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deception detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413707/disrupting-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-rtms-reduces-the-p300-based-marker-of-deception
#1
Inga Karton, Talis Bachmann
OBJECTIVE: Quite many studies have revealed certain brain-process signatures indicative of subject's deceptive behavior. These signatures are neural correlates of deception. However, much less is known about whether these signatures can be modified by noninvasive brain stimulation techniques representing methods of causal intervention of brain processes and the corresponding behavior. Our purpose was to explore whether such methods have an effect on these signatures. METHODS: It is well known that electroencephalographic event-related potential component, P300, is sensitive to perception of critical items in a concealed information test, one of the central methods in deception studies...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401382/first-application-of-newly-developed-ft-nir-spectroscopic-methodology-to-predict-authenticity-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-retail-products-in-the-usa
#2
Magdi M Mossoba, Hormoz Azizian, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, John K G Kramer
Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) has been a worldwide problem and a concern for government regulators for a long time. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is mandated to protect the US public against intentional adulteration of foods and has jurisdiction over deceptive label declarations. To detect EMA of olive oil and address food safety vulnerabilities, we used a previously developed rapid screening methodology to authenticate EVOO. For the first time, a recently developed FT-NIR spectroscopic methodology in conjunction with partial least squares analysis was applied to commercial products labeled EVOO purchased in College Park, MD, USA to rapidly predict whether they are authentic, potentially mixed with refined olive oil (RO) or other vegetable oil(s), or are of lower quality...
April 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358556/measuring-emotional-and-cognitive-empathy-using-dynamic-naturalistic-and-spontaneous-emotion-displays
#3
Ross Buck, Stacie R Powers, Kyle S Hull
Most measures of nonverbal receiving ability use posed expressions as stimuli. As empathy measures, such stimuli lack ecological validity, as the participant is not actually experiencing emotion. An alternative approach uses natural and dynamic displays of spontaneous expressions. The Communication of Affect Receiving Ability Test (CARAT) uses as stimuli spontaneous facial expressions and gestures filmed by an unobtrusive camera of solitary participants responding to emotional images. This article reports the development and initial validation of the CARAT-Spontaneous, Posed, Regulated (CARAT-SPR), which measures both abilities to detect emotion from spontaneous displays (emotion communication accuracy) and to differentiate spontaneous, posed, and regulated displays (expression categorization ability)...
March 30, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290127/jumping-the-gun-faster-response-latencies-to-deceptive-questions-in-a-realistic-scenario
#4
Tessa Mapala, Lara Warmelink, Sally A Linkenauger
Most theories of lie detection assume that lying increases cognitive load, resulting in longer response latencies during questioning. However, the studies supporting this theory are typically laboratory-based, in settings with no specific validity in security contexts. Consequently, using virtual reality (VR), we investigated how response latencies were influenced in an ecologically valid environment of interest to security professionals. In a highly realistic airport security terminal presented in VR, a security officer asked participants yes/no questions about their belongings...
March 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286410/how-private-is-private-information-the-ability-to-spot-deception-in-an-economic-game
#5
Michèle Belot, Jeroen van de Ven
We provide experimental evidence on the ability to detect deceit in a buyer-seller game with asymmetric information. Sellers have private information about the value of a good and sometimes have incentives to mislead buyers. We examine if buyers can spot deception in face-to-face encounters. We vary whether buyers can interrogate the seller and the contextual richness. The buyers' prediction accuracy is above chance, and is substantial for confident buyers. There is no evidence that the option to interrogate is important and only weak support that contextual richness matters...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223960/deception-detection-in-action-embodied-simulation-in-antisocial-human-interactions
#6
Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196093/a-massive-experiment-on-choice-blindness-in-political-decisions-confidence-confabulation-and-unconscious-detection-of-self-deception
#7
Andrés Rieznik, Lorena Moscovich, Alan Frieiro, Julieta Figini, Rodrigo Catalano, Juan Manuel Garrido, Facundo Álvarez Heduan, Mariano Sigman, Pablo A Gonzalez
We implemented a Choice Blindness Paradigm containing political statements in Argentina to reveal the existence of categorical ranges of introspective reports, identified by confidence and agreement levels, separating easy from very hard to manipulate decisions. CBP was implemented in both live and web-based forms. Importantly, and contrary to what was observed in Sweden, we did not observe changes in voting intentions. Also, confidence levels in the manipulated replies where significantly lower than in non-manipulated cases even in undetected manipulations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187760/case-report-subacute-tetraplegia-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#8
Daniel Zeller, Anke Heidemeier, Götz Ulrich Grigoleit, Wolfgang Müllges
BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning in Neurology is based on general associations which help to deduce the site of the lesion. However, even "golden principles" may occasionally be deceptive. Here, we describe the case of subacute flaccid tetraparesis due to motor cortical lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to include an impressive illustration of nearly symmetric motor cortical involvement of encephalitis on brain MRI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51 year old immunocompromized man developed a high-grade pure motor flaccid tetraparesis over few days...
February 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182460/lying-takes-time-a-meta-analysis-on-reaction-time-measures-of-deception
#9
Kristina Suchotzki, Bruno Verschuere, Bram Van Bockstaele, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Geert Crombez
Lie detection techniques are frequently used, but most of them have been criticized for the lack of empirical support for their predictive validity and presumed underlying mechanisms. This situation has led to increased efforts to unravel the cognitive mechanisms underlying deception and to develop a comprehensive theory of deception. A cognitive approach to deception has reinvigorated interest in reaction time (RT) measures to differentiate lies from truths and to investigate whether lying is more cognitively demanding than truth telling...
April 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080097/-you-must-be-lying-because-i-don-t-understand-you-language-proficiency-and-lie-detection-correction-to-elliott-and-leach-2016
#10
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "You must be lying because I don't understand you: Language proficiency and lie detection" by Elizabeth Elliott and Amy-May Leach (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2016[Dec], Vol 22[4], 488-499). In the Results section, under "Signal detection theory," the first sentence of the second paragraph contains errors. The correct sentence is provided in this erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-59419-006.) We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075367/high-performance-anti-retransmission-deception-jamming-utilizing-range-direction-multiple-input-and-multiple-output-mimo-synthetic-aperture-radar-sar
#11
Ruijia Wang, Jie Chen, Xing Wang, Bing Sun
Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal...
January 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030362/the-guilty-brain-the-utility-of-neuroimaging-and-neurostimulation-studies-in-forensic-field
#12
Francesca Mameli, Cristina Scarpazza, Emanuele Tomasini, Roberta Ferrucci, Fabiana Ruggiero, Giuseppe Sartori, Alberto Priori
Several studies have aimed to address the natural inability of humankind to detect deception and accurately discriminate lying from truth in the legal context. To date, it has been well established that telling a lie is a complex mental activity. During deception, many functions of higher cognition are involved: the decision to lie, withholding the truth, fabricating the lie, monitoring whether the receiver believes the lie, and, if necessary, adjusting the fabricated story and maintaining a consistent lie...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018271/comparing-a-perceptual-and-an-automated-vision-based-method-for-lie-detection-in-younger-children
#13
Mariana Serras Pereira, Reinier Cozijn, Eric Postma, Suleman Shahid, Marc Swerts
The present study investigates how easily it can be detected whether a child is being truthful or not in a game situation, and it explores the cue validity of bodily movements for such type of classification. To achieve this, we introduce an innovative methodology - the combination of perception studies (in which eye-tracking technology is being used) and automated movement analysis. Film fragments from truthful and deceptive children were shown to human judges who were given the task to decide whether the recorded child was being truthful or not...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993884/misdiagnosis-analysis-of-cervical-minimal-deviation-adenocarcinoma-a-report-of-three-rare-cases-and-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Mingxing Sui, Yanling Pei, Dong Li, Qiaori Li, Peining Zhu, Tianmin Xu, Manhua Cui
Cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) is a rare variant of cervical adenocarcinoma that is difficult to diagnose due to the deep location, endogenous growth pattern, deceptively benign appearance of tumor cells, and lack of connection to human papillomavirus (HPV). Cytological evaluation and biopsies offer suboptimal detection and transvaginal sonography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) only reveal multiple lesions that mimic multiple benign nabothian cysts. Besides, standard screening, diagnostic tools, and treatments are not established...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956581/can-magic-deception-be-detected-at-an-unconscious-level
#15
Naoaki Kawakami, Emi Miura
Magicians present magic tricks that seem to defy the laws of nature, entertaining us by manipulating our attention, perception, and awareness. However, although we are unaware of these manipulations at the level of conscious experience, we may still be aware of them at an unconscious level. We examined whether people can detect a magic deception outside of conscious awareness using an indirect measure. In the present study, we used the Cups and Balls magic trick, which is the transposition of balls between two cups...
December 11, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936858/you-must-be-lying-because-i-don-t-understand-you-language-proficiency-and-lie-detection
#16
Elizabeth Elliott, Amy-May Leach
We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance. Observers (N = 132) were randomly assigned to make deception judgments about interviewees (N = 56) from Four proficiency groups (i.e., native, advanced, intermediate, and beginner English speakers). Discrimination between lie- and truth-tellers was poorest when observers judged beginner English speakers compared to interviewees from any other proficiency group. Observers were also less likely to exhibit a truth-bias toward nonnative than native English speakers...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870942/altered-time-course-of-amygdala-activation-during-speech-anticipation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#17
Carolyn D Davies, Katherine Young, Jared B Torre, Lisa J Burklund, Philippe R Goldin, Lily A Brown, Andrea N Niles, Matthew D Lieberman, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated anticipatory anxiety is common in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Neuroimaging studies have revealed altered neural activity in response to social stimuli in SAD, but fewer studies have examined neural activity during anticipation of feared social stimuli in SAD. The current study examined the time course and magnitude of activity in threat processing brain regions during speech anticipation in socially anxious individuals and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Participants (SAD n=58; HC n=16) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which they completed a 90s control anticipation task and 90s speech anticipation task...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857515/the-ethics-of-the-relation-between-the-convicted-patient-and-the-physician
#18
Cristian Gherman, Ovidiu Chiroban, Dan Perju-Dumbrava
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Approaching the convicted patient is a topical issue in terms of alignment with EU provisions and recommendations, more so in the context of year by year increase in the number of convicts and consequently, prison patients. The prison patient exhibits increased vulnerability in regard to the rest of the convicts due to his/her medical status overlapping personality changes induced, while coping with a new environment. This represents a challenge for the physicians involved in the expertise process, which must act objectively within the limits and by the principles of professional ethics, while confronting a patient influenced by the prison environment...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847493/strategic-interviewing-to-detect-deception-cues-to-deception-across-repeated-interviews
#19
Jaume Masip, Iris Blandón-Gitlin, Carmen Martínez, Carmen Herrero, Izaskun Ibabe
Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a "repeat strategy" to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers) and guilty participants (liars) had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi), contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after 1 week without forewarning...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831718/expert-players-accurately-detect-an-opponent-s-movement-intentions-through-sound-alone
#20
Ivan Camponogara, Matthew Rodger, Cathy Craig, Paola Cesari
Sounds offer a rich source of information about events taking place in our physical and social environment. However, outside the domains of speech and music, little is known about whether humans can recognize and act upon the intentions of another agent's actions detected through auditory information alone. In this study we assessed whether intention can be inferred from the sound an action makes, and in turn, whether this information can be used to prospectively guide movement. In 2 experiments experienced and novice basketball players had to virtually intercept an attacker by listening to audio recordings of that player's movements...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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