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glymphatic system

Alastair K Denniston, Pearse A Keane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Peter Wostyn, Veva De Groot, Debby Van Dam, Kurt Audenaert, Peter Paul De Deyn, Hanspeter Esriel Killer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Giridhar Murlidharan, Andrew Crowther, Rebecca A Reardon, Juan Song, Aravind Asokan
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for gene therapy of CNS disorders. However, host factors that influence the spread, clearance, and transduction efficiency of AAV vectors in the brain are not well understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that fluid flow mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels located on astroglial end feet is essential for exchange of solutes between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. This phenomenon, which is essential for interstitial clearance of solutes from the CNS, has been termed glial-associated lymphatic transport or glymphatic transport...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
Claudia C Aguirre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Shinji Naganawa, Toshiki Nakane, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Taoka
PURPOSE: In textbooks, the perivascular space (PVS) is described as non-enhancing after the intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent (IV-GBCA). We noticed that the PVS sometimes has high signal intensity (SI) on heavily T2-weighted 3D-FLAIR (hT2-FL) images obtained 4 h after IV-GBCA. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the contrast enhancement of the PVS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 8 healthy subjects and 19 patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops, magnetic resonance cisternography (MRC) and hT2-FL images were obtained before and 4 h after a single dose of IV-GBCA...
July 12, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Accumulation of proteinaceous amyloid β plaques and tau oligomers may occur several years before the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Under normal circumstances, misfolded proteins get cleared by proteasome degradation, autophagy, and the recently discovered brain glymphatic system, an astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid bulk flow. It has been shown that the activity of the glymphatic system is higher during sleep and disengaged or low during wakefulness. As a consequence, poor sleep quality, which is associated with dementia, might negatively affect glymphatic system activity, thus contributing to amyloid accumulation...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Jieli Chen
The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied...
June 30, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
Quan Jiang, Li Zhang, Guangliang Ding, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Qingjiang Li, Lian Li, Neema Sadry, Maiken Nedergaard, Michael Chopp, Zhenggang Zhang
The glymphatic system has recently been shown to clear brain extracellular solutes and abnormalities in glymphatic clearance system may contribute to both initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Despite that diabetes is known as a risk factor for vascular diseases, little is known how diabetes affects the glymphatic system. The current study is the first investigation of the effect of diabetes on the glymphatic system and the link between alteration of glymphatic clearance and cognitive impairment in Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Yo-El S Ju, Mary Beth Finn, Courtney L Sutphen, Elizabeth M Herries, Gina M Jerome, Jack H Ladenson, Daniel L Crimmins, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman
We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group...
July 2016: Annals of Neurology
C Luo, X Yao, J Li, B He, Q Liu, H Ren, F Liang, M Li, H Lin, J Peng, T F Yuan, Z Pei, H Su
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality. The mechanisms underlying its pathological complications have not been fully identified. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of the glymphatic system in the neuropathology of SAH. We demonstrate that blood components rapidly enter the paravascular space following SAH and penetrate into the perivascular parenchyma throughout the brain, causing disastrous events such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, microcirculation dysfunction and widespread perivascular neuroinflammation...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Alan W J Morris, Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Nazira J Albargothy, Rute Fernandes, Cheryl A Hawkes, Ajay Verma, Roy O Weller, Roxana O Carare
In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain...
May 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Kyle Hitscherich, Kyle Smith, Joshua A Cuoco, Kathryn E Ruvolo, Jayme D Mancini, Joerg R Leheste, German Torres
The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are cleared through the glymphatic system, eventually draining into the lymphatic vessels of the neck, this continuous fluid circuit offers a paradigm shift in osteopathic manipulative medicine...
March 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Vadim Ratner, Liangjia Zhu, Ivan Kolesov, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the 'glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs(1,2). It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly through a network of dedicated vessels, but rather through para-vascular channels and brain parenchyma in a slower time-domain, and thus conventional fMRI or other blood-flow sensitive MRI sequences do not provide much useful information about the desired flow patterns...
February 21, 2015: Proceedings of SPIE
Andreas C Solomos, Glenn F Rall
The central nervous system (CNS) coordinates all aspects of life, autonomic and sentient, though how it has evolved to contend with pathogenic infections remains, to a great degree, a mystery. The skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provide protection from blunt force contacts, and it was once thought that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was a fortress that restricted pathogen entry and limited inflammation. Recent studies, however, have caused a revision of this viewpoint: the CNS is monitored by blood-borne lymphocytes, but can use alternative strategies to prevent or resolve many pathogenic challenges...
April 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Satoshi Saito, Masafumi Ihara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological investigations have proposed strict control of vascular risk factors as a strategy to overcome dementia, because of the close interaction between cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease. In light of recent advances in basic, translational, and clinical research in the area, this review focuses on the significance of CVD in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Alzheimer's disease and CVD share several risk factors, and the coexistence of both pathologies is frequently noted...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Vesa Kiviniemi, Xindi Wang, Vesa Korhonen, Tuija Keinänen, Timo Tuovinen, Joonas Autio, Pierre LeVan, Shella Keilholz, Yu-Feng Zang, Jürgen Hennig, Maiken Nedergaard
The theory on the glymphatic convection mechanism of cerebrospinal fluid holds that cardiac pulsations in part pump cerebrospinal fluid from the peri-arterial spaces through the extracellular tissue into the peri-venous spaces facilitated by aquaporin water channels. Since cardiac pulses cannot be the sole mechanism of glymphatic propulsion, we searched for additional cerebrospinal fluid pulsations in the human brain with ultra-fast magnetic resonance encephalography. We detected three types of physiological mechanisms affecting cerebral cerebrospinal fluid pulsations: cardiac, respiratory, and very low frequency pulsations...
June 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Per Kristian Eide, Geir Ringstad
Recently, the "glymphatic system" of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4...
November 2015: Acta Radiologica Open
Andy R Eugene, Jolanta Masiak
Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of...
March 2015: MEDtube Science
Rowan A Radford, Marco Morsch, Stephanie L Rayner, Nicholas J Cole, Dean L Pountney, Roger S Chung
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are two progressive, fatal neurodegenerative syndromes with considerable clinical, genetic and pathological overlap. Clinical symptoms of FTD can be seen in ALS patients and vice versa. Recent genetic discoveries conclusively link the two diseases, and several common molecular players have been identified (TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72). The definitive etiologies of ALS and FTD are currently unknown and both disorders lack a cure. Glia, specifically astrocytes and microglia are heavily implicated in the onset and progression of neurodegeneration witnessed in ALS and FTD...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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