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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785928/post-decision-biases-reveal-a-self-consistency-principle-in-perceptual-inference
#1
Long Luu, Alan A Stocker
Making a categorical judgment can systematically bias our subsequent perception of the world. We show that these biases are well explained by a self-consistent Bayesian observer whose perceptual inference process is causally conditioned on the preceding choice. We quantitatively validated the model and its key assumptions with a targeted set of three psychophysical experiments, focusing on a task sequence where subjects first had to make a categorical orientation judgment before estimating the actual orientation of a visual stimulus...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785802/bayesian-measurement-error-driven-hidden-markov-regression-model-for-calibrating-the-effect-of-covariates-on-multistate-outcomes-application-to-androgenetic-alopecia
#2
Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Hsiu-Hsi Chen
Multistate Markov regression models used for quantifying the effect size of state-specific covariates pertaining to the dynamics of multistate outcomes have gained popularity. However, the measurements of multistate outcome are prone to the errors of classification, particularly when a population-based survey/research is involved with proxy measurements of outcome due to cost consideration. Such a misclassification may affect the effect size of relevant covariates such as odds ratio used in the field of epidemiology...
May 21, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785071/identification-of-cis-regulatory-elements-associated-with-salinity-and-drought-stress-tolerance-in-rice-from-co-expressed-gene-interaction-networks
#3
Pragya Mishra, Nisha Singh, Ajay Jain, Neha Jain, Vagish Mishra, Pushplatha G, Kiran P Sandhya, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Vandna Rai
Rice, a staple food crop, is often subjected to drought and salinity stresses thereby limiting its yield potential. Since there is a cross talk between these abiotic stresses, identification of common and/or overlapping regulatory elements is pivotal for generating rice cultivars that showed tolerance towards them. Analysis of the gene interaction network (GIN) facilitates identifying the role of individual genes and their interactions with others that constitute important molecular determinants in sensing and signaling cascade governing drought and/or salinity stresses...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784773/associated-patterns-of-insecticide-resistance-in-field-populations-of-malaria-vectors-across-africa
#4
Penelope A Hancock, Antoinette Wiebe, Katherine A Gleave, Samir Bhatt, Ewan Cameron, Anna Trett, David Weetman, David L Smith, Janet Hemingway, Michael Coleman, Peter W Gething, Catherine L Moyes
The development of insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors threatens the continued efficacy of important vector control methods that rely on a limited set of insecticides. To understand the operational significance of resistance we require quantitative information about levels of resistance in field populations to the suite of vector control insecticides. Estimation of resistance is complicated by the sparsity of observations in field populations, variation in resistance over time and space at local and regional scales, and cross-resistance between different insecticide types...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784002/association-between-number-of-institutions-with-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-and-regional-mortality-ratio-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-nationwide-ecological-study-using-a-spatial-bayesian-model
#5
Hideaki Kawaguchi, Soichi Koike, Ryota Sakurai, Kazuhiko Ohe
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detection of coronary artery stenosis, and healthcare providers can detect coronary artery disease in earlier stages before it develops into more serious clinical conditions such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that the mortality ratio of AMI in regions with a higher density of coronary CTA is lower than that in regions with a lower density of coronary CTA. METHODS: This ecological and cross-sectional study using secondary data targeted all secondary medical service areas (SMSAs) in Japan (n = 349)...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783123/sequentially-distant-but-structurally-similar-proteins-exhibit-fold-specific-patterns-based-on-their-biophysical-properties
#6
Senthilnathan Rajendran, Arunachalam Jothi
The Three-dimensional structure of a protein depends on the interaction between their amino acid residues. These interactions are in turn influenced by various biophysical properties of the amino acids. There are several examples of proteins that share the same fold but are very dissimilar at the sequence level. For proteins to share a common fold some crucial interactions should be maintained despite insignificant sequence similarity. Since the interactions are because of the biophysical properties of the amino acids, we should be able to detect descriptive patterns for folds at such a property level...
May 16, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783021/a-hyper-diverse-genus-of-acanthocephalans-revealed-by-tree-based-and-non-tree-based-species-delimitation-methods-ten-cryptic-species-of-neoechinorhynchus-in-middle-american-freshwater-fishes
#7
Carlos Daniel Pinacho-Pinacho, Martín García-Varela, Ana L Sereno-Uribe, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
The genus Neoechinorhynchus represents a hyper-diverse group of acanthocephalans, parasites of fresh and brackish water fish and freshwater turtles, with approximately 116 species described worldwide. Forty-nine species have been recorded in the Americas, nine of them in Middle America. Even though species delimitation methods using DNA sequences have been rarely used for parasitic helminths, the genetic library for species of Neoechinorhynchus has grown in the past few years, enhancing the possibility of using these methods for inferring evolutionary relationships and for establishing more robust species boundaries...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781638/a-model-based-test-for-treatment-effects-with-probabilistic-classifications
#8
Daniel R Cavagnaro, Clintin P Davis-Stober
Within modern psychology, computational and statistical models play an important role in describing a wide variety of human behavior. Model selection analyses are typically used to classify individuals according to the model(s) that best describe their behavior. These classifications are inherently probabilistic, which presents challenges for performing group-level analyses, such as quantifying the effect of an experimental manipulation. We answer this challenge by presenting a method for quantifying treatment effects in terms of distributional changes in model-based (i...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780308/motor-preparation-disrupts-proactive-control-in-the-stop-signal-task
#9
Wuyi Wang, Sien Hu, Jaime S Ide, Simon Zhornitsky, Sheng Zhang, Angela J Yu, Chiang-Shan R Li
In a study of the stop signal task (SST) we employed Bayesian modeling to compute the estimated likelihood of stop signal or P(Stop) trial by trial and identified regional processes of conflict anticipation and response slowing. A higher P(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time (goRT)-a form of sequential effect-and reflects proactive control of motor response. However, some individuals do not demonstrate a sequential effect despite similar go and stop success (SS) rates. We posited that motor preparation may disrupt proactive control more in certain individuals than others...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780302/unified-bayesian-estimator-of-eeg-reference-at-infinity-rrest-regularized-reference-electrode-standardization-technique
#10
Shiang Hu, Dezhong Yao, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa
The choice of reference for the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a long-lasting unsolved issue resulting in inconsistent usages and endless debates. Currently, both the average reference (AR) and the reference electrode standardization technique (REST) are two primary, apparently irreconcilable contenders. We propose a theoretical framework to resolve this reference issue by formulating both (a) estimation of potentials at infinity, and (b) determination of the reference, as a unified Bayesian linear inverse problem, which can be solved by maximum a posterior estimation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780170/model-selection-theory-the-need-for-a-more-nuanced-picture-of-use-novelty-and-double-counting
#11
Katie Steele, Charlotte Werndl
This article argues that common intuitions regarding (a) the specialness of 'use-novel' data for confirmation and (b) that this specialness implies the 'no-double-counting rule', which says that data used in 'constructing' (calibrating) a model cannot also play a role in confirming the model's predictions, are too crude. The intuitions in question are pertinent in all the sciences, but we appeal to a climate science case study to illustrate what is at stake. Our strategy is to analyse the intuitive claims in light of prominent accounts of confirmation of model predictions...
June 2018: British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779309/-the-survival-prediction-model-of-advanced-gallbladder-cancer-based-on-bayesian-network-a-multi-institutional-study
#12
Z H Tang, Z M Geng, C Chen, S B Si, Z Q Cai, T Q Song, P Gong, L Jiang, Y H Qiu, Y He, W L Zhai, S P Li, Y C Zhang, Y Yang
Objective: To investigate the clinical value of Bayesian network in predicting survival of patients with advanced gallbladder cancer(GBC)who underwent curative intent surgery. Methods: The clinical data of patients with advanced GBC who underwent curative intent surgery in 9 institutions from January 2010 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively.A median survival time model based on a tree augmented naïve Bayes algorithm was established by Bayesia Lab software.The survival time, number of metastatic lymph nodes(NMLN), T stage, pathological grade, margin, jaundice, liver invasion, age, sex and tumor morphology were included in this model...
May 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775905/kinetic-modelling-of-methane-production-during-bio-electrolysis-from-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-sewage-sludge-and-food-waste
#13
Kalp Bhusan Prajapati, Rajesh Singh
In present study batch tests were performed to investigate the enhancement in methane production under bio-electrolysis anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste. The bio-electrolysis reactor system (B-EL) yield more methane 148.5 ml/g COD in comparison to reactor system without bio-electrolysis (B-CONT) 125.1 ml/g COD. Whereas bio-electrolysis reactor system (C-EL) Iron Scraps amended yield lesser methane (51.2 ml/g COD) in comparison to control bio-electrolysis reactor system without Iron scraps (C-CONT - 114...
May 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774975/signals-of-large-scale-climate-drivers-hatchery-enhancement-and-marine-factors-in-yukon-river-chinook-salmon-survival-revealed-with-a-bayesian-life-history-model
#14
Curry J Cunningham, Peter A H Westley, Milo D Adkison
Understanding how species might respond to climate change involves disentangling the influence of co-occurring environmental factors on population dynamics, and is especially problematic for migratory species like Pacific salmon that move between ecosystems. To date, debate surrounding the causes of recent declines in Yukon River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance has centered on whether factors in freshwater or marine environments control variation in survival, and how these populations at the northern extremity of the species range will respond to climate change...
May 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773489/county-level-trends-in-suicide-rates-in-the-u-s-2005-2015
#15
Lauren M Rossen, Holly Hedegaard, Diba Khan, Margaret Warner
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the geographic patterns of suicide can help inform targeted prevention efforts. Although state-level variation in age-adjusted suicide rates has been well documented, trends at the county-level have been largely unexplored. This study uses small area estimation to produce stable county-level estimates of suicide rates to examine geographic, temporal, and urban-rural patterns in suicide from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: Using National Vital Statistics Underlying Cause of Death Files (2005-2015), hierarchical Bayesian models were used to estimate suicide rates for 3,140 counties...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772889/bivariate-spatiotemporal-disease-mapping-of-cancer-of-the-breast-and-cervix-uteri-among-iranian-women
#16
Mehdi Raei, Volker Johann Schmid, Behzad Mahaki
Cervical cancer in women is one of the most common cancers and breast cancer has grown dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this study was to map the incidence of breast and cervix uteri cancer among Iranian women over a 6-year period (2004-2009) searching for trend changes and risk factors. Cancer incidence data were extracted from the annual reports of the National Cancer Registry in Iran. Hierarchical Bayesian models, including random spatial and temporal effects was utilized together with bivariate, spatio-temporal shared component modelling...
May 8, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772882/correlation-analysis-of-air-pollutant-index-levels-and-dengue-cases-across-five-different-zones-in-selangor-malaysia
#17
Loshini Thiruchelvam, Sarat C Dass, Rafdzah Zaki, Abqariyah Yahya, Vijanth S Asirvadam
This study investigated the potential relationship between dengue cases and air quality - as measured by the Air Pollution Index (API) for five zones in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dengue case patterns can be learned using prediction models based on feedback (lagged terms). However, the question whether air quality affects dengue cases is still not thoroughly investigated based on such feedback models. This work developed dengue prediction models using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and ARIMA with an exogeneous variable (ARIMAX) time series methodologies with API as the exogeneous variable...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772874/spatial-electromagnetic-field-intensity-modelling-of-global-system-for-mobile-communication-base-stations-in-the-istanbul-technical-university-ayazaga-campus-area
#18
Kubra Boz, Hayri Hakan Denli
The rapid development of the global system for mobile communication services and the consequent increased electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to the human body have generated debate on the potential danger with respect to human health. The many research studies focused on this subject have, however, not provided any certain evidence about harmful consequences due to mobile communication systems. On the other hand, there are still views suggesting such exposure might affect the human body in different ways...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772376/understanding-re-distribution-of-road-deposited-particle-bound-pollutants-using-a-bayesian-network-bn-approach
#19
An Liu, Buddhi Wijesiri, Nian Hong, Panfeng Zhu, Prasanna Egodawatta, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Road deposited pollutants (build-up) are continuously re-distributed by external factors such as traffic and wind turbulence, influencing stormwater runoff quality. However, current stormwater quality modelling approaches do not account for the re-distribution of pollutants. This undermines the accuracy of stormwater quality predictions, constraining the design of effective stormwater treatment measures. This study, using over 1000 data points, developed a Bayesian Network modelling approach to investigate the re-distribution of pollutant build-up on urban road surfaces...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772062/a-three-part-bayesian-network-for-modeling-dwelling-fires-and-their-impact-upon-people-and-property
#20
D B Matellini, A D Wall, I D Jenkinson, J Wang, R Pritchard
In the United Kingdom, dwelling fires are responsible for the majority of all fire-related fatalities. The development of these incidents involves the interaction of a multitude of variables that combine in many different ways. Consequently, assessment of dwelling fire risk can be complex, which often results in ambiguity during fire safety planning and decision making. In this article, a three-part Bayesian network model is proposed to study dwelling fires from ignition through to extinguishment in order to improve confidence in dwelling fire safety assessment...
May 17, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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