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deception detection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347612/biological-cell-as-a-soft-magnetoelectric-material-elucidating-the-physical-mechanisms-underpinning-the-detection-of-magnetic-fields-by-animals
#1
S Krichen, L Liu, P Sharma
Sharks, birds, bats, turtles, and many other animals can detect magnetic fields. Aside from using this remarkable ability to exploit the terrestrial magnetic field map to sense direction, a subset is also able to implement a version of the so-called geophysical positioning system. How do these animals detect magnetic fields? The answer to this rather deceptively simple question has proven to be quite elusive. The currently prevalent theories, while providing interesting insights, fall short of explaining several aspects of magnetoreception...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345487/on-the-general-acceptance-of-confessions-research-opinions-of-the-scientific-community
#2
Saul M Kassin, Allison D Redlich, Fabiana Alceste, Timothy J Luke
Eighty-seven experts on the psychology of confessions-many of whom were highly published, many with courtroom experience-were surveyed online about their opinions on 30 propositions of relevance to deception detection, police interrogations, confessions, and relevant general principles of psychology. As indicated by an agreement rate of at least 80%, there was a strong consensus that several findings are sufficiently reliable to present in court. This list includes but is not limited to the proposition that the risk of false confessions is increased not only by explicit threats and promises but by 2 common interrogation tactics-namely, the false evidence ploy and minimization tactics that imply leniency by offering sympathy and moral justification...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305871/resting-heart-rate-a-physiological-predicator-of-lie-detection-ability
#3
Geoffrey Duran, Isabelle Tapiero, George A Michael
This study explored a psychophysiological measure, Resting Heart Rate (RHR), as a predicator of the ability to detect lies. RHR was recorded for 1min and followed by a deception detection task in which participants were required to judge 24 videos of people describing a real-life event (50% truthful, 50% deceptive). Multiple regression analyses showed that, among other individual characteristics, only RHR predicted the ability to distinguish truth from lies. Importantly, the prediction was negative. This result suggests that the higher the RHR, the worse the detection of lies...
January 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287330/detection-of-counterfeit-brand-spirits-using-1h-nmr-fingerprints-in-comparison-to-sensory-analysis
#4
Thomas Kuballa, Thomas Hausler, Alex O Okaru, Maria Neufeld, Kennedy O Abuga, Isaac O Kibwage, Jürgen Rehm, Burkhard Luy, Stephan G Walch, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286543/detecting-deception-in-our-research-participants-are-your-participants-who-you-think-they-are
#5
REVIEW
Mary E McCaul, Gary S Wand
There is increasing awareness of the potential negative impacts of participant deception on research, including possibly undermining reliability and reproducibility of study findings. These deceptive individuals set their personal interests above the rules of study participation, thereby jeopardizing data quality as well as placing themselves and others at risk. The costs of participant deception are numerous. Overall, it reduces statistical power and may even result in false conclusions about efficacy and safety...
December 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226961/detection-of-deception-event-related-potential-markers-of-attention-and-cognitive-control-during-intentional-false-responses
#6
Henning Gibbons, Robert Schnuerch, Christina Wittinghofer, Anne-Simone Armbrecht, Jutta Stahl
Successful deception requires the coordination of multiple mental processes, such as attention, conflict monitoring, and the regulation of emotion. We employed a simple classification task, assessing ERPs to further investigate the attentional and cognitive control components of (instructed) deception. In Experiment 1, 20 participants repeatedly categorized visually presented names of five animals and five plants. Prior to the experiment, however, each participant covertly selected one animal and one plant for deliberate misclassification...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160722/do-infection-patterns-of-human-papillomavirus-affect-the-cytologic-detection-of-high-grade-cervical-lesions-on-papanicolaou-tests
#7
Siavash Azadmanesh Samimi, Roxanne R Mody, Steven Goodman, Eric Luna, Donna Armylagos, Mary R Schwartz, Dina R Mody, Yimin Ge
CONTEXT: - Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. The effect of HPV infection patterns on cytologic detection of cervical lesions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the effect of HPV infection patterns on the sensitivity of cytologic detection of high-grade cervical lesions. DESIGN: - Papanicolaou tests from 257 women with biopsy-confirmed, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were analyzed with respect to HPV infection patterns...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081758/commentary-can-ordinary-people-detect-deception-after-all
#8
COMMENT
Chris N H Street, Miguel A Vadillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048308/examining-police-officers-response-bias-in-judging-veracity
#9
Jaume Masip, Carmen Herrero
BACKGROUND: Deception detection research has shown that, in judging veracity, police officers are less truth biased than non-officers. However, previous researchers have normally used videotaped statements where an unknown (but presumably large) number of stereotypical or real deception cues are displayed by the senders. We examined non-officers, novice officers, and experienced officers’ response tendencies in a more controlled situation where cue availability was severely restricted...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031467/action-skilled-observation-issues-for-the-study-of-sport-expertise-and-the-brain
#10
April Karlinsky, Karen Zentgraf, Nicola J Hodges
With a growing body of research devoted to uncovering regions of the brain implicated in action observation following various action-related experiences, including sport, we ask what we know from this research, and what we still need to know, as it pertains to sport and the brain. To do this, we review and integrate knowledge garnered from developmental work, short-term motor learning studies, and most significantly sport athletes across varying skill levels. We consider various neurophysiological methods, including TMS, fMRI, and EEG, which have been used to help uncover brain regions involved in action-skilled observation...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988084/fluorescent-sensor-based-models-for-the-detection-of-environmentally-related-toxic-heavy-metals
#11
REVIEW
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Faran Nabeel, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Chuanlong Li, Yongfeng Zhou
The quest for industrial and biotechnological revolution has been contributed in increasing environmental contamination issues, worldwide. The controlled or uncontrolled release of hazardous pollutants from various industrial sectors is one of the key problems facing humanity. Among them, adverse influences of lead, cadmium, and mercury on human health are well known to cause many disorders like reproductive, neurological, endocrine system, and cardiovascular, etc. Besides their presence at lower concentrations, most of these toxic heavy metals are posing noteworthy toxicological concerns...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983264/the-dark-triad-and-the-pid-5-maladaptive-personality-traits-accuracy-confidence-and-response-bias-in-judgments-of-veracity
#12
Benno G Wissing, Marc-André Reinhard
The Dark Triad traits-narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy-have been found to be associated with intra- or interpersonal deception production frequency. This cross-sectional study (N = 207) investigated if the Dark Triad traits are also associated with deception detection accuracy, as implicated by the recent conception of a deception-general ability. To investigate associations between maladaptive personality space and deception, the PID-5 maladaptive personality traits were included to investigate if besides Machiavellianism, Detachment is negatively associated with response bias...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940300/using-named-entities-for-computer-automated-verbal-deception-detection
#13
Bennett Kleinberg, Maximilian Mozes, Arnoud Arntz, Bruno Verschuere
There is an increasing demand for automated verbal deception detection systems. We propose named entity recognition (NER; i.e., the automatic identification and extraction of information from text) to model three established theoretical principles: (i) truth tellers provide accounts that are richer in detail, (ii) contain more contextual references (specific persons, locations, and times), and (iii) deceivers tend to withhold potentially checkable information. We test whether NER captures these theoretical concepts and can automatically identify truthful versus deceptive hotel reviews...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843849/contamination-incidents-in-the-pre-analytical-phase-of-forensic-dna-analysis-in-austria-statistics-of-17-years
#14
Ines Pickrahn, Gabriele Kreindl, Eva Müller, Bettina Dunkelmann, Waltraud Zahrer, Jan Cemper-Kiesslich, F Neuhuber
Forensic DNA analyses have become more and more sensitive in the past years. With the ability to generate DNA profiles even from minute amounts of cellular material also the possibility to detect DNA on trace material that originates from persons not linked to the crime event, such as crime scene investigators, increases. The contamination of crime scene samples can lead to false positive results and misinterpretation that can cause deceptive investigations. In this work we continue a study of 2010 that compared the number of detected contamination incidents that were caused in the pre-analytical phase of forensic DNA analysis with the number of crime scene samples analyzed by our laboratory...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836349/variation-in-floral-characters-particularly-floral-scent-in-sapromyophilous-stemona-species
#15
Gao Chen, Wei-Chang Gong, Jia Ge, Johann Schinnerl, Bin Wang, Wei-Bang Sun
Flowers or inflorescences often deploy various signals, including visual, olfactory, and gustatory cues, that can be detected by their pollinators. In many plants, these cues and their functions are poorly understood. Deciphering the interactions between floral cues and pollinators is crucial for analyzing the reproductive success of flowering plants. In this study, we examined the composition of the fetid floral scents produced by several Stemona species, including nine S. tuberosa populations from across China, using dynamic headspace adsorption, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry techniques...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812952/impact-of-adult-attachment-anxiety-on-deception-judgments-examining-the-moderating-effect-of-motivation
#16
Song Wu, Wei Cai, Yanjun Zhang, Ying Liu, Shenghua Jin
Several psychologists have paid attention to individual differences in deception detection, but only a few studies have found significant results. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between attachment anxiety and deception judgment when there are no obvious cues to distinguish lies from truth, and to examine the moderating effect of motives. Participants were instructed to judge each of 10 audios on whether they were true or false. Subsequently, the attachment anxiety of participants was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806928/colour-polymorphic-lures-exploit-innate-preferences-for-spectral-versus-luminance-cues-in-dipteran-prey
#17
Thomas E White, Darrell J Kemp
BACKGROUND: Theory predicts that colour polymorphism may be favored by variation in the visual context under which signals are perceived. The context encompasses all environmental determinants of light availability and propagation, but also the dynamics of perception in receivers. Color vision involves the neural separation of information into spectral versus luminance channels, which often differentially guide specific tasks. Here we explicitly tested whether this discrete perceptual basis contributes to the maintenance of polymorphism in a prey-luring system...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744733/arthropods-associate-with-their-red-wood-ant-host-without-matching-nestmate-recognition-cues
#18
Thomas Parmentier, Wouter Dekoninck, Tom Wenseleers
Social insect colonies provide a valuable resource that attracts and offers shelter to a large community of arthropods. Previous research has suggested that many specialist parasites of social insects chemically mimic their host in order to evade aggression. In the present study, we carry out a systematic study to test how common such chemical deception is across a group of 22 arthropods that are associated with red wood ants (Formica rufa group). In contrast to the examples of chemical mimicry documented in some highly specialized parasites in previous studies, we find that most of the rather unspecialized red wood ant associates surveyed did not use mimicry of the cuticular hydrocarbon recognition cues to evade host detection...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740300/feasibility-of-uv-vis-fluorescence-spectroscopy-combined-with-pattern-recognition-techniques-to-authenticate-a-new-category-of-plant-food-supplements
#19
Raffaella Boggia, Federica Turrini, Marco Anselmo, Paola Zunin, Dario Donno, Gabriele L Beccaro
Bud extracts, named also "gemmoderivatives", are a new category of natural products, obtained macerating meristematic fresh tissues of trees and plants. In the European Community these botanical remedies are classified as plant food supplements. Nowadays these products are still poorly studied, even if they are widely used and commercialized. Several analytical tools for the quality control of these very expensive supplements are urgently needed in order to avoid mislabelling and frauds. In fact, besides the usual quality controls common to the other botanical dietary supplements, these extracts should be checked in order to quickly detect if the cheaper adult parts of the plants are deceptively used in place of the corresponding buds whose harvest-period and production are extremely limited...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714186/the-pinocchio-effect-and-the-cold-stress-test-lies-and-thermography
#20
A Moliné, G Gálvez-García, J Fernández-Gómez, J De la Fuente, O Iborra, F Tornay, J L Mata Martín, M Puertollano, E Gómez Milán
We applied the use of thermography to cognitive neuropsychology, particularly as an objective marker of subjective experiences, in the context of lying. We conducted three experiments: (a) An important lie was invented by the participants in 3 min, and it was recounted by phone to a significant person while they were recorded by the thermographic camera, obtaining a face and hands map of the lie. (b) A similar methodology was carried out, but adding the Cold Stress Test (CST) of the dominant hand during the phone call, obtaining a second physiologic marker (the percentage of thermal recovery) to detect the lie...
November 2017: Psychophysiology
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