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Clozapine m1 receptor

Kwok H C Choy, David M Shackleford, Daniel T Malone, Shailesh N Mistry, Rahul T Patil, Peter J Scammells, Christopher J Langmead, Christos Pantelis, Patrick M Sexton, Johnathan R Lane, Arthur Christopoulos
Current antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, but they remain suboptimal in targeting cognitive dysfunction. Recent studies have suggested that positive allosteric modulation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) may provide a novel means of improving cognition. However, very little is known about the potential of combination therapies in extending coverage across schizophrenic symptom domains. This study investigated the effect of the M1 mAChR positive allosteric modulator BQCA [1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid], alone or in combination with haloperidol (a first-generation antipsychotic), clozapine (a second-generation atypical antipsychotic), or aripiprazole (a third-generation atypical antipsychotic), in reversing deficits in sensorimotor gating and spatial memory induced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine]...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Yuto Sugawara, Yui Kikuchi, Mitsugu Yoneda, Takako Ohno-Shosaku
The atypical antipsychotic clozapine is widely used for treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. Clozapine and its major active metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC), have complex pharmacological properties, and interact with various neurotransmitter receptors. There are several biochemical studies reporting that NDMC exhibits a partial agonist profile at the human recombinant M1 muscarinic receptors. However, direct electrophysiological evidence showing the ability of NDMC to activate native M1 receptors in intact neurons is poor...
April 2, 2016: Brain Research
Robert W Gould, Michael T Nedelcovych, Xuewen Gong, Erica Tsai, Michael Bubser, Thomas M Bridges, Michael R Wood, Mark E Duggan, Nicholas J Brandon, John Dunlop, Michael W Wood, Magnus Ivarsson, Meredith J Noetzel, J Scott Daniels, Colleen M Niswender, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Carrie K Jones
Accumulating evidence indicates direct relationships between sleep abnormalities and the severity and prevalence of other symptom clusters in schizophrenia. Assessment of potential state-dependent alterations in sleep architecture and arousal relative to antipsychotic-like activity is critical for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Recently, we reported that VU0467154, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), exhibits robust APD-like and cognitive enhancing activity in rodents...
March 2016: Neuropharmacology
Tarek K Rajji, Benoit H Mulsant, Simon Davies, Sawsan M Kalache, Christopher Tsoutsoulas, Bruce G Pollock, Gary Remington
OBJECTIVE: Clozapine's potent antagonism of muscarinic M1 receptors is thought to worsen working memory deficits associated with schizophrenia. In contrast, its major metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC), is thought to enhance working memory via its M1 receptor agonist activity. The authors hypothesized that the ratio of serum clozapine and NDMC concentrations would be inversely associated with working memory performance in schizophrenia. METHOD: Thirty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were receiving clozapine monotherapy at bedtime completed the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) on the day their blood was collected to assess concentrations of clozapine and NDMC as well as serum anticholinergic activity...
June 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
F J B Mendonça Júnior, L Scotti, H Ishiki, S P S Botelho, M S Da Silva, M T Scotti
Benzodiazepines (BZ or BZD) are a class of gabaminergic psychoactive chemicals used in hypnotics, sedation, in the treatment of anxiety, and in other CNS disorders. These drugs include alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), and others. There are two distinct types of pharmacological binding sites for benzodiazepines in the brain (BZ1 and BZ2), these sites are on GABA-A receptors, and are classified as short, intermediate, or long-acting. From the thienobenzodiazepine class (TBZ), Olanzapine (2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine) (Zyprexa) was used as an example to demonstrate the antagonism of this class of compounds for multiples receptors including: dopamine D1-D5, α-adrenoreceptor, histamine H1, muscarinic M1-M5 and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT6 receptors...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Anssi Solismaa, Olli Kampman, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Kari-Matti Mäkelä, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
OBJECTIVE: Clozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS) is a common, inconvenient and socially stigmatizing adverse effect. The pathophysiology of CIS may be related to the effect of clozapine on the muscarinic and adrenergic receptors as well as the disruption of the circadian rhythms. The aim of this study was to find out if polymorphisms in muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor genes (CHRM1 and CHRM3), adrenoceptor alpha 2A gene (ADRA2A) or clock circadian regulator gene (CLOCK) are associated with CIS...
July 2014: Human Psychopharmacology
Noelia A Massari, Vanina A Medina, Graciela P Cricco, Diego J Martinel Lamas, Lorena Sambuco, Romina Pagotto, Clara Ventura, Pablo J Ciraolo, Omar Pignataro, Rosa M Bergoc, Elena S Rivera
BACKGROUND: Functional presence of histamine H4 receptor (H4R) was demonstrated in human melanoma cell lines and biopsies. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this work were to investigate signal transduction pathways and biological responses triggered by the activation of H4R in human primary (WM35) and metastatic (M1/15) melanoma cell lines and to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of histamine (HA) and clozapine (CLZ) on human M1/15 melanoma xenografts. METHODS: Clonogenic assay, incorporation of BrdU, cell cycle distribution, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and cAMP production were evaluated in vitro...
December 2013: Journal of Dermatological Science
Marla L Watt, Linda Rorick-Kehn, David B Shaw, Karen M Knitowski, Anne T Quets, Amy K Chesterfield, David L McKinzie, Christian C Felder
The generation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype-selective compounds has been challenging, requiring use of nonpharmacological approaches, such as genetically engineered animals, to deepen our understanding of the potential that members of the muscarinic receptor subtype family hold as therapeutic drug targets. The muscarinic receptor agonist 'BuTAC' was previously shown to exhibit efficacy in animal models of psychosis, although the particular receptor subtype(s) responsible for such activity was unclear...
December 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
J Ekström, T Godoy, F Loy, A Riva
OBJECTIVE: The parasympathetic transmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases salivary gland blood flow and evokes protein secretion and, in some species, such as rats, a small fluid secretion. It interacts synergistically with muscarinics for protein and fluid output. Human salivary acini are supplied with VIP-containing nerves. We hypothesise that VIP and clozapine, acting together, evoke a volume of saliva greater than the sum of those induced by each drug given separately...
April 2014: Oral Diseases
Nobuhiro Nagai, Koichiro Watanabe
Olanzapine is one of the SGAs (second-generation antipsychotics) which have been used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Japan. Olanzapine has various affinities for multiple receptors, including dopamine D2 receptor, serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT6 receptors, and adrenaline alpha1, histamine H1, muscarine M1-M5 receptors as well. Therefore, olanzapine is known as MARTA(multi-acting receptor targeted antipsychotics). Numerous studies have been conducted to compare the effectiveness of olanzapine between SGAs and FGAs (first-generation antipsychotics)...
April 2013: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
T Godoy, A Riva, J Ekström
OBJECTIVE: Olanzapine, introduced as an alternative to clozapine in schizophrenia therapy, is thought to display a receptor affinity similar to that of clozapine. Antipsychotics are well-known xerogenic drugs. However, clozapine exerts both antagonistic and agonistic salivary effects ('clozapine-induced sialorrhea'), the latter probably via muscarinic M1 type of receptor. We hypothesise that olanzapine also has dual salivary effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Effects of intravenous olanzapine were examined in rats, including those subjected to chronic preganglionic parasympathetic denervation (submandibular glands) or combined postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic denervation (parotid glands)...
March 2013: Oral Diseases
Jason M Wiebelhaus, Sarah A Vunck, Herbert Y Meltzer, Joseph H Porter
N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) is the major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine and may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of clozapine. Although they share many pharmacological features, it is noteworthy that NDMC is a partial dopamine D2 and cholinergic muscarinic M1/M4 agonist, whereas clozapine is a weak dopamine D2 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist and a nonselective muscarinic antagonist. To better understand the in-vivo pharmacological mechanisms of these drugs, male C57BL/6NHsd-wild-type mice were trained to discriminate 10...
June 2012: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kazuhiro Torigoe, Kae Nakahara, Mahardian Rahmadi, Kazumi Yoshizawa, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Shigeto Hirayama, Satoshi Imai, Naoko Kuzumaki, Toshimasa Itoh, Akira Yamashita, Kiyoshi Shakunaga, Mitsuaki Yamasaki, Hiroshi Nagase, Motohiro Matoba, Tsutomu Suzuki, Minoru Narita
BACKGROUND: The use of opioids for pain management is often associated with nausea and vomiting. Although conventional antipsychotics are often used to counter emesis, they can be associated with extrapyramidal symptoms. However, chronic pain can induce sleep disturbance. The authors investigated the effects of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine on morphine-induced emesis and the sleep dysregulation associated with chronic pain. METHODS: A receptor binding assay was performed using mouse whole brain tissue...
January 2012: Anesthesiology
Tania Godoy, Alessandro Riva, Jörgen Ekström
Many drugs (e.g. amisulpride) have been used to treat troublesome clozapine-induced salivation; however, varying success has been achieved in this respect, probably because, until recently, the salivatory action of clozapine has been largely unexplained. In the rat, clozapine and its main metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine, were found to exert mixed secretory actions: excitatory, through muscarinic acetylcholine M1-receptors giving rise to a long-lasting, low-level flow of saliva; and inhibitory, through muscarinic M3-receptors and α(1) -adrenoceptors reducing the parasympathetically and sympathetically nerve-evoked flow of saliva...
August 2011: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Lucinda J Steward, Matthew D Kennedy, Brian J Morris, Judith A Pratt
Many antipsychotics (APDs) have a high affinity for muscarinic receptors, which is thought to contribute to their therapeutic efficacy, or side effect profile. In order to define how muscarinic receptor gene expression is affected by atypical or typical APDs, rats were treated with chronic (2.58 mg/kg) PCP (a psychotomimetic) or vehicle, plus clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day), and M1, M2 and M3 receptor mRNA levels were determined in brain sections. Negligible changes in M2 or M3 muscarinic mRNA were detected in any region after clozapine or haloperidol...
March 2012: Neuropharmacology
Marlene A Jacobson, Constantine Kreatsoulas, Danette M Pascarella, Julie A O'Brien, Cyrille Sur
Activation of M1 muscarinic receptors occurs through orthosteric and allosteric binding sites. To identify critical residues, site-directed mutagenesis and chimeric receptors were evaluated in functional calcium mobilization assays to compare orthosteric agonists, acetylcholine and xanomeline, M1 allosteric agonists AC-42 (4-n-butyl-1-[4-(2-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-1-butyl]-piperidine hydrogen chloride), TBPB (1-[1'-(2-methylbenzyl)-1,4'-bipiperidin-4-yl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one), and the clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine...
October 2010: Molecular Pharmacology
R Miller
Many issues remain unresolved about antipsychotic drugs. Their therapeutic potency scales with affinity for dopamine D2 receptors, but there are indications that they act indirectly, with dopamine D1 receptors (and others) as possible ultimate targets. Classical neuroleptic drugs disinhibit striatal cholinergic interneurones and increase acetyl choline release. Their effects may then depend on stimulation of muscarinic receptors on principle striatal neurones (M4 receptors, with reduction of cAMP formation, for therapeutic effects; M1 receptors for motor side effects)...
December 2009: Current Neuropharmacology
David R Thomas, Adeshola Dada, Gareth A Jones, Rudolf A Deisz, Sylvain Gigout, Christopher J Langmead, Tim D Werry, Nicola Hendry, Jim J Hagan, Ceri H Davies, Jeannette M Watson
N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) has been reported to display partial agonism at the human recombinant and rat native M(1) mAChR, a property suggested to contribute to the clinical efficacy of clozapine. However, the profile of action of NDMC at the human native M(1) mAChR has not been reported. The effect of NDMC on M(1) mAChR function was investigated in human native tissues by assessing its effect on (1) M(1) mAChR-mediated stimulation of [(35)S]-GTPgammaS-G(q/11)alpha binding to human post mortem cortical membranes and (2) the M(1) mAChR-mediated increase in neuronal firing in human neocortical slices...
June 2010: Neuropharmacology
Jörgen Ekström, Tania Godoy, Alessandro Riva
N-Desmethylclozapine is a major metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, used in the treatment of therapy-resistant schizophrenia. Patients under clozapine treatment report a troublesome sialorrhea. Recent experiments show clozapine to exert mixed agonist/antagonist actions on salivary secretion in rats. The present study was performed to define the secretory role of N-desmethylclozapine and to compare it with that of its parent compound. N-Desmethylclozapine evoked secretion by acting directly on the muscarinic acetylcholine M1-receptors of 'silent' duct-cannulated parotid and submandibular glands of the anaesthetized rat...
February 2010: European Journal of Oral Sciences
J Ekström, T Godoy, A Riva
Individuals receiving clozapine treatment for schizophrenia complain of drooling. Reports on salivary flow measurements are contradictory in humans and lacking in animals. Clozapine has affinity for several different receptor types and may, hypothetically, both stimulate and inhibit salivary secretion. In rats, intravenous clozapine evoked a long-lasting secretion, being more prominent from submandibular than from parotid glands. Chronic denervation enhanced the responses. Clozapine acted on muscarinic (M1-) receptors of acinar cells, independent of central nervous mechanisms, pre-synaptic intraglandular events, or circulating catecholamines...
March 2010: Journal of Dental Research
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