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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346518/determinants-of-health-trajectories-in-england-and-the-us-an-approach-to-identify-different-patterns-of-healthy-aging
#1
Javier de la Fuente, Francisco Félix Caballero, Albert Sánchez-Niubó, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Matthew A Prina, Holger Arndt, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos
Background: Aging is a multidimensional process with a remarkable inter-individual variability. This study is focused on identifying groups of population with similar aging patterns, and to define the health trajectories of these groups. Socio-demographic and health determinants of these trajectories are also identified. Methods: Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used. A set of self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a latent health metric by means of a Bayesian multilevel IRT model, assessing the ability of the metric to predict mortality...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345743/refining-mortality-estimates-in-shark-demographic-analyses-a-bayesian-inverse-matrix-approach
#2
Jonathan J Smart, André E Punt, William T White, Colin A Simpfendorfer
Leslie matrix models are an important analysis tool in conservation biology that are applied to a diversity of taxa. The standard approach estimates the finite rate of population growth (λ) from a set of vital rates. In some instances, an estimate of λ is available, but the vital rates are poorly understood and can be solved for using an inverse matrix approach. However, these approaches are rarely attempted due to pre-requisites of information on the structure of age or stage-classes. This study addressed this issue by using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and the sample-importance-resampling (SIR) algorithm to solve the inverse matrix problem without data on population structure...
January 18, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345484/journal-article-reporting-standards-for-quantitative-research-in-psychology-the-apa-publications-and-communications-board-task-force-report
#3
Mark Appelbaum, Harris Cooper, Rex B Kline, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Arthur M Nezu, Stephen M Rao
Following a review of extant reporting standards for scientific publication, and reviewing 10 years of experience since publication of the first set of reporting standards by the American Psychological Association (APA; APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008), the APA Working Group on Quantitative Research Reporting Standards recommended some modifications to the original standards. Examples of modifications include division of hypotheses, analyses, and conclusions into 3 groupings (primary, secondary, and exploratory) and some changes to the section on meta-analysis...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344362/development-of-biomarker-combinations-for-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-via-bayesian-model-selection-in-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#4
Allison Meisner, Kathleen F Kerr, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Francis Perry Wilson, Amit X Garg, Michael G Shlipak, Peter Kavsak, Richard P Whitlock, Steven G Coca, Chirag R Parikh
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery. We sought prognostic combinations of postoperative biomarkers measured within 6 h of surgery, potentially in combination with cardiopulmonary bypass time (to account for the degree of insult to the kidney). We used data from a large cohort of patients and adapted methods for developing biomarker combinations to account for the multicenter design of the study. Methods: The primary endpoint was sustained mild AKI, defined as an increase of 50% or more in serum creatinine over preoperative levels lasting at least 2 days during the hospital stay...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343602/bayesian-inference-reveals-positive-but-subtle-effects-of-experimental-fishery-closures-on-marine-predator-demographics
#5
Richard B Sherley, Barbara J Barham, Peter J Barham, Kate J Campbell, Robert J M Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Cat Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C Votier
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to 8 years of alternating time-area closures around two pairs of colonies...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343499/a-population-phylogenetic-view-of-mitochondrial-heteroplasmy
#6
Peter R Wilton, Arslan Zaidi, Kateryna Makova, Rasmus Nielsen
The mitochondrion has recently emerged as an active player in a myriad of cellular processes. Additionally, it was recently shown that more than 200 diseases are known to be linked to variants in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes interacting with mitochondria. This has reinvigorated interest in its biology and population genetics. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy, or genotypic variation of mitochondria within an individual, is now understood to be common in humans and important in human health. However, it is still not possible to make quantitative predictions about the inheritance of heteroplasmy and its proliferation within the body, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model...
January 17, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342307/using-phylogenomic-data-to-explore-the-effects-of-relaxed-clocks-and-calibration-strategies-on-divergence-time-estimation-primates-as-a-test-case
#7
Mario Dos Reis, Gregg F Gunnell, José Barba-Montoya, Alex Wilkins, Ziheng Yang, Anne D Yoder
Primates have long been a test case for the development of phylogenetic methods for divergence time estimation. Despite a large number of studies, however, the timing of origination of crown Primates relative to the K-Pg boundary and the timing of diversification of the main crown groups remain controversial. Here we analysed a dataset of 372 taxa (367 Primates and 5 outgroups, 3.4 million aligned base pairs) that includes nine primate genomes. We systematically explore the effect of different interpretations of fossil calibrations and molecular clock models on primate divergence time estimates...
January 12, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342184/species-delimitation-in-the-stenocereus-griseus-cactaceae-species-complex-reveals-a-new-species-s-huastecorum
#8
Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo, Alejandro Casas, Fabiola Parra, Hilda Julieta Arreola-Nava, Teresa Terrazas, Cristian Sánchez
The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341205/promotion-time-cure-rate-model-with-nonparametric-form-of-covariate-effects
#9
Tianlei Chen, Pang Du
Survival data with a cured portion are commonly seen in clinical trials. Motivated from a biological interpretation of cancer metastasis, promotion time cure model is a popular alternative to the mixture cure rate model for analyzing such data. The existing promotion cure models all assume a restrictive parametric form of covariate effects, which can be incorrectly specified especially at the exploratory stage. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric approach to modeling the covariate effects under the framework of promotion time cure model...
January 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340895/confirming-the-tripartite-structure-of-the-duke-university-religion-index-a-methodological-approach
#10
John W Lace, Paul J Handal
The present study provided a methodological critique regarding psychometric investigations of the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and its variants. Nine hundred seventeen (630 females and 287 males) university students (M age = 19.24) completed the DUREL, the Personal Religious Inventory, and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale online. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess a three-factor (organizational religious activity; non-organizational religious activity; and intrinsic religiosity) and a unidimensional model of the DUREL...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340259/relationships-between-road-distance-to-primary-care-facilities-and-ischemic-heart-disease-and-stroke-mortality-in-hokkaido-japan-a-bayesian-hierarchical-approach-to-ecological-count-data
#11
Yasuaki Saijo, Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuyuki Kawanishi, Yoshihiko Nakagi, Sharon J B Hanley, Takahiko Yoshida
Objective: Poor access to a primary care physician may lead to poor control of risk factors for disease. This study investigated whether geographic access to a primary care physician was related to ischemic heart disease and stroke mortality. Methods: Road-distances from the centroids of the basic unit blocks of the 2010 Japanese Census to the nearest primary care facilities in Hokkaido, northern Japan, were measured using geographic information system (GIS) software...
January 2018: Journal of General and Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339508/human-ectoparasites-and-the-spread-of-plague-in-europe-during-the-second-pandemic
#12
Katharine R Dean, Fabienne Krauer, Lars Walløe, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Boris V Schmid
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Several studies have suggested that human ectoparasite vectors, such as human fleas (Pulex irritans) or body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), caused the rapidly spreading epidemics...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338703/diagnostic-accuracy-and-prediction-increment-of-markers-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-to-assess-cancer-cell-detachment-from-primary-tumors
#13
Evan L Busch, Prabhani Kuruppumullage Don, Haitao Chu, David B Richardson, Temitope O Keku, David A Eberhard, Christy L Avery, Robert S Sandler
BACKGROUND: Metastases play a role in about 90% of cancer deaths. Markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) measured in primary tumor cancer cells might provide diagnostic information about the likelihood that cancer cells have detached from the primary tumor. Used together with established diagnostic tests of detachment-lymph node evaluation and radiologic imaging-EMT marker measurements might improve the ability of clinicians to assess the patient's risk of metastatic disease...
January 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338585/the-effects-of-a-nutrition-media-literacy-intervention-on-parents-and-youths-communication-about-food
#14
Erica Weintraub Austin, Bruce W Austin, Brian F French, Marilyn A Cohen
Interventions addressing links between media exposure and obesity risk for school-age youth have not explicitly addressed the role of family communication about media. Youths' influence attempts on parents to purchase advertised foods can create conflict and negatively affect parental food choices. This study tested whether a family-based media literacy curriculum improves parents' media management skills and decreases youths' susceptibility to appealing but unrealistic food marketing. A matched-group pretest/posttest field experiment of parent-youth dyads with control group (N = 100 dyads, youth M = 11 years of age) tested the six-session curriculum...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337762/tinnitus-and-auditory-perception-after-a-history-of-noise-exposure-relationship-to-auditory-brainstem-response-measures
#15
Naomi F Bramhall, Dawn Konrad-Martin, Garnett P McMillan
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I amplitude is associated with measures of auditory perception in young people with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and varying levels of noise exposure history. DESIGN: Tinnitus, loudness tolerance, and speech perception ability were measured in 31 young military Veterans and 43 non-Veterans (19 to 35 years of age) with normal pure-tone thresholds and DPOAEs. Speech perception was evaluated in quiet using Northwestern University Auditory Test (NU-6) word lists and in background noise using the words in noise (WIN) test...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337286/estimation-of-parameters-for-plasma-glucose-regulation-in-type-2-diabetics-in-presence-of-meal
#16
Prova Biswas, Ashoke Sutradhar, Pallab Datta
In this study, the authors propose a methodology for the estimation of glucose masses in stomach (both in solid and liquid forms), intestine, plasma and tissue; insulin masses in portal vein, liver, plasma and interstitial fluid using only plasma glucose measurement. The proposed methodology fuses glucose-insulin homoeostasis model (in the presence of meal intake) and plasma glucose measurement with a Bayesian non-linear filter. Uncertainty of the model over individual variations has been incorporated by adding process noise to the homoeostasis model...
February 2018: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337235/frequency-specific-effective-connectivity-in-subjects-with-cerebral-infarction-as-revealed-by-nirs-method
#17
Qianying Liu, Bitian Wang, Ying Liu, Zeping Lv, Wenhao Li, Zengyong Li, Yubo Fan
A connectivity-based approach can highlight the network reorganization in the chronic phases after stroke and contributes to the development of therapeutic interventions. Using dynamic Bayesian inference, this study aimed to assess the effective connectivity(EC)in various frequency bands through the near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) method in subjects with cerebral infarction(CI). A phase-coupling model was established based on phase information extracted using the wavelet transform of NIRS signals. Coupling strength and the main coupling direction were estimated using dynamic Bayesian inference...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336083/how-sea-level-change-mediates-genetic-divergence-in-coastal-species-across-regions-with-varying-tectonic-and-sediment-processes
#18
Greer A Dolby, Ryan A Ellingson, Lloyd T Findley, David K Jacobs
Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea-level change interacted with variable near-shore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the Last Glacial Maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38 °N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25 °N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three co-distributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335598/gene-and-microrna-perturbations-of-cellular-response-to-pemetrexed-implicate-biological-networks-and-enable-imputation-of-response-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#19
Eric R Gamazon, Matthew R Trendowski, Yujia Wen, Claudia Wing, Shannon M Delaney, Won Huh, Shan Wong, Nancy J Cox, M Eileen Dolan
Pemetrexed is indicated for non-small cell lung carcinoma and mesothelioma, but often has limited efficacy due to drug resistance. To probe the molecular mechanisms underlying chemotherapeutic response, we performed mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of pemetrexed treated and untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and applied a hierarchical Bayesian method. We identified genetic variation associated with gene expression in human lung tissue for the most significant differentially expressed genes (Benjamini-Hochberg [BH] adjusted p < 0...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334859/bayesian-analysis-of-semi-parametric-cox-models-with-latent-variables
#20
Jingheng Cai, Chenyi Liang
Respiratory cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers as well as the leading cause of cancer death. Numerous efforts have been devoted to reducing the death rate of respiratory cancer. In this article, we propose a semi-parametric Cox model with latent variables to assess the effects of observed and latent risk factors on survival time of respiratory cancer. The characteristics of latent risk factors are characterized via multiple observed indicators by a confirmatory factor analysis model. We develop a Bayesian estimation procedure to obtain the estimates of parameters...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
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