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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668862/evidence-that-default-network-connectivity-during-rest-consolidates-social-information
#1
Meghan L Meyer, Lila Davachi, Kevin N Ochsner, Matthew D Lieberman
Brain regions engaged during social inference, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and tempoparietal junction (TPJ), are also known to spontaneously engage during rest. While this overlap is well known, the social cognitive function of engaging these regions during rest remains unclear. Building on past research suggesting that new information is committed to memory during rest, we explored whether one function of MPFC and TPJ engagement during rest may be to consolidate new social information. MPFC and TPJ regions significantly increased connectivity during rest after encoding new social information (relative to baseline and post nonsocial encoding rest periods)...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610548/personality-and-neural-correlates-of-mentalizing-ability
#2
Timothy A Allen, Amanda R Rueter, Samantha V Abram, James S Brown, Colin G DeYoung
Theory of mind, or mentalizing , defined as the ability to reason about another's mental states, is a crucial psychological function that is disrupted in some forms of psychopathology, but little is known about how individual differences in this ability relate to personality or brain function. One previous study linked mentalizing ability to individual differences in the personality trait Agreeableness. Agreeableness encompasses two major subdimensions: Compassion reflects tendencies toward empathy, prosocial behavior, and interpersonal concern, whereas Politeness captures tendencies to suppress aggressive and exploitative impulses...
November 2017: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572062/better-imagined-neural-correlates-of-the-episodic-simulation-boost-to-prospective-memory-performance
#3
R Nathan Spreng, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic simulation is an adaptive process that can support goal-directed activity and planning success. We investigated the neural architecture associated with the episodic simulation improvement to the likelihood of carrying out future actions by isolating the brain regions associated with this facilitation in a prospective memory paradigm. Participants performed a lexical decision task by making word/non-word judgments, with rarely occurring prospective memory target words requiring a pre-specified manual response...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548807/large-scale-brain-network-connectivity-underlying-creativity-in-resting-state-and-task-fmri-cooperation-between-default-network-and-frontal-parietal-network
#4
Liang Shi, Jiangzhou Sun, Zhiting Ren, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is imperative to social development and the promotion of well-being. Here, independent component analysis and functional network connectivity analysis methods were applied to both resting-state and divergent thinking task fMRI data from the same sample to investigate large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity. The results showed that the strength of the connectivity between the posterior default mode network (DMN) and right frontal-parietal network (FPN) was significantly greater whereas the right FPN and left FPN connectivity strength was weaker in the creative condition than in the control condition...
March 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541439/network-specific-sex-differentiation-of-intrinsic-brain-function-in-males-with-autism
#5
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525387/intracranial-electrophysiology-of-the-human-default-network
#6
REVIEW
Kieran C R Fox, Brett L Foster, Aaron Kucyi, Amy L Daitch, Josef Parvizi
The human default network (DN) plays a critical role in internally directed cognition, behavior, and neuropsychiatric disease. Despite much progress with functional neuroimaging, persistent questions still linger concerning the electrophysiological underpinnings, fast temporal dynamics, and causal importance of the DN. Here, we review how direct intracranial recording and stimulation of the DN provides a unique combination of high spatiotemporal resolution and causal information that speaks directly to many of these outstanding questions...
March 7, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382744/heterogeneity-within-the-frontoparietal-control-network-and-its-relationship-to-the-default-and-dorsal-attention-networks
#7
Matthew L Dixon, Alejandro De La Vega, Caitlin Mills, Jessica Andrews-Hanna, R Nathan Spreng, Michael W Cole, Kalina Christoff
The frontoparietal control network (FPCN) plays a central role in executive control. It has been predominantly viewed as a unitary domain general system. Here, we examined patterns of FPCN functional connectivity (FC) across multiple conditions of varying cognitive demands, to test for FPCN heterogeneity. We identified two distinct subsystems within the FPCN based on hierarchical clustering and machine learning classification analyses of within-FPCN FC patterns. These two FPCN subsystems exhibited distinct patterns of FC with the default network (DN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN)...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374914/-regional-homogeneity-in-the-patients-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-complicated-with-depression-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#8
J Li, G X Li, Y Guo, X Q Lu, L Li, J P Ding
Objective: To explore the changes of the brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the patients of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) complicated with depression by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and to investigate the relation between abnormal brain function and depression in those patients. Methods: A total of 35 patients with IBS were included in this study, collected in Gastroenterology Department of Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University from June 2015 to June 2017...
January 16, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249961/gait-speed-and-gait-variability-are-associated-with-different-functional-brain-networks
#9
On-Yee Lo, Mark A Halko, Junhong Zhou, Rachel Harrison, Lewis A Lipsitz, Brad Manor
Gait speed and gait variability are clinically meaningful markers of locomotor control that are suspected to be regulated by multiple supraspinal control mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between these gait parameters and the functional connectivity of brain networks in functionally limited older adults. Twelve older adults with mild-to-moderate cognition "executive" dysfunction and relatively slow gait, yet free from neurological diseases, completed a gait assessment and a resting-state fMRI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235506/differential-contributions-of-the-middle-frontal-gyrus-functional-connectivity-to-literacy-and-numeracy
#10
Maki S Koyama, David O'Connor, Zarrar Shehzad, Michael P Milham
Literacy and numeracy equally affect an individual's success in and beyond schools, but these two competencies tend to be separately examined, particularly in neuroimaging studies. The current resting-state fMRI study examined the neural correlates of literacy and numeracy in the same sample of healthy adults. We first used an exploratory "Multivariate Distance Matrix Regression" (MDMR) approach to examine intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), highlighting the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) for both competencies...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209069/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-dampens-mind-wandering-in-men
#11
Elena Bertossi, Ludovica Peccenini, Andrea Solmi, Alessio Avenanti, Elisa Ciaramelli
Mind-wandering, the mind's capacity to stray from external events and generate task-unrelated thought, has been associated with activity in the brain default network. To date, little is understood about the contribution of individual nodes of this network to mind-wandering. Here, we investigated the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mind-wandering, by perturbing this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Young healthy participants performed a choice reaction time task both before and after receiving cathodal tDCS over mPFC, and had their thoughts periodically sampled...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161362/the-hierarchical-organization-of-the-default-dorsal-attention-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#12
Yuan Zhou, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Jie Chen, Shu Li, Adeel Razi
An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Our analysis revealed an asymmetric effective connectivity, such that the regions in the SN and DAN exerted an inhibitory influence on the cDN regions; whereas the cDN exerted an excitatory influence on the SN and DAN regions...
February 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136310/brain-networks-of-the-imaginative-mind-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-default-and-cognitive-control-networks-relates-to-openness-to-experience
#13
Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Alexander P Christensen, Jiang Qiu, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity...
February 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128784/insular-subdivisions-functional-connectivity-dysfunction-within-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Xiaolong Peng, Pan Lin, Xiaoping Wu, Ruxue Gong, Rui Yang, Jue Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045587/differential-contributions-of-default-and-dorsal-attention-networks-to-remembering-thoughts-and-external-stimuli-from-real-life-events
#15
David Stawarczyk, Olivier Jeunehomme, Arnaud D'Argembeau
Episodic memories are typically composed of perceptual information derived from the external environment and representations of internal states (e.g., one's thoughts during prior episodes). To date, however, research has mostly focused on the remembrance of external stimuli, such that little is known about how internal mentation is represented within episodic memory. In the present fMRI study, we examined the neural correlates of these 2 components of episodic memories using a novel method of cuing memories from photographs taken during real-life events...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965143/changes-in-connectivity-of-the-posterior-default-network-node-during-visual-processing-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-staged-decline-between-normal-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Lenka Krajcovicova, Marek Barton, Nela Elfmarkova-Nemcova, Michal Mikl, Radek Marecek, Irena Rektorova
Visual processing difficulties are often present in Alzheimer's disease (AD), even in its pre-dementia phase (i.e. in mild cognitive impairment, MCI). The default mode network (DMN) modulates the brain connectivity depending on the specific cognitive demand, including visual processes. The aim of the present study was to analyze specific changes in connectivity of the posterior DMN node (i.e. the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, PCC/P) associated with visual processing in 17 MCI patients and 15 AD patients as compared to 18 healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728026/parallel-interdigitated-distributed-networks-within-the-individual-estimated-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#17
Rodrigo M Braga, Randy L Buckner
Certain organizational features of brain networks present in the individual are lost when central tendencies are examined in the group. Here we investigated the detailed network organization of four individuals each scanned 24 times using MRI. We discovered that the distributed network known as the default network is comprised of two separate networks possessing adjacent regions in eight or more cortical zones. A distinction between the networks is that one is coupled to the hippocampal formation while the other is not...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#18
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Because both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N = 359, 22-36 years, 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624521/semanticized-autobiographical-memory-and-the-default-executive-coupling-hypothesis-of-aging
#19
R Nathan Spreng, Amber W Lockrow, Elizabeth DuPre, Roni Setton, Karen A P Spreng, Gary R Turner
As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538520/radiation-induced-cerebellar-cerebral-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#20
Qiongmin Ma, Ling-Li Zeng, Jian Qin, Zhiguo Luo, Jianpo Su, Donglin Wu, Shijun Qiu, Dewen Hu
The current study aimed to investigate the altered cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity (FC) induced by radiotherapy to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Twenty-four NPC patients without treatment, and 35 NPC patients receiving radiotherapy underwent functional MRI scanning. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was performed to evaluate the cognitive status of all participants. FC between 10 predefined cerebellar seeds, which were demonstrated to be involved in different brain functional networks, and all brain voxels was obtained for each participant...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
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