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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624521/semanticized-autobiographical-memory-and-the-default-executive-coupling-hypothesis-of-aging
#1
R Nathan Spreng, Amber W Lockrow, Elizabeth DuPre, Roni Setton, Karen A P Spreng, Gary R Turner
As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior...
June 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538520/radiation-induced-cerebellar-cerebral-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#2
Qiongmin Ma, Ling-Li Zeng, Jian Qin, Zhiguo Luo, Jianpo Su, Donglin Wu, Shijun Qiu, Dewen Hu
The current study aimed to investigate the altered cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity (FC) induced by radiotherapy to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Twenty-four NPC patients without treatment, and 35 NPC patients receiving radiotherapy underwent functional MRI scanning. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was performed to evaluate the cognitive status of all participants. FC between 10 predefined cerebellar seeds, which were demonstrated to be involved in different brain functional networks, and all brain voxels was obtained for each participant...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528774/local-to-remote-cortical-connectivity-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Yi-Wen Zhang, Zhi-Lian Zhao, Zhigang Qi, Yang Hu, Yin-Shan Wang, Can Sheng, Yu Sun, Xiaoni Wang, Li-Li Jiang, Chao-Gan Yan, Kuncheng Li, Hui-Jie Li, Xi-Nian Zuo
Alterations in both local and remote connectivity were reported in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients but rarely in the same group of patients. In the present study, we employed a novel resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) connectome index, regional functional homogeneity on the 2-dimensional cortical surface, to detect full-cortex vertex-wise changes of the local rfMRI connectivity in 32 aMCI patients compared with 40 healthy controls. We further used the seed-based functional connectivity to explore the remote rfMRI connectivity in aMCI...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450827/understanding-the-influences-of-eeg-reference-a-large-scale-brain-network-perspective
#4
Xu Lei, Keren Liao
The influence of reference is a critical issue for the electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) studies. However, previous investigations concentrated less on the location of source at a systematic neuroscience level. Our goal was to examine the EEG signal associated with the locations from a common network parcellation of the human brain function, offering a system perspective of the influence of EEG reference. In our simulation, vertices uniformly distributed in eight large-scale brain networks were adopted to generate the scalp EEG...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410136/directed-connectivity-of-brain-default-networks-in-resting-state-using-gca-and-motif
#5
Zhuqing Jiao, Huan Wang, Kai Ma, Ling Zou, Jianbo Xiang
Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between key brain regions. In this paper, Granger causality analysis (GCA) and motif structure are adopted to study directed connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs) in resting state. Firstly, the time series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in resting state were extracted, and the causal relationship values of the nodes representing related brain regions are analyzed in time domain to construct a default network...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407150/dissociable-patterns-of-brain-activity-for-mentalizing-about-known-others-a-role-for-attachment
#6
Anne C Laurita, Cindy Hazan, R Nathan Spreng
The human brain tracks dynamic changes within the social environment, forming and updating representations of individuals in our social milieu. This mechanism of social navigation builds an increasingly complex map of persons with whom we are familiar and form attachments to guide adaptive social behaviors. We examined the neural representation of known others along a continuum of attachment using fMRI. Heterosexual adults (N = 29, 16 females), in romantic relationships for more than two years, made trait judgments for a romantic partner, parent, close friend, familiar acquaintance, and self during scanning...
April 12, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403749/cluster-success-fmri-inferences-for-spatial-extent-have-acceptable-false-positive-rates
#7
Scott D Slotnick
In an editorial (this issue), I argued that Eklund, Nichols, and Knutsson's 'null data' reflected resting-state/default network activity that inflated their false-positive rates. Commentaries on that paper were received by Nichols, Eklund, and Knutsson (this issue), Hopfinger (this issue), and Cunningham and Koscik (this issue). In this author response, I consider these commentaries. Many issues stemming from Nichols et al. are identified including: (1) Nichols et al. did not provide convincing arguments that resting-state fMRI data reflect null data...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390029/a-closer-look-at-the-relationship-between-the-default-network-mind-wandering-negative-mood-and-depression
#8
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression...
April 7, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369458/the-healthy-brain-network-serial-scanning-initiative-a-resource-for-evaluating-inter-individual-differences-and-their-reliabilities-across-scan-conditions-and-sessions
#9
David O'Connor, Natan Vega Potler, Meagan Kovacs, Ting Xu, Lei Ai, John Pellman, Tamara Vanderwal, Lucas C Parra, Samantha Cohen, Satrajit Ghosh, Jasmine Escalera, Natalie Grant-Villegas, Yael Osman, Anastasia Bui, R Cameron Craddock, Michael P Milham
Background: Although typically measured during the resting state, a growing literature is illustrating the ability to map intrinsic connectivity with functional MRI during task and naturalistic viewing conditions. These paradigms are drawing excitement due to their greater tolerability in clinical and developing populations and because they enable a wider range of analyses (e.g., inter-subject correlations). To be clinically useful, the test-retest reliability of connectivity measured during these paradigms needs to be established...
February 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338944/salience-network-engagement-with-the-detection-of-morally-laden-information
#10
Gunes Sevinc, I Hakan Gurvit, R Nathan Spreng
Moral cognition is associated with activation of the default network, regions implicated in mentalizing about one's own actions or the intentions of others. Yet little is known about the initial detection of moral information. We examined the neural correlates of moral processing during a narrative completion task, which included an implicit moral salience manipulation. During fMRI scanning, participants read a brief vignette and selected the most semantically congruent sentence from two options to complete the narrative...
March 9, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#11
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316567/distinct-functional-connectivities-predict-clinical-response-with-emotion-regulation-therapy
#12
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Amy K Roy, Samantha Adelsberg, Saren Seeley, Emmanuel García-Lesy, Conor Liston, Douglas S Mennin
Despite the success of available medical and psychosocial treatments, a sizable subgroup of individuals with commonly co-occurring disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), fail to make sufficient treatment gains thereby prolonging their deficits in life functioning and satisfaction. Clinically, these patients often display temperamental features reflecting heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss (e.g., somatic anxiety) as well as inordinate negative self-referential processing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238944/brain-correlates-of-hypnosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analytic-exploration
#13
REVIEW
Mathieu Landry, Michael Lifshitz, Amir Raz
Imaging of the living human brain elucidates the neural dynamics of hypnosis; however, few reliable brain patterns emerge across studies. Here, we methodically assess neuroimaging assays of hypnosis to uncover common neural configurations using a twofold approach. First, we systematically review research on the neural correlates of hypnotic phenomena; then, we meta-analyze these collective data seeking specific activation and deactivation patterns that typify hypnosis. Anchored around the role of top-down control processes, our comprehensive examination focuses on the involvement of intrinsic brain networks known to support cognitive control and self-referential cognition, including the executive, salience, and default networks...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167837/neural-mechanisms-of-mismatch-negativity-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#14
M Lee, P Sehatpour, M J Hoptman, P Lakatos, E C Dias, J T Kantrowitz, A M Martinez, D C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits that reflect impaired cortical information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) indexes pre-attentive information processing dysfunction at the level of primary auditory cortex. This study investigates mechanisms underlying MMN impairments in schizophrenia using event-related potential, event-related spectral decomposition (ERSP) and resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) approaches. For this study, MMN data to frequency, intensity and duration-deviants were analyzed from 69 schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy controls...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130193/spatial-distribution-of-resting-state-bold-regional-homogeneity-as-a-predictor-of-brain-glucose-uptake-a-study-in-healthy-aging
#15
Michaël Bernier, Etienne Croteau, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Stephen C Cunnane, Kevin Whittingstall
Positron emission tomography using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) is the primary imaging modality used to measure glucose metabolism in the brain (CMRGlu). CMRGlu has been used as a biomarker of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, but the complexity and invasive nature of PET often limits its use in research. There is therefore great interest in developing non-invasive metrics for estimating brain CMRGlu. We therefore investigated resting state fMRI metrics such as regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional global connectivity (Closeness) with multiple analytical approaches to determine their relationship to CMRGlu...
January 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089970/spatial-working-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Chun-Min Zhu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Jing-Jing Yin, Hong-Bo Le, Dan-Miao Sun, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVE: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease. METHODS: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080963/is-the-cardiac-monitoring-function-related-to-the-self-in-both-the-default-network-and-right-anterior-insula
#17
Mariana Babo-Rebelo, Nicolai Wolpert, Claude Adam, Dominique Hasboun, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
The self has been proposed to be rooted in the neural monitoring of internal bodily signals and might thus involve interoceptive areas, notably the right anterior insula (rAI). However, studies on the self consistently showed the involvement of midline default network (DN) nodes, without referring to visceral monitoring. Here, we investigate this apparent discrepancy. We previously showed that neural responses to heartbeats in the DN encode two different self-dimensions, the agentive 'I' and the introspective 'Me', in a whole-brain analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040543/interactions-between-the-default-network-and-dorsal-attention-network-vary-across-default-subsystems-time-and-cognitive-states
#18
Matthew L Dixon, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, R Nathan Spreng, Zachary C Irving, Caitlin Mills, Manesh Girn, Kalina Christoff
Anticorrelation between the default network (DN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) is thought to be an intrinsic aspect of functional brain organization reflecting competing functions. However, the effect size of functional connectivity (FC) between the DN and DAN has yet to be established. Furthermore, the stability of anticorrelations across distinct DN subsystems, different contexts, and time, remains unexplored. In study 1 we summarize effect sizes of DN-DAN FC from 20 studies, and in study 2 we probe the variability of DN-DAN interactions across six different cognitive states in a new data set...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002981/resting-state-fmri-data-reflects-default-network-activity-rather-than-null-data-a-defense-of-commonly-employed-methods-to-correct-for-multiple-comparisons
#19
Scott D Slotnick
Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data typically involves over one hundred thousand independent statistical tests; therefore, it is necessary to correct for multiple comparisons to control familywise error. In a recent paper, Eklund, Nichols, and Knutsson used resting-state fMRI data to evaluate commonly employed methods to correct for multiple comparisons and reported unacceptable rates of familywise error. Eklund et al.'s analysis was based on the assumption that resting-state fMRI data reflect null data; however, their 'null data' actually reflected default network activity that inflated familywise error...
January 5, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999185/early-and-progressive-deficit-of-neuronal-activity-patterns-in-a-model-of-local-amyloid-pathology-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Uwe Maskos
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The condition predominantly affects the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and is characterized by the spread of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). But soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have also been identified to accumulate in the brains of AD patients and correlate with cognitive dysfunction more than the extent of plaque deposition. Here, we developed an adeno-associated viral vector expressing the human mutated amyloid precursor protein (AAV-hAPP)...
December 20, 2016: Aging
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