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deception detection

Christina Mitteldorf, Mar Llamas-Velasco, Hans-Joachim Schulze, Kai-Martin Thoms, Thomas Mentzel, Michael Tronnier, Heinz Kutzner
BACKGROUND: We investigated two cases of deceptively bland cutaneous angiosarcoma, which showed a uniform clinical presentation with a rapidly growing tumor on the nose. It remains unclear whether this was a primary cutaneous manifestation or a metastasis. Both tumors initially presented a high histologic overlap with a benign vascular tumor. The diagnosis was primarily based on the rapidly progressing clinical course and on the results of the staging procedures. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stains were performed for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and MNF116), CD31, ERG, CD34(HPCA1/my10), D2-40/podoplanin, LYVE-1, Ki67, PHH3, αSMA(1A4), MYC, FOS-B, CAMTA-1, TFE-3, WT1, nestin, VEGFR-2(KDR), VEGFR-3(FLT4), HHV8...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Marvin K H Law, Simon A Jackson, Eugene Aidman, Mattis Geiger, Sally Olderbak, Sabina Kleitman
Individual differences in lie detection remain poorly understood. Bond and DePaulo's meta-analysis examined judges (receivers) who were ascertaining lies from truths and senders (deceiver) who told these lies and truths. Bond and DePaulo found that the accuracy of detecting deception depended more on the characteristics of senders rather than the judges' ability to detect lies/truths. However, for many studies in this meta-analysis, judges could hear and understand senders. This made language comprehension a potential confound...
2018: PloS One
David M Williams, Toby Nicholson, Catherine Grainger, Sophie E Lind, Peter Carruthers
Detection of deception is of fundamental importance for everyday social life and might require "mindreading" (the ability to represent others' mental states). People with diminished mindreading, such as those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), might be at risk of manipulation because of lie detection difficulties. In Experiment 1, performance among 216 neurotypical adults on a realistic lie detection paradigm was significantly negatively associated with number of ASD traits, but not with mindreading ability...
April 27, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Divya Sukumar, Kimberley A Wade, Jacqueline S Hodgson
When deceptive suspects are unaware of the evidence the police hold against them, they contradict that evidence more than truthful suspects do-a useful cue to deception. But given that, over time, truthful suspects might forget the past and also contradict the evidence, how effective are lie detection techniques that rely on such inconsistencies when suspects are questioned months after a crime? In Experiment 1, people committed a theft (liars) or a benign activity (truth-tellers) in a university bookshop. Shortly after or 2 months later, we questioned them about their bookshop visit without informing them of the evidence implicating them in the theft...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Zhen Liu, Jinping Sui, Zhenhua Wei, Xiang Li
This paper focuses on developing an anti-velocity jamming strategy that enhances the ability of a pulse-Doppler (PD) radar to detect moving targets in the presence of translational and/or micro motion velocity jamming generated by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) repeat jammers. The strategy adopts random pulse initial phase (RPIP) pulses as its transmitted signal and thus gets DRFM jammers not adaptable to the randomness of initial phase of the transmitted pulses in the pulse repetition interval (PRI) domain...
April 18, 2018: Sensors
Takuro Otsuka, Mitsuyoshi Mizutani, Akihiro Yagi, Jun'ichi Katayama
The concealed information test (CIT), a psychophysiological detection of deception test, compares physiological responses between crime-related and crime-unrelated items. In previous studies, whether the act of answering questions affected physiological responses was unclear. This study examined effects of both question-related and answer-related processes on physiological responses. Twenty participants received a modified CIT, in which the interval between presentation of questions and answering them was 27 s...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Fang Li, Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Qianqian Gao, Huan Guo, Shijing Wu, Xinge Li, Sailing He
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to test whether monitoring inhibition-related brain regions is a feasible method for detecting both infrequent liars and frequent liars. Thirty-two participants were divided into two groups: the deceptive group (liars) and the non-deceptive group (ND group, innocents). All the participants were required to undergo a simulated interrogation by a computer. The participants from the deceptive group were instructed to tell a mix of lies and truths and those of the ND group were instructed always to tell the truth...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jessie C Buettel, Andrew Cole, John M Dickey, Barry W Brook
The spatial analysis of dimensionless points (e.g., tree locations on a plot map) is common in ecology, for instance using point-process statistics to detect and compare patterns. However, the treatment of one-dimensional linear features (fibre processes) is rarely attempted. Here we appropriate the methods of vector sums and dot products, used regularly in fields like astrophysics, to analyse a data set of mapped linear features (logs) measured in 12 × 1-hectare forest plots. For this demonstrative case study, we ask two deceptively simple questions: do trees tend to fall downhill, and if so, does slope gradient matter? Despite noisy data and many potential confounders, we show clearly that topography (slope direction and steepness) of forest plots does matter to treefall...
March 23, 2018: Ecology
Barbara Diana, Valentino Zurloni, Massimiliano Elia, Cesare Cavalera, Olivia Realdon, Gudberg K Jonsson, M Teresa Anguera
Deception has evolved to become a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Despite the prolonged efforts in many disciplines, there has been no definite finding of a univocally "deceptive" signal. This work proposes an approach to deception detection combining cognitive load manipulation and T-pattern methodology with the objective of: (a) testing the efficacy of dual task-procedure in enhancing differences between truth tellers and liars in a low-stakes situation; (b) exploring the efficacy of T-pattern methodology in discriminating truthful reports from deceitful ones in a low-stakes situation; (c) setting the experimental design and procedure for following research...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Zheng Yu, Rongchang Wang, Fan Chen, Jianru Wang, Xiaohui Huang
BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetal protein (AFP) is an important conventional clinical diagnostic indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the utilization of AFP alone might yield deceptive results due to its limited sensitivity and accuracy. AIMS: Our study was designed to investigate latent diagnostic biomarkers that could function as auxiliary clinical indicators of HCC and enhance the accuracy of joint diagnosis with AFP. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression profiles and clinical data from HCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas database...
April 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Merylin Monaro, Chiara Galante, Riccardo Spolaor, Qian Qian Li, Luciano Gamberini, Mauro Conti, Giuseppe Sartori
Identifying the true identity of a subject in the absence of external verification criteria (documents, DNA, fingerprints, etc.) is an unresolved issue. Here, we report an experiment on the verification of fake identities, identified by means of their specific keystroke dynamics as analysed in their written response using a computer keyboard. Results indicate that keystroke analysis can distinguish liars from truth tellers with a high degree of accuracy - around 95% - thanks to the use of unexpected questions that efficiently facilitate the emergence of deception clues...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yunji Li, QingE Wu, Li Peng
In this paper, a synthesized design of fault-detection filter and fault estimator is considered for a class of discrete-time stochastic systems in the framework of event-triggered transmission scheme subject to unknown disturbances and deception attacks. A random variable obeying the Bernoulli distribution is employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring deception attacks. To achieve a fault-detection residual is only sensitive to faults while robust to disturbances, a coordinate transformation approach is exploited...
January 23, 2018: Sensors
S Krichen, L Liu, P Sharma
Sharks, birds, bats, turtles, and many other animals can detect magnetic fields. Aside from using this remarkable ability to exploit the terrestrial magnetic field map to sense direction, a subset is also able to implement a version of the so-called geophysical positioning system. How do these animals detect magnetic fields? The answer to this rather deceptively simple question has proven to be quite elusive. The currently prevalent theories, while providing interesting insights, fall short of explaining several aspects of magnetoreception...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Saul M Kassin, Allison D Redlich, Fabiana Alceste, Timothy J Luke
Eighty-seven experts on the psychology of confessions-many of whom were highly published, many with courtroom experience-were surveyed online about their opinions on 30 propositions of relevance to deception detection, police interrogations, confessions, and relevant general principles of psychology. As indicated by an agreement rate of at least 80%, there was a strong consensus that several findings are sufficiently reliable to present in court. This list includes but is not limited to the proposition that the risk of false confessions is increased not only by explicit threats and promises but by 2 common interrogation tactics-namely, the false evidence ploy and minimization tactics that imply leniency by offering sympathy and moral justification...
January 2018: American Psychologist
Geoffrey Duran, Isabelle Tapiero, George A Michael
This study explored a psychophysiological measure, Resting Heart Rate (RHR), as a predicator of the ability to detect lies. RHR was recorded for 1min and followed by a deception detection task in which participants were required to judge 24 videos of people describing a real-life event (50% truthful, 50% deceptive). Multiple regression analyses showed that, among other individual characteristics, only RHR predicted the ability to distinguish truth from lies. Importantly, the prediction was negative. This result suggests that the higher the RHR, the worse the detection of lies...
March 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Thomas Kuballa, Thomas Hausler, Alex O Okaru, Maria Neufeld, Kennedy O Abuga, Isaac O Kibwage, Jürgen Rehm, Burkhard Luy, Stephan G Walch, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2  < 0...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mary E McCaul, Gary S Wand
There is increasing awareness of the potential negative impacts of participant deception on research, including possibly undermining reliability and reproducibility of study findings. These deceptive individuals set their personal interests above the rules of study participation, thereby jeopardizing data quality as well as placing themselves and others at risk. The costs of participant deception are numerous. Overall, it reduces statistical power and may even result in false conclusions about efficacy and safety...
February 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Henning Gibbons, Robert Schnuerch, Christina Wittinghofer, Anne-Simone Armbrecht, Jutta Stahl
Successful deception requires the coordination of multiple mental processes, such as attention, conflict monitoring, and the regulation of emotion. We employed a simple classification task, assessing ERPs to further investigate the attentional and cognitive control components of (instructed) deception. In Experiment 1, 20 participants repeatedly categorized visually presented names of five animals and five plants. Prior to the experiment, however, each participant covertly selected one animal and one plant for deliberate misclassification...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
Siavash Azadmanesh Samimi, Roxanne R Mody, Steven Goodman, Eric Luna, Donna Armylagos, Mary R Schwartz, Dina R Mody, Yimin Ge
CONTEXT: - Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. The effect of HPV infection patterns on cytologic detection of cervical lesions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the effect of HPV infection patterns on the sensitivity of cytologic detection of high-grade cervical lesions. DESIGN: - Papanicolaou tests from 257 women with biopsy-confirmed, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were analyzed with respect to HPV infection patterns...
March 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Chris N H Street, Miguel A Vadillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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