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Pharmacogenomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315483/functional-proteomic-analysis-of-corticosteroid-pharmacodynamics-in-rat-liver-relationship-to-hepatic-stress-signaling-energy-regulation-and-drug-metabolism
#1
Vivaswath S Ayyar, Richard R Almon, Debra C DuBois, Siddharth Sukumaran, Jun Qu, William J Jusko
Corticosteroids (CS) are anti-inflammatory agents that cause extensive pharmacogenomic and proteomic changes in multiple tissues. An understanding of the proteome-wide effects of CS in liver and its relationships to altered hepatic and systemic physiology remains incomplete. Here, we report the application of a functional pharmacoproteomic approach to gain integrated insight into the complex nature of CS responses in liver in vivo. An in-depth functional analysis was performed using rich pharmacodynamic (temporal-based) proteomic data measured over 66h in rat liver following a single dose of methylprednisolone (MPL)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314784/integrative-cancer-pharmacogenomics-to-infer-large-scale-drug-taxonomy
#2
Nehme El-Hachem, Deena M A Gendoo, Laleh Soltan Ghoraie, Zhaleh Safikhani, Petr Smirnov, Christina Chung, Kenan Deng, Alisa Fang, Erin Birkwood, Chantal Ho, Ruth Isserlin, Gary Bader, Anna Goldenberg, Benjamin Haibe-Kains
Identification of drug targets and mechanism of action (MoA) for new and uncharacterized anticancer drugs is important for optimization of treatment efficacy. Current MoA prediction largely relies on prior information including side effects, therapeutic indication, and chemo-informatics. Such information is not transferable or applicable for newly identified, previously uncharacterized small molecules. Therefore, a shift in the paradigm of MoA predictions is necessary towards development of unbiased approaches that can elucidate drug relationships and efficiently classify new compounds with basic input data...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296761/polymorphisms-and-pharmacogenomics-for-the-toxicity-of-methotrexate-monotherapy-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Qi Qiu, Jing Huang, Yang Lin, Xiaoming Shu, Huizheng Fan, Zhihua Tu, Youwen Zhou, Cheng Xiao
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used and considered a first-line disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, 10% to 30% of patients discontinue therapy within a year of starting the treatment, usually because of undesirable side effects. Many of the relevant genes have been investigated to estimate the association between gene polymorphisms and MTX toxicity in RA patients, although inconsistent results have been reported...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296649/a-nomogram-to-predict-5-fluorouracil-toxicity-when-pharmacogenomics-meets-the-patient
#4
Andrea Botticelli, Concetta E Onesti, Lidia Strigari, Mario Occhipinti, Francesca R Di Pietro, Bruna Cerbelli, Antonella Petremolo, Elisabetta Anselmi, Serena Macrini, Michela Roberto, Rosa Falcone, Luana Lionetto, Marina Borro, Annalisa Milano, Giovanna Gentile, Maurizio Simmaco, Paolo Marchetti, Federica Mazzuca
Fluoropyrimidines combined with other agents are commonly used for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. Considering that severe toxicities occur in 30% of patients, we aimed to structure a nomogram to predict toxicity, based on metabolic parameter and patients' characteristics. We retrospectively enrolled patients affected by gastrointestinal tract cancers. Pretreatment 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) degradation rate and DPYD, TSER, MTHFR A1298T, and C677T gene polymorphisms were characterized. Data on toxicities were collected according to CTCAE v3...
March 14, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295240/pharmacogenomic-advances-in-the-prediction-and-prevention-of-cutaneous-idiosyncratic-drug-reactions
#5
Ren-You Pan, Ro-Lan Dao, Shuen-Iu Hung, Wen-Hung Chung
Cutaneous idiosyncratic drug reactions (CIDRs) are usually unpredictable, ranging from mild maculopapular exanthema (MPE) to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) such as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Increasing evidences suggest HLA alleles are strongly associated with drug-induced-CIDRs. The pathomechanisms for CIDRs include genetic polymorphisms affecting complex immune specific HLA/drug antigen/T cell receptor interactions and drug metabolism...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290774/multimorbidity-polypharmacy-and-pharmacogenomics-in-old-age
#6
Jürgen Brockmöller, Julia C Stingl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290771/institutional-profile-pharmacogenomic-research-in-r-stephanie-huang-laboratory
#7
Paul Geeleher, Aritro Nath, Rong Stephanie Huang
The Huang Lab was established in 2009 at the University of Chicago and has since been active in conducting pharmacogenomic research. Our laboratory's main research focus is translational pharmacogenomics with a particular interest in the pharmacogenomics of anticancer agents. By systematically evaluating the human genome and its relationships to drug response and toxicity, our goal is to develop clinically useful models that predict risk for adverse drug reactions and nonresponse prior to administration of chemotherapy...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290747/clinicians-perceptions-of-pharmacogenomics-use-in-psychiatry
#8
Christopher Yi Wen Chan
AIM: This study aims to assess the attitudes and opinions of clinicians practicing in psychiatry toward pharmacogenomic testing, and in so doing elicits possible barriers and risks to employ this technology in patient care. MATERIALS & METHODS: Doctors and pharmacists presently practicing in psychiatry were invited to participate in an anonymous web-based survey. Besides information on participant characteristics and experience in psychiatry, specific themes on pharmacogenomics including self-assessed competency, perceived usefulness in clinical situations, perceived risks and preferred mode of education were evaluated...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290528/nicotine-dependence-is-associated-with-functional-variation-in-fmo3-an-enzyme-that-metabolizes-nicotine-in-the-brain
#9
A M Teitelbaum, S E Murphy, G Akk, T B Baker, A Germann, L B von Weymarn, L J Bierut, A Goate, E D Kharasch, A J Bloom
A common haplotype of the flavin-containing monooxygenase gene FMO3 is associated with aberrant mRNA splicing, a twofold reduction in in vivo nicotine N-oxidation and reduced nicotine dependence. Tobacco remains the largest cause of preventable mortality worldwide. CYP2A6, the primary hepatic nicotine metabolism gene, is robustly associated with cigarette consumption but other enzymes contribute to nicotine metabolism. We determined the effects of common variants in FMO3 on plasma levels of nicotine-N-oxide in 170 European Americans administered deuterated nicotine...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289301/design-implementation-and-assessment-approaches-within-a-pharmacogenomics-course
#10
Connie M Remsberg, Brenda S Bray, Susan K Wright, Joe Ashmore, William Kabasenche, Shuwen Wang, Philip Lazarus, Sayed S Daoud
Objective. To design and implement a pharmacogenomics course that focuses on analysis and integration of pharmacogenomic data into clinical practice and to explore how participation in the course influences student self-confidence. Design. The Basic and Clinical Pharmacogenomics course content was divided into three modules: genetic-based didactic sessions, genomic techniques and self-genotype/phenotype laboratory exercise, and clinical-based case studies. Student learning assessment included knowledge- and application-based tests and performance on a group project...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289294/active-learning-strategies-for-legal-topics-and-substance-abuse-in-a-pharmacy-curriculum
#11
Sarah J Steinhardt, John E Clark, William N Kelly, Angela M Hill
Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282716/personalized-medicine-pharmacogenomics-and-drug-development
#12
Somayeh Mirsadeghi, Bagher Larijani
Personalized medicine aims is to supply the proper drug to the proper patient within the right dose. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is to recognize genetic variants that may influence drug efficacy and toxicity. All things considered, the fields cover a wide area, including basic drug discovery researches, the genetic origin of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, novel drug improvement, patient genetic assessment and clinical patient administration. At last, the objective of Pharmacogenomics is to anticipate a patient's genetic response to a particular drug as a way of presenting the best possible medical treatment...
March 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282715/personalized-regenerative-medicine
#13
Babak Arjmand, Parisa Goodarzi, Fereshteh Mohamadi-Jahani, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Bagher Larijani
Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from "personalized medicine" towards "precision medicine". Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare...
March 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282076/-concepts-applied-to-psychiatry-pharmacogenomics
#14
María A Zorrilla Zubilete
Pharmacogenetics studies the action of a drug in order to predict the response based on the genetic makeup of an individual. The objective of pharmacogenetic studies is to minimize the adverse effects and to ensure therapeutic benefit. Since psychotropic drugs have a high rate of variability in patient response, the aim of this paper is to update the pharmacogenetic concepts in psychopharmacology in a review that provides tools for rigorous analysis when prescribing a psychotropic drug. The purpose of clinical pharmacogenetic testing is to be able to distinguish between patients who are more or less responders to certain drugs, or on contrary, who are at increased risk for adverse events...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279063/symposium-oncology-leadership-in-asia
#15
Dong-Young Noh, Jae Kyung Roh, Yeul Hong Kim, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Hideo Baba, Marie Cherry Lynn Samson-Fernando, Sanjeev Misra, Zeba Aziz, Rainy Umbas, Yogendra P Singh, Tony Shu Kam Mok, Han-Kwang Yang, Hideyuki Akaza
The Symposium on "Oncology Leadership in Asia" was held as part of the official program of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association. Given the increasing incidence of cancer in all countries and regions of Asia, regardless of developmental stage, and also in light of the recognized need for Asian countries to enhance collaboration in cancer prevention, research, treatment and follow-up, the symposium was held with the aim of bringing together oncology specialists from eight countries and regions in Asia to present the status in their own national context and discuss the key challenges and requirements in order to establish a greater Asian presence in the area of cancer control and research...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273839/parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-pharmacogenomics
#16
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most important age-related neurodegenerative disorder in developed societies, after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the fourth decade of life to over 1900 per 100,000 in people over 80 years of age. As a movement disorder, the PD phenotype is characterized by rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Parkinson's disease -related neurodegeneration is likely to occur several decades before the onset of the motor symptoms. Potential risk factors include environmental toxins, drugs, pesticides, brain microtrauma, focal cerebrovascular damage, and genomic defects...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271979/toward-a-taxonomy-for-multi-omics-science-terminology-development-for-whole-genome-study-approaches-by-omics-technology-and-hierarchy
#17
Nina Pirih, Tanja Kunej
Omics is a form of high-throughput systems science. However, taxonomies for omics studies are limited, inviting us to rethink new ways in which we classify, prioritize, and rank various omics systems science studies. In this overarching context, the genome-wide study approaches have proliferated in number and popularity over the past decade. However, their hierarchy is not well organized and the development of attendant terminology is not controlled. In the present study, we searched the literature in PubMed and the Web of Science databases published from March 1999 to September 2016 using the keywords, including genome-wide, association, whole genome, transcriptome-wide, metabolome, epigenome, and phenome...
January 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271978/lessons-from-cuba-for-global-precision-medicine-cyp2d6-genotype-is-not-a-robust-predictor-of-cyp2d6-ultrarapid-metabolism
#18
Pedro Dorado, Idilio González, María Eugenia G Naranjo, Fernando de Andrés, Eva María Peñas-Lledó, Luis Ramón Calzadilla, Adrián LLerena
A long-standing question and dilemma in precision medicine is whether and to what extent genotyping or phenotyping drug metabolizing enzymes such as CYP2D6 can be used in real-life global clinical and societal settings. Although in an ideal world using both genotype and phenotype biomarkers are desirable, this is not always feasible for economic and practical reasons. Moreover, an additional barrier for clinical implementation of precision medicine is the lack of correlation between genotype and phenotype, considering that most of the current methods include only genotyping...
January 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271248/network-reconstruction-reveals-that-valproic-acid-activates-neurogenic-transcriptional-programs-in-adult-brain-following-traumatic-injury
#19
Gerald A Higgins, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Brian Pauls, Richard Higgins, Brian D Athey, Hasan E Alam
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mechanism of action of valproic acid (VPA) in the adult central nervous system (CNS) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Data were analyzed from different sources, including experiments in a porcine model, data from postmortem human brain, published studies, public and commercial databases. RESULTS: The transcriptional program in the CNS following TBI, HS, and VPA treatment includes activation of regulatory pathways that enhance neurogenesis and suppress gliogenesis...
March 7, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270929/changing-paradigms-in-the-management-of-rejection-in-kidney-transplantation-evolving-from-protocol-based-care-to-the-era-of-p4-medicine
#20
Mirela Maier, Tomoko Takano, Ruth Sapir-Pichhadze
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine's relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
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