand, including visual processes. The aim of the present study was to analyze specific changes in connectivity of the posterior DMN node (i.e. the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, PCC/P) associated with visual processing in 17 MCI patients and 15 AD patients as compared to 18 healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728026/parallel-interdigitated-distributed-networks-within-the-individual-estimated-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#11
Rodrigo M Braga, Randy L Buckner
Certain organizational features of brain networks present in the individual are lost when central tendencies are examined in the group. Here we investigated the detailed network organization of four individuals each scanned 24 times using MRI. We discovered that the distributed network known as the default network is comprised of two separate networks possessing adjacent regions in eight or more cortical zones. A distinction between the networks is that one is coupled to the hippocampal formation while the other is not...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#12
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Because both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N = 359, 22-36 years, 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624521/semanticized-autobiographical-memory-and-the-default-executive-coupling-hypothesis-of-aging
#13
R Nathan Spreng, Amber W Lockrow, Elizabeth DuPre, Roni Setton, Karen A P Spreng, Gary R Turner
As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538520/radiation-induced-cerebellar-cerebral-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#14
Qiongmin Ma, Ling-Li Zeng, Jian Qin, Zhiguo Luo, Jianpo Su, Donglin Wu, Shijun Qiu, Dewen Hu
The current study aimed to investigate the altered cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity (FC) induced by radiotherapy to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Twenty-four NPC patients without treatment, and 35 NPC patients receiving radiotherapy underwent functional MRI scanning. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was performed to evaluate the cognitive status of all participants. FC between 10 predefined cerebellar seeds, which were demonstrated to be involved in different brain functional networks, and all brain voxels was obtained for each participant...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528774/local-to-remote-cortical-connectivity-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Yi-Wen Zhang, Zhi-Lian Zhao, Zhigang Qi, Yang Hu, Yin-Shan Wang, Can Sheng, Yu Sun, Xiaoni Wang, Li-Li Jiang, Chao-Gan Yan, Kuncheng Li, Hui-Jie Li, Xi-Nian Zuo
Alterations in both local and remote connectivity were reported in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients but rarely in the same group of patients. In the present study, we employed a novel resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) connectome index, regional functional homogeneity on the 2-dimensional cortical surface, to detect full-cortex vertex-wise changes of the local rfMRI connectivity in 32 aMCI patients compared with 40 healthy controls. We further used the seed-based functional connectivity to explore the remote rfMRI connectivity in aMCI...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450827/understanding-the-influences-of-eeg-reference-a-large-scale-brain-network-perspective
#16
Xu Lei, Keren Liao
The influence of reference is a critical issue for the electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) studies. However, previous investigations concentrated less on the location of source at a systematic neuroscience level. Our goal was to examine the EEG signal associated with the locations from a common network parcellation of the human brain function, offering a system perspective of the influence of EEG reference. In our simulation, vertices uniformly distributed in eight large-scale brain networks were adopted to generate the scalp EEG...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410136/directed-connectivity-of-brain-default-networks-in-resting-state-using-gca-and-motif
#17
Zhuqing Jiao, Huan Wang, Kai Ma, Ling Zou, Jianbo Xiang
Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between key brain regions. In this paper, Granger causality analysis (GCA) and motif structure are adopted to study directed connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs) in resting state. Firstly, the time series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in resting state were extracted, and the causal relationship values of the nodes representing related brain regions are analyzed in time domain to construct a default network...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407150/dissociable-patterns-of-brain-activity-for-mentalizing-about-known-others-a-role-for-attachment
#18
Anne C Laurita, Cindy Hazan, R Nathan Spreng
The human brain tracks dynamic changes within the social environment, forming and updating representations of individuals in our social milieu. This mechanism of social navigation builds an increasingly complex map of persons with whom we are familiar and form attachments to guide adaptive social behaviors. We examined the neural representation of known others along a continuum of attachment using fMRI. Heterosexual adults (Nā€‰=ā€‰29, 16 females), in romantic relationships for more than 2 years, made trait judgments for a romantic partner, parent, close friend, familiar acquaintance and self-during scanning...
July 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403749/cluster-success-fmri-inferences-for-spatial-extent-have-acceptable-false-positive-rates
#19
Scott D Slotnick
In an editorial (this issue), I argued that Eklund, Nichols, and Knutsson's 'null data' reflected resting-state/default network activity that inflated their false-positive rates. Commentaries on that paper were received by Nichols, Eklund, and Knutsson (this issue), Hopfinger (this issue), and Cunningham and Koscik (this issue). In this author response, I consider these commentaries. Many issues stemming from Nichols et al. are identified including: (1) Nichols et al. did not provide convincing arguments that resting-state fMRI data reflect null data...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390029/a-closer-look-at-the-relationship-between-the-default-network-mind-wandering-negative-mood-and-depression
#20
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression...
August 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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