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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802090/assessment-of-the-dynamics-of-human-glymphatic-system-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs
#1
Teemu Myllylä, Markus Harju, Vesa Korhonen, Alexander Bykov, Vesa Kiviniemi, Igor Meglinski
Fluctuations in brain water content has attracted increasing interest, particularly as regards studies of the glymphatic system, which is connected with the complex organisation of dural lymphatic vessels, responsible for cleaning tissue. Disturbances of glymphatic circulation are associated with several brain disorders, including dementia. This paper introduces an approach to non-invasive measurement of water dynamics in the human brain utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We demonstrate the possibility to sense dynamic variations of water content between the skull and grey matter, for instance, in the subarachnoid space...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798076/perivascular-spaces-glymphatic-dysfunction-and-small-vessel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Humberto Mestre, Serhii Kostrikov, Rupal I Mehta, Maiken Nedergaard
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) range broadly in etiology but share remarkably overlapping pathology. Features of SVD including enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) and formation of abluminal protein deposits cannot be completely explained by the putative pathophysiology. The recently discovered glymphatic system provides a new perspective to potentially address these gaps. This work provides a comprehensive review of the known factors that regulate glymphatic function and the disease mechanisms underlying glymphatic impairment emphasizing the role that aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-lined perivascular spaces (PVSs), cerebrovascular pulsatility, and metabolite clearance play in normal CNS physiology...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755756/brain-extracellular-space-the-final-frontier-of%C3%A2-neuroscience
#3
REVIEW
Charles Nicholson, Sabina Hrabětová
Brain extracellular space is the narrow microenvironment that surrounds every cell of the central nervous system. It contains a solution that closely resembles cerebrospinal fluid with the addition of extracellular matrix molecules. The space provides a reservoir for ions essential to the electrical activity of neurons and forms an intercellular chemical communication channel. Attempts to reveal the size and structure of the extracellular space using electron microscopy have had limited success; however, a biophysical approach based on diffusion of selected probe molecules has proved useful...
July 26, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710869/glymphatics-and-lymphatics-in-the-eye-and-central-nervous-system
#4
EDITORIAL
Dong An, William H Morgan, Dao-Yi Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627037/quantitative-gd-dota-uptake-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-into-rat-brain-using-3d-vfa-spgr-at-9-4t
#5
Hedok Lee, Kristian Mortensen, Simon Sanggaard, Palle Koch, Hans Brunner, Bjørn Quistorff, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste
PURPOSE: We propose a quantitative technique to assess solute uptake into the brain parenchyma based on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). With this approach, a small molecular weight paramagnetic contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) is infused in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and whole brain gadolinium concentration maps are derived. METHODS: We implemented a 3D variable flip angle spoiled gradient echo (VFA-SPGR) longitudinal relaxation time (T1) technique, the accuracy of which was cross-validated by way of inversion recovery rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (IR-RARE) using phantoms...
June 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576566/continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-facilitates-the-clearance-efficiency-of-the-glymphatic-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-sleep-deprivation
#6
Dong-Xu Liu, Xia He, Dan Wu, Qun Zhang, Chao Yang, Feng-Yin Liang, Xiao-Fei He, Guang-Yan Dai, Zhong Pei, Yue Lan, Guang-Qing Xu
Sleep deprivation (SD) is a common condition associated with a variety of nervous system diseases, and has a negative impact on emotional and cognitive function. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is known to improve cognition and emotion function in normal situations as well as in various types of dysfunction, but the mechanism remains unknown. We used two-photon in vivo imaging to explore the effect of cTBS on glymphatic pathway clearance in normal and SD C57BL/6J mice. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) polarization was detected by immunofluorescence...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526764/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-severely-impairs-brain-parenchymal-cerebrospinal-fluid-circulation-in-nonhuman-primate
#7
Romain Goulay, Julien Flament, Maxime Gauberti, Michael Naveau, Nolwenn Pasquet, Clement Gakuba, Evelyne Emery, Philippe Hantraye, Denis Vivien, Romina Aron-Badin, Thomas Gaberel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH. METHODS: We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis, using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF...
May 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513463/alzheimer-s-disease-against-peptides-products-of-enzymatic-cleavage-app-protein-biological-pathobiological-and-physico-chemical-properties-of-fibrillating-peptides
#8
Małgorzata Marszałek
Various peptides products of enzymatic cleavage of key for Alzheimer's disease Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) are well known, but still are matter of scientific debate. The Aβ type products are especially challenging for experimental and medical research. This paper outlines several, still poorly known, biological and medical processes such as peptides biology, i.e., formation, biodistribution, translocation, transport and finally removal from brain compartments and body fluids like Intracellular Fluid (ICF), Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), Interstitial Fluid (ISF), blood serum or urine...
May 17, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509351/a-transcriptome-based-assessment-of-the-astrocytic-dystrophin-associated-complex-in-the-developing-human-brain
#9
Matthew J Simon, Charles Murchison, Jeffrey J Iliff
Astrocytes play a critical role in regulating the interface between the cerebral vasculature and the central nervous system. Contributing to this is the astrocytic endfoot domain, a specialized structure that ensheathes the entirety of the vasculature and mediates signaling between endothelial cells, pericytes, and neurons. The astrocytic endfoot has been implicated as a critical element of the glymphatic pathway, and changes in protein expression profiles in this cellular domain are linked to Alzheimer's disease pathology...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478826/novel-aspects-of-defensins-involvement-in-virus-induced-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
Evangelos I Kazakos, Jannis Kountouras, Stergios A Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi
Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466758/the-glymphatic-pathway
#11
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Nora D Volkow
The overall premise of this review is that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported within a dedicated peri-vascular network facilitating metabolic waste clearance from the central nervous system while we sleep. The anatomical profile of the network is complex and has been defined as a peri-arterial CSF influx pathway and peri-venous clearance routes, which are functionally coupled by interstitial bulk flow supported by astrocytic aquaporin 4 water channels. The role of the newly discovered system in the brain is equivalent to the lymphatic system present in other body organs and has been termed the "glymphatic pathway" or "(g)lymphatics" because of its dependence on glial cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350198/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-induced-block-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-role-of-brain-coagulation-factor-iii-tissue-factor
#13
Eugene V Golanov, Evgeniy I Bovshik, Kelvin K Wong, Robia G Pautler, Chase H Foster, Richard G Federley, Jonathan Y Zhang, James Mancuso, Stephen Tc Wong, Gavin W Britz
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 95% of cases results in long-term disabilities due to brain damage, pathogenesis of which remains uncertain. Hindrance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation along glymphatic pathways is a possible mechanism interrupting drainage of damaging substances from subarachnoid space and parenchyma. We explored changes in CSF circulation at different time following SAH and possible role of brain tissue factor (TF). Fluorescent solute and fluorescent microspheres injected into cisterna magna were used to track CSF flow in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#14
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
May 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276776/brain-injury-with-diabetes-mellitus-evidence-mechanisms-and-treatment-implications
#15
REVIEW
Sherifa A Hamed
Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements...
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241427/potential-modes-of-intercellular-%C3%AE-synuclein-transmission
#16
REVIEW
Dario Valdinocci, Rowan A W Radford, Sue Maye Siow, Roger S Chung, Dean L Pountney
Intracellular aggregates of the α-synuclein protein result in cell loss and dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Each of these neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as α-synucleinopathies, may be characterized by a different suite of molecular triggers that initiate pathogenesis. The mechanisms whereby α-synuclein aggregates mediate cytotoxicity also remain to be fully elucidated. However, recent studies have implicated the cell-to-cell spread of α-synuclein as the major mode of disease propagation between brain regions during disease progression...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197821/evaluation-of-glymphatic-system-activity-with-the-diffusion-mr-technique-diffusion-tensor-image-analysis-along-the-perivascular-space-dti-alps-in-alzheimer-s-disease-cases
#17
Toshiaki Taoka, Yoshitaka Masutani, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Shinji Naganawa
PURPOSE: The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along the perivascular spaces as well as projection fibers and association fibers separately, to acquire an index for diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS-index) and correlated them with the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score...
April 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197669/clearance-of-cerebral-a%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease-reassessing-the-role-of-microglia-and-monocytes
#18
REVIEW
Leah Zuroff, David Daley, Keith L Black, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
Deficiency in cerebral amyloid β-protein (Aβ) clearance is implicated in the pathogenesis of the common late-onset forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of misfolded Aβ in the brain is believed to be a net result of imbalance between its production and removal. This in turn may trigger neuroinflammation, progressive synaptic loss, and ultimately cognitive decline. Clearance of cerebral Aβ is a complex process mediated by various systems and cell types, including vascular transport across the blood-brain barrier, glymphatic drainage, and engulfment and degradation by resident microglia and infiltrating innate immune cells...
June 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196227/the-ocular-glymphatic-system-and-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-author-response-to-hypodense-holes-and-the-ocular-glymphatic-system
#19
Alastair K Denniston, Pearse A Keane, Anuriti Aojula, Alex J Sinclair, Susan P Mollan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196226/-hypodense-holes-and-the-ocular-glymphatic-system-author-response-black-holes-and-the-ocular-glymphatic-system
#20
Peter Wostyn, Veva De Groot, Debby Van Dam, Kurt Audenaert, Peter Paul De Deyn, Hanspeter Esriel Killer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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