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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843849/contamination-incidents-in-the-pre-analytical-phase-of-forensic-dna-analysis-in-austria-statistics-of-17-years
#1
Ines Pickrahn, Gabriele Kreindl, Eva Müller, Bettina Dunkelmann, Waltraud Zahrer, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, F Neuhuber
Forensic DNA analyses have become more and more sensitive in the past years. With the ability to generate DNA profiles even from minute amounts of cellular material also the possibility to detect DNA on trace material that originates from persons not linked to the crime event, such as crime scene investigators, increases. The contamination of crime scene samples can lead to false positive results and misinterpretation that can cause deceptive investigations. In this work we continue a study of 2010 that compared the number of detected contamination incidents that were caused in the pre-analytical phase of forensic DNA analysis with the number of crime scene samples analyzed by our laboratory...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836349/variation-in-floral-characters-particularly-floral-scent-in-sapromyophilous-stemona-species
#2
Gao Chen, Wei-Chang Gong, Jia Ge, Johann Schinnerl, Bin Wang, Wei-Bang Sun
Flowers or inflorescences often deploy various signals, including visual, olfactory, and gustatory cues, that can be detected by their pollinators. In many plants, these cues and their functions are poorly understood. Deciphering the interactions between floral cues and pollinators is crucial for analyzing the reproductive success of flowering plants. In this study, we examined the composition of the fetid floral scents produced by several Stemona species, including nine S. tuberosa populations from across China, using dynamic headspace adsorption, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry techniques...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812952/impact-of-adult-attachment-anxiety-on-deception-judgments-examining-the-moderating-effect-of-motivation
#3
Song Wu, Wei Cai, Yanjun Zhang, Ying Liu, Shenghua Jin
Several psychologists have paid attention to individual differences in deception detection, but only a few studies have found significant results. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between attachment anxiety and deception judgment when there are no obvious cues to distinguish lies from truth, and to examine the moderating effect of motives. Participants were instructed to judge each of 10 audios on whether they were true or false. Subsequently, the attachment anxiety of participants was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806928/colour-polymorphic-lures-exploit-innate-preferences-for-spectral-versus-luminance-cues-in-dipteran-prey
#4
Thomas E White, Darrell J Kemp
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts that colour polymorphism may be favored by variation in the visual context under which signals are perceived. The context encompasses all environmental determinants of light availability and propagation, but also the dynamics of perception in receivers. Color vision involves the neural separation of information into spectral versus luminance channels, which often differentially guide specific tasks. Here we explicitly tested whether this discrete perceptual basis contributes to the maintenance of polymorphism in a prey-luring system...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744733/arthropods-associate-with-their-red-wood-ant-host-without-matching-nestmate-recognition-cues
#5
Thomas Parmentier, Wouter Dekoninck, Tom Wenseleers
Social insect colonies provide a valuable resource that attracts and offers shelter to a large community of arthropods. Previous research has suggested that many specialist parasites of social insects chemically mimic their host in order to evade aggression. In the present study, we carry out a systematic study to test how common such chemical deception is across a group of 22 arthropods that are associated with red wood ants (Formica rufa group). In contrast to the examples of chemical mimicry documented in some highly specialized parasites in previous studies, we find that most of the rather unspecialized red wood ant associates surveyed did not use mimicry of the cuticular hydrocarbon recognition cues to evade host detection...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740300/feasibility-of-uv-vis-fluorescence-spectroscopy-combined-with-pattern-recognition-techniques-to-authenticate-a-new-category-of-plant-food-supplements
#6
Raffaella Boggia, Federica Turrini, Marco Anselmo, Paola Zunin, Dario Donno, Gabriele L Beccaro
Bud extracts, named also "gemmoderivatives", are a new category of natural products, obtained macerating meristematic fresh tissues of trees and plants. In the European Community these botanical remedies are classified as plant food supplements. Nowadays these products are still poorly studied, even if they are widely used and commercialized. Several analytical tools for the quality control of these very expensive supplements are urgently needed in order to avoid mislabelling and frauds. In fact, besides the usual quality controls common to the other botanical dietary supplements, these extracts should be checked in order to quickly detect if the cheaper adult parts of the plants are deceptively used in place of the corresponding buds whose harvest-period and production are extremely limited...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714186/the-pinocchio-effect-and-the-cold-stress-test-lies-and-thermography
#7
A Moliné, G Gálvez-García, J Fernández-Gómez, J De la Fuente, O Iborra, F Tornay, J L Mata Martín, M Puertollano, E Gómez Milán
We applied the use of thermography to cognitive neuropsychology, particularly as an objective marker of subjective experiences, in the context of lying. We conducted three experiments: (a) An important lie was invented by the participants in 3 min, and it was recounted by phone to a significant person while they were recorded by the thermographic camera, obtaining a face and hands map of the lie. (b) A similar methodology was carried out, but adding the Cold Stress Test (CST) of the dominant hand during the phone call, obtaining a second physiologic marker (the percentage of thermal recovery) to detect the lie...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696772/enhanced-detection-of-feigned-cognitive-impairment-using-per-item-response-time-measurements-in-the-word-memory-test
#8
T Lupu, T Elbaum, M Wagner, Y Braw
Response time (RT) is a less obvious outcome measure than conventional accuracy measures used in performance validity tests (PVTs). It is also under less conscious control and is affected by cognitive processes associated with deception. Studies that assessed the utility of RT for the detection of feigned cognitive impairment are however numbered. Moreover, RT variability was not assessed in a clinically used PVT. In the current study, we assessed the utility of RT measures for the detection of feigned cognitive impairment in the Word Memory Test (WMT)...
July 11, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623779/the-honest-truth-about-deception-demographic-cognitive-and-neural-correlates-of-child-repeated-deceptive-behavior
#9
Sandra Thijssen, Andrea Wildeboer, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Ryan L Muetzel, Sandra J E Langeslag, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Tonya White
This study examined situational, psychological, and neurobiological factors associated with deceptive behavior in 8-year-old children. By assessing deception in low- and high-risk conditions, we differentiated between children displaying some dishonesty and children who deceived repeatedly, and we assessed the correlates of deception in 163 children. A large majority of the children were deceptive in the low-risk condition (n=121, 74.2%), but most children refrained from deception when at risk for getting caught (69 of 121)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622095/black-and-white-lies-race-based-biases-in-deception-judgments
#10
E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg, Allen R McConnell, Jonathan W Kunstman, Jason C Deska
In six studies ( N = 605), participants made deception judgments about videos of Black and White targets who told truths and lies about interpersonal relationships. In Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2, White participants judged that Black targets were telling the truth more often than they judged that White targets were telling the truth. This truth bias was predicted by Whites' motivation to respond without prejudice. For Black participants, however, motives to respond without prejudice did not moderate responses (Study 2)...
August 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620336/how-to-trick-your-opponent-a-review-article-on-deceptive-actions-in-interactive-sports
#11
REVIEW
Iris Güldenpenning, Wilfried Kunde, Matthias Weigelt
Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents' performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball) has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596660/facts-and-fallacies-of-kidd-antibodies-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#12
R N Makroo, Sweta Nayak, Mohit Chowdhry, Prashant Karna
We have analyzed the method used in our laboratory to detect the most elusive, clinically significant alloantibody: the Kidd alloantibodies and find the most convenient procedure. A retrospective analysis of the method used in our laboratory for determining Kidd alloantibodies from January 2013 to May 2015 was conducted. The details of the event that sensitized the patient for red cell antibody formation and procedure used to detect the alloantibody were retrieved from the departmental records. Of 405 red cell antibody identification cases, 24 (5...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594222/can-credibility-criteria-be-assessed-reliably-a-meta-analysis-of-criteria-based-content-analysis
#13
Valerie Hauch, Siegfried Ludwig Sporer, Jaume Masip, Iris Blandón-Gitlin
This meta-analysis synthesizes research on interrater reliability of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA). CBCA is an important component of Statement Validity Assessment (SVA), a forensic procedure used in many countries to evaluate whether statements (e.g., of sexual abuse) are based on experienced or fabricated events. CBCA contains 19 verbal content criteria, which are frequently adapted for research on detecting deception. A total of k = 82 hypothesis tests revealed acceptable interrater reliabilities for most CBCA criteria, as measured with various indices (except Cohen's kappa)...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553157/promises-and-lies-can-observers-detect-deception-in-written-messages
#14
Jingnan Chen, Daniel Houser
We design a laboratory experiment to examine predictions of trustworthiness in a novel three-person trust game. We investigate whether and why observers of the game can predict the trustworthiness of hand-written communications. Observers report their perception of the trustworthiness of messages, and make predictions about the senders' behavior. Using observers' decisions, we are able to classify messages as "promises" or "empty talk." Drawing from substantial previous research, we hypothesize that certain factors influence whether a sender is likely to honor a message and/or whether an observer perceives the message as likely to behonored: the mention of money; the use of encompassing words; and message length...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536987/sexual-deception-in-the-eucera-pollinated-ophrys-leochroma-a-chemical-intermediate-between-wasp-and-andrena-pollinated-species
#15
Monica Cuervo, Demetra Rakosy, Carlos Martel, Stefan Schulz, Manfred Ayasse
Ophrys flowers mimic sex pheromones of attractive females of their pollinators and attract males, which attempt to copulate with the flower and thereby pollinate it. Virgin females and orchid flowers are known to use the same chemical compounds in order to attract males. The composition of the sex pheromone and its floral analogue, however, vary between pollinator genera. Wasp-pollinated Ophrys species attract their pollinators by using polar hydroxy acids, whereas Andrena-pollinated species use a mixture of non-polar hydrocarbons...
May 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528339/molecular-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-from-fine-needle-aspirates-in-pediatric-patients
#16
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (TBLN) in pediatric patients is often a challenge because features evident on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or tissue biopsy can be deceptive for the reason that they result from an immunological response. This study aimed to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in pediatric patients under clinical suspicion for TBLN and to assess its role in the evaluation of cases cytodiagnosed as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia...
2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506167/two-dimensional-morphological-characteristics-of-the-distal-radius-on-axial-magnetic-resonance-image-and-the-effects-on-distal-screw-length
#17
Ho Youn Park, Youn Tae Roh, Dong Uk Min, Seok Whan Song, Yoo Joon Sur
BACKGROUND: Detection of dorsal cortical penetration of distal locking screws is difficult owing to the irregular shape of the dorsal surface of the distal radius. This study was designed to analyze two-dimensional morphological characteristics of the distal radius on axial magnetic resonance image, and to suggest a guideline for evaluation of screw length in distal radius fractures on the fluoroscopic or plain X-ray true lateral image. METHODS: Anteroposterior length and lateral width of the distal radius, distance between the highest and the lowest point of the dorsal cortex (deceptive length), and widths of the first to second (hazard zone) and the third to fifth extensor compartments (safe zone) at the Lister tubercle level were measured on 104 axial magnetic resonance images by two hand surgeons...
June 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489781/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-myocarditis-mimicking-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-analysis-of-a-case-series
#18
Shuang Wu, Yan-Min Yang, Jun Zhu, Huai-Bin Wan, Juan Wang, Han Zhang, Xing-Hui Shao
Acute myocarditis mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is highly deceptive for an accurate diagnosis, and a systematic study is lacking with regard to the clinical features and prognosis of this distinct clinical entity.Patients with suspected STEMI and eventually diagnosed with myocarditis by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) from January 2012 to April 2016 at Fuwai Hospital were identified by reviewing medical records and electronic databases. Follow-up was conducted by clinical visits and phone contacts in a median duration of 17 months...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438235/deception-detection-state-of-the-art-and-future-prospects
#19
Jaume Masip
BACKGROUND: Deception detection has been a longstanding concern throughout human history. It has also interested scientists, who have explored psychological and behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers, as well as ways to improve detection accuracy. METHOD: In recent years, substantial advances have been made in the field. Some of these advances are briefly reviewed in the current article. RESULTS: A description is provided of (a) research and contemporary theories on how people (try to) detect deception; (b) recent advances on strategic interviewing to detect deception; (c) the integrative findings of recent meta-analyses on systematic verbal lie detection approaches; and (d) several important aspects concerning psychophysiological detection of deception...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413707/disrupting-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-rtms-reduces-the-p300-based-marker-of-deception
#20
Inga Karton, Talis Bachmann
OBJECTIVE: Quite many studies have revealed certain brain-process signatures indicative of subject's deceptive behavior. These signatures are neural correlates of deception. However, much less is known about whether these signatures can be modified by noninvasive brain stimulation techniques representing methods of causal intervention of brain processes and the corresponding behavior. Our purpose was to explore whether such methods have an effect on these signatures. METHODS: It is well known that electroencephalographic event-related potential component, P300, is sensitive to perception of critical items in a concealed information test, one of the central methods in deception studies...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
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