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deception detection

C Bass, P Halligan
Interest in malingering has grown in recent years, and is reflected in the exponential increase in academic publications since 1990. Although malingering is more commonly detected in medicolegal practice, it is not an all-or-nothing presentation and moreover can vary in the extent of presentation. As a nonmedical disorder, the challenge for clinical practice remains that malingering by definition is intentional and deliberate. As such, clinical skills alone are often insufficient to detect it and we describe psychometric tests such as symptom validity tests and relevant nonmedical investigations...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Fan Huang, Behdad Dashtbozorg, Jiong Zhang, Erik Bekkers, Samaneh Abbasi-Sureshjani, Tos T J M Berendschot, Bart M Ter Haar Romeny
The retinal fractal dimension (FD) is a measure of vasculature branching pattern complexity. FD has been considered as a potential biomarker for the detection of several diseases like diabetes and hypertension. However, conflicting findings were found in the reported literature regarding the association between this biomarker and diseases. In this paper, we examine the stability of the FD measurement with respect to (1) different vessel annotations obtained from human observers, (2) automatic segmentation methods, (3) various regions of interest, (4) accuracy of vessel segmentation methods, and (5) different imaging modalities...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Adrianna Jenkins, Lusha Zhu, Ming Hsu
Understanding the neural basis of human honesty and deception has enormous potential scientific and practical value. However, past approaches, largely developed out of studies with forensic applications in mind, are increasingly recognized as having serious methodological and conceptual shortcomings. Here we propose to address these challenges by drawing on so-called signaling games widely used in game theory and ethology to study behavioral and evolutionary consequences of information transmission and distortion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Jennifer Gongola, Nicholas Scurich, Jodi A Quas
Although research reveals that children as young as 3 can use deception and will take steps to obscure truth, research concerning how well others detect children's deceptive efforts remains unclear. Yet adults regularly assess whether children are telling the truth in a variety of contexts, including at school, in the home, and in legal settings, particularly in investigations of maltreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize extant research concerning adults' ability to detect deceptive statements produced by children...
September 29, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Catherine Friend, Nicola Fox Hamilton
Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline...
September 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Maddalena Marini, Sara Agosta, Giuseppe Sartori
The autobiographical IAT (aIAT) is an implicit behavioral instrument that can detect autobiographical memories encoded in an individual's mind by measuring how quickly this person can categorize and associate sentences related to a specific event with the logical dimensions true and false. Faster categorization when an event (e.g., I went to Paris) is associated with the dimension true than false indicates that that specific event is encoded as true in the individual's mind. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of the aIAT, used as a memory-detection technique (i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Robin A A Ince, Katarzyna Jaworska, Joachim Gross, Stefano Panzeri, Nicola J van Rijsbergen, Guillaume A Rousselet, Philippe G Schyns
A key to understanding visual cognition is to determine "where", "when", and "how" brain responses reflect the processing of the specific visual features that modulate categorization behavior-the "what". The N170 is the earliest Event-Related Potential (ERP) that preferentially responds to faces. Here, we demonstrate that a paradigmatic shift is necessary to interpret the N170 as the product of an information processing network that dynamically codes and transfers face features across hemispheres, rather than as a local stimulus-driven event...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Fábio Pinheiro, Tiago Manuel Zanfra de Melo E Gouveia, Salvatore Cozzolino, Donata Cafasso, Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson, Rogério Mamoru Suzuki, Clarisse Palma-Silva
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The investigation of reproductive barriers between sister species can provide insights into how new lineages arise, and how species integrity is maintained in the face of interspecific gene flow. Different pre- and postzygotic barriers can limit interspecific gene exchange in sympatric populations, and different sources of evidence are often required to investigate the role of multiple reproductive isolation (RI) mechanisms. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis of hybridization and potential introgression between Epidendrum secundum and Epidendrum xanthinum, two Neotropical food-deceptive orchid species, using nuclear and plastid microsatellites, experimental crosses, pollen tube growth observations, and genome size estimates...
August 2016: American Journal of Botany
Zarah Vernham, Pär-Anders Granhag, Erik Mac Giolla
[This corrects the article on p. 1012 in vol. 7, PMID: 27445957.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ana Cabrerizo, Pablo Tejedo, Jordi Dachs, Javier Benayas
Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zarah Vernham, Pär-Anders Granhag, Erik M Giolla
Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Bruno Verschuere, Willem In T Hout
The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth...
2016: PloS One
Leanne Ten Brinke, Kathleen D Vohs, Dana R Carney
The tipping point framework of lie detection posits that people can, and do, accurately detect deception. This framework pinpoints three circumstances that aid accuracy: (i) using methods of measurement that circumvent controlled, conscious cognition; (ii) when individual differences or situational factors portend potent risks to lie detection failure, such as in high-stakes or threatening settings; and (iii) when factors diminish concern over the relationship or reputation costs of asserting that someone has lied...
August 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Amy-May Leach, Nawal Ammar, D Nicole England, Laura M Remigio, Bennett Kleinberg, Bruno J Verschuere
Judges in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada have ruled that witnesses may not wear the niqab-a type of face veil-when testifying, in part because they believed that it was necessary to see a person's face to detect deception (Muhammad v. Enterprise Rent-A-Car, 2006; R. v. N. S., 2010; The Queen v. D(R), 2013). In two studies, we used conventional research methods and safeguards to empirically examine the assumption that niqabs interfere with lie detection. Female witnesses were randomly assigned to lie or tell the truth while remaining unveiled or while wearing a hijab (i...
August 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Sarah Zanette, Xiaoqing Gao, Megan Brunet, Marian Stewart Bartlett, Kang Lee
The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Mallanagouda N Patil, Eranna Palled
INTRODUCTION: Birth injuries are common phenomenon. But commonly encountered birth injuries are clavicle fracture, humerus fractures and uncommonly femur fracture. Incidence of Distal humerus Epiphyseal injuries as birth injury are rare. As the first secondary centre around elbow-capitellum appears at 3-9 months, its radilological assessment of alignment with elbow or the radius shaft is not possible in neonates. It is difficult to differentiate elbow dislocation from epiphyseal injury in neonates...
October 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Martina Vicianova
Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology...
August 2015: Europe's journal of psychology
Jaume Masip, Iris Blandón-Gitlin, Clara de la Riva, Carmen Herrero
Meta-analyses reveal that behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers are small. To facilitate lie detection, researchers are currently developing interviewing approaches to increase these differences. Some of these approaches assume that lying is cognitively more difficult than truth telling; however, they are not based on specific cognitive theories of lie production, which are rare. Here we examined one existing theory, Walczyk et al.'s (2014) Activation-Decision-Construction-Action Theory (ADCAT)...
September 2016: Acta Psychologica
Fulong Ren, Wei Li, Jinzhu Yang, Huan Geng, Dazhe Zhao
BACKGROUND: Existing methods may fail to locate and segment the optic disc (OD) due to imprecise boundaries, inconsistent image contrast and deceptive edge features in retinal images. OBJECTIVE: To locate the OD and detect the OD boundary accurately. METHODS: The method exploits a multi-stage strategy in the detection procedure. Firstly, OD location candidate regions are identified based on high-intensity feature and vessels convergence property...
April 29, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Luis R Manssuer, Ralph Pawling, Amy E Hayes, Steven P Tipper
Gaze direction can be used to rapidly and reflexively lead or mislead others' attention as to the location of important stimuli. When perception of gaze direction is congruent with the location of a target, responses are faster compared to when incongruent. Faces that consistently gaze congruently are also judged more trustworthy than faces that consistently gaze incongruently. However, it's unclear how gaze-cues elicit changes in trust. We measured facial electromyography (EMG) during an identity-contingent gaze-cueing task to examine whether embodied emotional reactions to gaze-cues mediate trust learning...
January 2016: Cognitive Neuroscience
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