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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677595/bioherbicides-current-knowledge-on-weed-control-mechanism
#1
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Weed control is a challenging event during crop cultivation. Integrated management, including the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging method for weed control in sustainable agriculture. Plant extracts, allelochemicals and some microbes are utilized as bioherbicides to control weed populations. Bioherbicides based on plants and microbes inhibit the germination and growth of weeds; however,few studies conducted in weed physiology. This review ascribes the current knowledge of the physiological changes in weeds that occur during the exposure to bioherbicides...
April 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677567/methods-for-assessing-mitochondrial-quality-control-mechanisms-and-cellular-consequences-in-cell-culture
#2
Matthew Redmann, Gloria A Benavides, Willayat Yousuf Wani, Taylor F Berryhill, Xiaosen Ouyang, Michelle S Johnson, Saranya Ravi, Kasturi Mitra, Stephen Barnes, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Mitochondrial quality is under surveillance by autophagy, the cell recycling process which degrades and removes damaged mitochondria. Inadequate autophagy results in deterioration in mitochondrial quality, bioenergetic dysfunction, and metabolic stress. Here we describe in an integrated work-flow to assess parameters of mitochondrial morphology, function, mtDNA and protein damage, metabolism and autophagy regulation to provide the framework for a practical assessment of mitochondrial quality. This protocol has been tested with cell cultures, is highly reproducible, and is adaptable to studies when cell numbers are limited, and thus will be of interest to researchers studying diverse physiological and pathological phenomena in which decreased mitochondrial quality is a contributory factor...
April 10, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677525/insights-from-diversified-anti-angiogenic-models-role-of-%C3%AE-interferon-inducer-deae-dextran
#3
Anita K Bakrania, Bhavesh C Variya, Snehal S Patel
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, the physiological process involving growth of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels, is essential for organ growth and repair. However, the imbalance in angiogenesis contributes to copious pathologies including cancer. Preceding the development of anti-angiogenic or proangiogenic agents, its evaluation is equally imperative; hence, precise and adequate models required. Valid mammalian models are expensive, time-consuming and not easy to set up, instigating legal and ethical aspects making it necessary to establish models with satisfactory activity and limited drawbacks...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677517/gpr68-senses-flow-and-is-essential-for-vascular-physiology
#4
Jie Xu, Jayanti Mathur, Emilie Vessières, Scott Hammack, Keiko Nonomura, Julie Favre, Linda Grimaud, Matt Petrus, Allain Francisco, Jingyuan Li, Van Lee, Fu-Li Xiang, James K Mainquist, Stuart M Cahalan, Anthony P Orth, John R Walker, Shang Ma, Viktor Lukacs, Laura Bordone, Michael Bandell, Bryan Laffitte, Yan Xu, Shu Chien, Daniel Henrion, Ardem Patapoutian
Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in vascular biology. One example of this is the local regulation of vascular resistance via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Impairment of this process is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and a precursor to a wide array of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Yet the molecules responsible for sensing flow (shear stress) within endothelial cells remain largely unknown. We designed a 384-well screening system that applies shear stress on cultured cells...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677510/physiological-and-genetic-adaptations-to-diving-in-sea-nomads
#5
Melissa A Ilardo, Ida Moltke, Thorfinn S Korneliussen, Jade Cheng, Aaron J Stern, Fernando Racimo, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Martin Sikora, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Simon Rasmussen, Inge C L van den Munckhof, Rob Ter Horst, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Suhartini Salingkat, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations. Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau people ("Sea Nomads") of Southeast Asia live a subsistence lifestyle based on breath-hold diving and are renowned for their extraordinary breath-holding abilities. However, it is unknown whether this has a genetic basis...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#6
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677505/a-mechanosensitive-gpcr-that-detects-the-bloody-force
#7
Adam J Iliff, X Z Shawn Xu
Mechanoreceptors mediate a wide variety of physiological processes, such as hearing, touch, proprioception, and blood flow regulation. It is generally believed that mechanoreceptors are force-gated ion channels. Now, Xu et al. uncover a GPCR that is activated by shear force in endothelial cells of blood vessels.
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677448/self-assembled-ph-responsive-polymeric-micelles-for-highly-efficient-non-cytotoxic-delivery-of-doxorubicin-chemotherapy-to-inhibit-macrophage-activation-in-vitro-investigation
#8
Zhi-Sheng Liao, Shan-You Huang, Jyun-Jie Huang, Jem-Kun Chen, Ai-Wei Lee, Juin-Yih Lai, Duu-Jong Lee, Chih-Chia Cheng
Self-assembled pH-responsive polymeric micelles, a combination of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) segments and hydrogen bonding interactions within a biocompatible polyurethane substrate, can spontaneously self-assemble into highly controlled, nanosized micelles in aqueous solution. These newly-developed micelles exhibit excellent pH-responsive behavior and biocompatibility, highly controlled drug (doxorubicin; DOX) release behavior and high drug encapsulation stability in different aqueous environments, making the micelles highly attractive potential candidates for safer, more effective drug delivery in applications such as cancer chemotherapy...
April 20, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676808/the-hetz-gene-indirectly-regulates-heterocyst-development-at-the-level-of-pattern-formation-in-anabaena-sp-strain-pcc-7120
#9
Patrick Videau, Orion S Rivers, Sasa K Tom, Reid T Oshiro, Blake Ushijima, Vaille A Swenson, Benjamin Philmus, Michael O Gaylor, Loralyn M Cozy
Multicellular development requires the careful orchestration of gene expression to correctly create and position specialized cells. In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, nitrogen-fixing heterocysts are differentiated from vegetative cells in a reproducibly periodic, and physiologically relevant pattern. While many genetic factors required for heterocyst development have been identified, the role of HetZ has remained unclear. Here we present evidence to clarify the requirement of hetZ for heterocyst production and support a model where HetZ functions in the patterning stage of differentiation...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676778/indirect-co-cultures-of-healthy-mesenchymal-stem-cells-restore-the-physiological-phenotypic-profile-of-psoriatic-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
A Campanati, M Orciani, G Sorgentoni, V Consales, M Mattioli Belmonte, R Di Primio, A Offidani
Psoriasis microenvironment, characterized by an imbalance between Th1/Th17 and Th2 cytokines, influences also mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) phenotypic profile. MSCs from healthy donors (H-MSCs) can exert a strong paracrine effect by secreting active soluble factors, able to modulate the inflammation in the microenvironment. To evaluate the influence of H-MSCs on MSCs from psoriatic patients (PsO-MSCs), H-MSCs and PsO-MSCs were isolated and characterized. Indirect co-culture of H-MSCs with PsO-MSCs was performed; effects on proliferation and expression of cytokines linked to Th1/Th17 and Th2 pathways were assayed before and after co-culture...
April 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675827/significant-increase-of-lymphatic-vessels-in-pleuroparenchymal-fibroelastosis
#11
Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Kentaro Watanabe, Hiroshi Ishii, Hisako Kushima, Masaki Fujita, Kazuki Nabeshima
AIMS: Some investigators have detected fibrinous exudate or immature organization in the alveolar spaces prior to the development of subpleural elastofibrosis in patients with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). We hypothesized that PPFE progress is associated with an impaired lymphatic drainage system, resulting in the failed resolution of intra-alveolar exudate. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed our medical records from 1995 to 2017 and selected autopsied or surgically biopsied patients with PPFE (n=18), pulmonary apical cap (n=18), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=26)...
April 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675776/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-retinal-tissue-engineering-current-status-and-future-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Ratnesh Singh, Oscar Cuzzani, François Binette, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
The retina is a very fine and layered neural tissue, which vitally depends on the preservation of cells, structure, connectivity and vasculature to maintain vision. There is an urgent need to find technical and biological solutions to major challenges associated with functional replacement of retinal cells. The major unmet challenges include generating sufficient numbers of specific cell types, achieving functional integration of transplanted cells, especially photoreceptors, and surgical delivery of retinal cells or tissue without triggering immune responses, inflammation and/or remodeling...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675586/rapamycin-alleviates-hormone-imbalance-induced-chronic-nonbacterial-inflammation-in-rat-prostate-through-activating-autophagy-via-the-mtor-ulk1-atg13-signaling-pathway
#13
Yang Su, Jingxiao Lu, Xianguo Chen, Chaozhao Liang, Pengcheng Luo, Cong Qin, Jie Zhang
Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a clinically common disease with high morbidity. It affects the patients' quality of life (QoL) as well as physical and mental health seriously due to the recurring symptoms of lower urinary tract and genitalia. As the opinions about the etiology of CP are still not uniform, it is very difficult to be treated or even cured. Autophagy is a highly conserved physiological function which is widely found in eukaryotic cells. In general, cells maintain a certain level of autophagy under physiological conditions, and the basal level of autophagy can be regulated by a variety of autophagy-related genes under stress such as hunger, infection, trauma, and other circumstances...
April 19, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675549/snai1-an-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-transcription-factor-promotes-the-early-phase-of-ocular-neovascularization
#14
Jia-Xing Sun, Tian-Fang Chang, Man-Hong Li, Li-Juan Sun, Xian-Chun Yan, Zi-Yan Yang, Yuan Liu, Wen-Qin Xu, Yang Lv, Jing-Bo Su, Liang Liang, Hua Han, Guo-Rui Dou, Yu-Sheng Wang
Ocular neovascularization is a comprehensive process involved in retinal vascular development and several blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regarded as the master regulator. However, the qualified effect of anti-VEGF therapy reveals that the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly identified. To initialize angiogenesis, endothelial cells undergo a phenotype switching to generate highly migratory and invasive cells...
April 19, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675459/bioengineered-systems-and-designer-matrices-that-recapitulate-the-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#15
REVIEW
Yuli Wang, Raehyun Kim, Samuel S Hinman, Bailey Zwarycz, Scott T Magness, Nancy L Allbritton
The relationship between intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and the surrounding niche environment is complex and dynamic. Key factors localized at the base of the crypt are necessary to promote ISC self-renewal and proliferation, to ultimately provide a constant stream of differentiated cells to maintain the epithelial barrier. These factors diminish as epithelial cells divide, migrate away from the crypt base, differentiate into the postmitotic lineages, and end their life span in approximately 7 days when they are sloughed into the intestinal lumen...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675450/engineered-human-gastrointestinal-cultures-to-study-the-microbiome-and-infectious-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Winnie Y Zou, Mary K Estes
New models to study the intestine are key to understanding intestinal diseases and developing novel treatments. Intestinal organ-like culture systems (organoids and enteroids) have substantially advanced the study of the human gastrointestinal tract. Stem cell-derived cultures produce self-organizing structures that contain the multiple differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types including enterocytes, goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Understanding host-microbial interactions is one area in which these cultures are expediting major advancements...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675407/pancreatic-aquaporin-7-a-novel-target-for-anti-diabetic-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Silvia Ezquerro, Inês V da Silva, Graça Soveral, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
Aquaporins comprise a family of 13 members of water channels (AQP0-12) that facilitate a rapid transport of water across cell membranes. In some cases, these pores are also permeated by small solutes, particularly glycerol, urea or nitric oxide, among other solutes. Several aquaporins have been identified in the pancreas, an exocrine and endocrine organ that plays an essential role in the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The exocrine pancreas, which accounts for 90% of the total pancreas, secretes daily large volumes of a near-isotonic fluid containing digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675254/tailoring-the-morphology-of-aiegen-fluorescent-nanoparticles-for-optimal-cellular-uptake-and-imaging-efficacy
#18
Jianxu Zhang, Bin Xu, Wenjing Tian, Zhigang Xie
The rational design of robust fluorescent organic materials for long-term cell tracing is still challenging, and aggregation-caused quenching of emission is a big limitation of this strategy. Organic dyes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) can effectively address this problem. Herein, AIEgen-containing nanoparticles, with different morphologies and emission, were prepared by assembling amphiphilic copolymers with an AIEgen. We compared the physical and chemical properties of rod-like and spherical nanoparticles, particularly investigating the effects of the shape on internalization and the imaging effect...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675025/impact-of-paneth-cell-autophagy-on-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Shu-Ling Wang, Bo-Zong Shao, Sheng-Bing Zhao, Jun Fang, Lun Gu, Chao-Yu Miao, Zhao-Shen Li, Yu Bai
Intestinal mucosal barrier, mainly consisting of the mucus layer and epithelium, functions in absorbing nutrition as well as prevention of the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. Paneth cell, an important component of mucosal barrier, plays a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis by producing antimicrobial materials and controlling the host-commensal balance. Current evidence shows that the dysfunction of intestinal mucosal barrier, especially Paneth cell, participates in the onset and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674958/neuronal-calcium-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation-and-adaptation-to-nutrient-stress
#20
REVIEW
Siddharth Jayakumar, Gaiti Hasan
All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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