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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431416/caring-for-critically-injured-children-an-analysis-of-56-pediatric-damage-control-laparotomies
#1
Miguel A Villalobos, Joshua P Hazelton, Rachel L Choron, Lisa Capano-Wehrle, Krystal Hunter, John P Gaughan, Steven E Ross, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Injury is the leading cause of death in children under 18 years. Damage control principles have been extensively studied in adults but remain relatively unstudied in children. Our primary study objective was to evaluate the use of damage control laparotomy (DCL) in critically injured children. METHODS: An American College of Surgeons-verified Level 1 trauma center review (1996-2013) of pediatric trauma laparotomies was undertaken. Exclusion criteria included: age older than 18 years, laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome or delayed longer than 2 hours after admission...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431403/association-of-the-vdac3-gene-polymorphism-with-sperm-count-in-han-chinese-population-with-idiopathic-male-infertility
#2
Lianjun Pan, Qingzhen Liu, Jingyun Li, Wei Wu, Xinru Wang, Dan Zhao, Jiehua Ma
Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a multifunctional channel protein across the outer mitochondrial membrane of somatic cells and participates in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Up to now, only a few studies, including our previous studies, showed that VDAC exists in mammalian spermatozoa and is involved in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. There is no report about VDAC genetic variants in germinal tissues or cells. To investigate the possible association between VDAC genetic variants and human sperm quality, we performed semen analysis and variant Genotyping of VDAC3 subtype (rs7004637, rs16891278 and rs6773) of 523 Han-Chinese males with idiopathic infertility respectively by computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping assay...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431248/spontaneous-chitin-accumulation-in-airways-and-age-related-fibrotic-lung-disease
#3
Steven J Van Dyken, Hong-Erh Liang, Ram P Naikawadi, Prescott G Woodruff, Paul J Wolters, David J Erle, Richard M Locksley
The environmentally widespread polysaccharide chitin is degraded and recycled by ubiquitous bacterial and fungal chitinases. Although vertebrates express active chitinases from evolutionarily conserved loci, their role in mammalian physiology is unclear. We show that distinct lung epithelial cells secrete acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), which is required for airway chitinase activity. AMCase-deficient mice exhibit premature morbidity and mortality, concomitant with accumulation of environmentally derived chitin polymers in the airways and expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431241/akt-pkb-signaling-navigating-the-network
#4
REVIEW
Brendan D Manning, Alex Toker
The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431199/staphylococcus-aureus-nitric-oxide-synthase-sanos-modulates-aerobic-respiratory-metabolism-and-cell-physiology
#5
Austin B Mogen, Ronan K Carroll, Kimberly L James, Genevy Lima, Dona Silva, Jeffrey A Culver, Christopher Petucci, Lindsey N Shaw, Kelly C Rice
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from arginine and oxygen via NO synthase (NOS). Staphylococcus aureus NOS (saNOS) has previously been shown to affect virulence and resistance to exogenous oxidative stress, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. Herein, we report a previously-undescribed role of saNOS in S. aureus aerobic physiology. Specifically, aerobic S. aureus nos mutant cultures presented with elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide levels, as well as increased membrane potential, increased respiratory dehydrogenase activity, and slightly elevated oxygen consumption...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#6
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431154/physiological-characterization-of-a-halotolerant-anoxygenic-phototrophic-fe-ii-oxidizing-green-sulfur-bacterium-isolated-from-a-marine-sediment
#7
Katja Laufer, Annika Niemeyer, Verena Nikeleit, Maximilian Halama, James M Byrne, Andreas Kappler
Anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacteria which use light energy and electrons from Fe(II) for growth, so-called photoferrotrophs, are suggested to have been amongst the first phototrophic microorganisms on Earth and to have contributed to the deposition of sedimentary iron mineral deposits, i.e. banded iron formations. To date only two isolates of marine photoferrotrophic bacteria exist, both of which are closely related purple non-sulfur bacteria. Here we present a novel green-sulfur photoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizer isolated from a marine coastal sediment, Chlorobium sp...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431142/respiratory-chain-enzyme-deficiency-induces-mitochondrial-location-of-actin-binding-gelsolin-to-modulate-the-oligomerization-of-vdac-complexes-and-cell-survival
#8
Alberto García-Bartolomé, Ana Peñas, Lorena Marín-Buera, Teresa Lobo-Jarne, Rafael Pérez-Pérez, María Morán, Joaquín Arenas, Miguel A Martín, Cristina Ugalde
Despite considerable knowledge on the genetic basis of mitochondrial disorders, their pathophysiological consequences remain poorly understood. We previously used 2D-DIGE analyses to define a protein profile characteristic for respiratory chain complex III-deficiency that included a significant overexpression of cytosolic Gelsolin (GSN), a cytoskeletal protein that regulates the severing and capping of the actin filaments. Biochemical and immunofluorescence assays confirmed a specific increase of GSN levels in the mitochondria from patientś fibroblasts and from transmitochondrial cybrids with complex III assembly defects...
April 18, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430987/rab32-subfamily-small-gtpases-pleiotropic-rabs-in-endosomal-trafficking
#9
Norihiko Ohbayashi, Mitsunori Fukuda, Yasunori Kanaho
Rab small GTPases, well-known regulators of membrane trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, comprise approximately 60 different members in mammals. During the past decade, our understanding of the functions of mammalian Rab32 subfamily members (Rab32 and Rab38) have deepened, especially on the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, such as melanosomes, and the protection mechanisms against several pathogenic microbial infections. Endosome-mediated membrane trafficking by Rab32 subfamily members plays pivotal roles in these events...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430948/functional-relevance-of-water-and-glycerol-channels-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Farzana Sabir, Maria C Loureiro-Dias, Graça Soveral, Catarina Prista
Our understanding of the functional relevance of orthodox aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially based on phenotypic variations obtained by expression/overexpression/deletion of these MIPs in selected strains. These water/glycerol channels are considered crucial during various life-cycle phases, such as sporulation and mating and in some life-processes like rapid freeze-thaw tolerance, osmoregulation and phenomena associated with cell surface. Despite their putative functional roles not only as channels but also as sensors, their underlying mechanisms and their regulation are still poorly understood...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430813/phytoplankton-blooms-during-austral-summer-in-the-ross-sea-antarctica-driving-factors-and-trophic-implications
#11
Olga Mangoni, Vincenzo Saggiomo, Francesco Bolinesi, Francesca Margiotta, Giorgio Budillon, Yuri Cotroneo, Cristina Misic, Paola Rivaro, Maria Saggiomo
During the austral summer of 2014, an oceanographic cruise was conducted in the Ross Sea in the framework of the RoME (Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment) Project. Forty-three hydrological stations were sampled within three different areas: the northern Ross Sea (RoME 1), Terra Nova Bay (RoME 2), and the southern Ross Sea (RoME 3). The ecological and photophysiological characteristics of the phytoplankton were investigated (i.e., size structure, functional groups, PSII maximum quantum efficiency, photoprotective pigments), as related to hydrographic and chemical features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430800/the-burden-of-trisomy-21-disrupts-the-proteostasis-network-in-down-syndrome
#12
Stefanos Aivazidis, Christina M Coughlan, Abhishek K Rauniyar, Hua Jiang, L Alexander Liggett, Kenneth N Maclean, James R Roede
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Abnormalities in chromosome number have the potential to lead to disruption of the proteostasis network (PN) and accumulation of misfolded proteins. DS individuals suffer from several comorbidities, and we hypothesized that disruption of proteostasis could contribute to the observed pathology and decreased cell viability in DS. Our results confirm the presence of a disrupted PN in DS, as several of its elements, including the unfolded protein response, chaperone system, and proteasomal degradation exhibited significant alterations compared to euploid controls in both cell and mouse models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430616/evaluation-of-pituitary-uptake-incidentally-identified-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-scan
#13
Huijun Ju, Jinxin Zhou, Yu Pan, Jing Lv, Yifan Zhang
The clinical significance of pituitary uptake on routine whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) is not completely characterized. We seek to assess the potential differential diagnosis/underlying etiology of pituitary FDG uptake incidentally identified on routine PET/CT scans. A total of 24,007 PET/CT whole body scans in recent 5 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) > 4.1 in the pituitary glands were identified...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430591/poly-adenosine-diphosphate-ribose-polymerase-as-therapeutic-target-lessons-learned-from-its-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Anna Mária Cseh, Zsolt Fábián, Balázs Sümegi, Luca Scorrano
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases are a family of DNA-dependent nuclear enzymes catalyzing the transfer of ADP-ribose moieties from cellular nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide to a variety of target proteins. Although they have been considered as resident nuclear elements of the DNA repair machinery, recent works revealed a more intricate physiologic role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases with numerous extranuclear activities. Indeed, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases participate in fundamental cellular processes like chromatin remodelling, transcription or regulation of the cell-cycle...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430359/sulfur-containing-gaseous-signal-molecules-ion-channels-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Wen Yu, Hongfang Jin, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Zhiren Zhang
Sulfur-containing gaseous signal molecules including hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) were previously recognized as toxic gases. However, extensive studies have revealed that they can be generated in the cardiovascular system via a sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway, playing an important part in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins present in the membrane of all biological cells; functions include establishing a resting membrane potential and controlling action potentials and other electrical signals by conducting ions across the cell membrane...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430357/reactive-oxygen-species-key-regulators-in-vascular-health-and-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Qishan Chen, Qiwen Wang, Jianhua Zhu, Qingzhong Xiao, Li Zhang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of small reactive molecules that play critical roles in the regulation of various cell functions and biological processes. In the vascular system, physiological levels of ROS are essential for normal vascular functions including endothelial homeostasis and smooth muscle cell contraction. In contrast, uncontrolled overproduction of ROS resulted from imbalance of ROS generation and elimination, leads to the development of vascular diseases. Excessive ROS cause vascular cell damages, recruitment of inflammatory cells, lipid peroxidation, activation of metalloproteinases, and deposition of extracellular matrix, collectively leading to vascular remodeling...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430186/independence-of-nutrient-limitation-and-carbon-dioxide-impacts-on-the-southern-ocean-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#17
Marius N Müller, Thomas W Trull, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50(o)S, 149(o)E) with pH/CO2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430080/generation-and-characterization-of-inhibitory-antibodies-specific-to-guinea-pig-cxcr1-and-cxcr2
#18
Kento Tanaka, Chigusa Yoshimura, Tetsuo Shiina, Tomoko Terauchi, Tomomi Yoshitomi, Kazuki Hirahara
CXCR1 and CXCR2 are chemokine receptors that have different selectivity of chemokine ligands, but the distinct role of each receptor is not clearly understood. This is due to the absence of specific inhibitors in guinea pigs, which are the appropriate species for investigation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 because of their functional similarity to humans. In this study, we generated and evaluated monoclonal antibodies that specifically bound to guinea pig CXCR1 (gpCXCR1) and guinea pig CXCR2 (gpCXCR2) for acquisition of specific inhibitors...
April 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429788/the-hsp90-chaperone-machinery
#19
REVIEW
Florian H Schopf, Maximilian M Biebl, Johannes Buchner
The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone machinery is a key regulator of proteostasis under both physiological and stress conditions in eukaryotic cells. As HSP90 has several hundred protein substrates (or 'clients'), it is involved in many cellular processes beyond protein folding, which include DNA repair, development, the immune response and neurodegenerative disease. A large number of co-chaperones interact with HSP90 and regulate the ATPase-associated conformational changes of the HSP90 dimer that occur during the processing of clients...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429780/insulin-analogues-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-getting-better-all-the-time
#20
REVIEW
Chantal Mathieu, Pieter Gillard, Katrien Benhalima
The treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus consists of external replacement of the functions of β cells in an attempt to achieve blood levels of glucose as close to the normal range as possible. This approach means that glucose sensing needs to be replaced and levels of insulin need to mimic physiological insulin-action profiles, including basal coverage and changes around meals. Training and educating patients are crucial for the achievement of good glycaemic control, but having insulin preparations with action profiles that provide stable basal insulin coverage and appropriate mealtime insulin peaks helps people with type 1 diabetes mellitus to live active lives without sacrificing tight glycaemic control...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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