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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346805/mesenteric-vessel-patency-following-hifu-therapy-in-patients-with-locally-invasive-pancreatic-cancer
#1
Holger M Strunk, Caroline Lützow, Jana Henseler, Martin Mücke, Maximilian Rauch, Christian Marx, Hans H Schild, Milka Marinova
PURPOSE:  To evaluate the effects of HIFU therapy on visceral vessel patency in patients with inoperable locally invasive pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  50 pancreatic cancer patients (26 men, 24 women) aged 41 - 82 years (65.0 ± 10.2) underwent ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) examinations before and within one day after HIFU treatment, as well as at follow-up at six weeks, three months and six months. Evaluation and grading were performed by two experienced independent radiologists according to a classification scheme based on vessel involvement, vessel diameter, patency, and defects in flow...
January 18, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346783/does-2-pro-prostate-specific-antigen-meet-the-criteria-to-justify-its-inclusion-in-the-clinical-decision-making-process
#2
Angeles Sanchis-Bonet, Marta Barrionuevo-González, Ana Bajo-Chueca, Nelson Morales-Palacios, Manuel Sanchez-Chapado
INTRODUCTION: To assess whether [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (p2PSA) meets the criteria to justify its inclusion in a predictive model of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and in the clinical decision-making process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 172 men with total prostate-specific antigen of 2-10 ng/mL underwent measurement of free PSA and p2PSA before prostate biopsy in an observational and prospective study. From these measurements, the Prostate Health Index (PHI) was calculated...
January 18, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346776/loss-of-an-androgen-inactivating-and-isoform-specific-hsd17b4-splice-form-enables-emergence-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#3
Hyun-Kyung Ko, Michael Berk, Yoon-Mi Chung, Belinda Willard, Rohan Bareja, Mark Rubin, Andrea Sboner, Nima Sharifi
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) requires tumors to engage metabolic mechanisms that allow sustained testosterone and/or dihydrotestosterone to stimulate progression. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17βHSD4), encoded by HSD17B4, is thought to inactivate testosterone and dihydrotestosterone by converting them to their respective inert 17-keto steroids. Counterintuitively, HSD17B4 expression increases in CRPC and predicts poor prognosis. Here, we show that, of five alternative splice forms, only isoform 2 encodes an enzyme capable of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone inactivation...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346775/brd4-promotes-dna-repair-and-mediates-the-formation-of-tmprss2-erg-gene-rearrangements-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Xiangyi Li, GuemHee Baek, Susmita G Ramanand, Adam Sharp, Yunpeng Gao, Wei Yuan, Jon Welti, Daniel N Rodrigues, David Dolling, Ines Figueiredo, Semini Sumanasuriya, Mateus Crespo, Adam Aslam, Rui Li, Yi Yin, Bipasha Mukherjee, Mohammed Kanchwala, Ashley M Hughes, Wendy S Halsey, Cheng-Ming Chiang, Chao Xing, Ganesh V Raj, Sandeep Burma, Johann de Bono, Ram S Mani
BRD4 belongs to the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of chromatin reader proteins that bind acetylated histones and regulate gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 by BET inhibitors (BETi) has indicated antitumor activity against multiple cancer types. We show that BRD4 is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and mediates the formation of oncogenic gene rearrangements by engaging the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Mechanistically, genome-wide DNA breaks are associated with enhanced acetylation of histone H4, leading to BRD4 recruitment, and stable establishment of the DNA repair complex...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346762/transcriptome-and-dna-methylome-analysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity-predicts-increased-risk-of-colorectal-cancer
#5
Ruifang Li, Sara A Grimm, Deepak Mav, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Ruchir Shah, B Alex Merrick, Daniel Raftery, Paul A Wade
Colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346757/p53-suppresses-metabolic-stress-induced-ferroptosis-in-cancer-cells
#6
Amy Tarangelo, Leslie Magtanong, Kathryn T Bieging-Rolett, Yang Li, Jiangbin Ye, Laura D Attardi, Scott J Dixon
How cancer cells respond to nutrient deprivation remains poorly understood. In certain cancer cells, deprivation of cystine induces a non-apoptotic, iron-dependent form of cell death termed ferroptosis. Recent evidence suggests that ferroptosis sensitivity may be modulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor and canonical tumor suppressor protein p53. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, small-molecule probes, and high-resolution, time-lapse imaging, we find that stabilization of wild-type p53 delays the onset of ferroptosis in response to cystine deprivation...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346736/light-activatable-red-blood-cell-membrane-camouflaged-dimeric-prodrug-nanoparticles-for-synergistic-photodynamic-chemotherapy
#7
Qing Pei, Xiuli Hu, Xiaohua Zheng, Shi Liu, Yawei Li, Xiabin Jing, Zhigang Xie
Biomimetic approach offers numerous opportunities to design therapeutic platforms with enhanced antitumor performance and biocompatibility. Herein we report a novel red blood cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticle (RBC(M(TPC-PTX))) for synergistic chemo- and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Specifically, the inner core is mainly constructed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive PTX dimer (PTX2-TK) and photosensitizer 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylchlorin (TPC). In vitro experiments show that the prepared RBC(M(TPC-PTX)) is readily taken up into endosomes...
January 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346731/direct-polymerization-of-the-arsenic-drug-penao-to-obtain-nanoparticles-with-high-thiol-reactivity-and-anti-cancer-efficiency
#8
Janina-Miriam Noy, Hongxu Lu, Philip Hogg, Jia-Lin Yang, Martina H Stenzel
PENAO (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid), which is a mitochondria inhibitor that reacts with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), is currently being trialed in patients with solid tumors. To increase the stability of the drug, the formation of nanoparticles has been proposed. Herein, the direct synthesis of polymeric micelles based on the anti-cancer drug PENAO is presented. PENAO is readily available for amidation reaction to form PENAO MA (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl) amino) phenylarsonous acid methacrylamide) which undergoes RAFT (reversible addition fragmentation chin transfer) polymerization with poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PEGMA) as comonomer and poly(methylmethacrylate) (pMMA) as chain transfer agent, resulting in p(MMA)-b-p(PEG-co-PENAO) block copolymers with 3-15 wt...
January 18, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346604/unique-genetic-profiles-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-cell-free-dna-in-leptomeningeal-metastases-of-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-new-medium-of-liquid-biopsy
#9
Y S Li, B Y Jiang, J J Yang, X C Zhang, Z Zhang, J Y Ye, W Z Zhong, H Y Tu, H J Chen, Z Wang, C R Xu, B C Wang, H J Du, S Chuai, H Han-Zhang, J Su, Q Zhou, X N Yang, W B Guo, H H Yan, Y H Liu, L X Yan, B Huang, M M Zheng, Y L Wu
Background: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are more frequent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Due to limited access to leptomeningeal lesions, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a source of liquid biopsy in patients with LM. Patients and methods: Primary tumor, CSF, and plasma in NSCLC with LM were tested by next-generation sequencing. In total, 45 patients with suspected LM underwent lumbar puncture, and those with EGFR mutations diagnosed with LM were enrolled...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346580/smoking-sex-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-steroid-hormone-receptors-in-tumor-tissue-s0424
#10
Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Amy K Darke, Mary W Redman, Gary R Zirpoli, Warren Davis, Rochelle Payne Ondracek, Wiam Bshara, Angela R Omilian, Robert Kratzke, Mary E Reid, Julian R Molina, Jill M Kolesar, Yuhchyau Chen, Robert M MacRae, James Moon, Philip Mack, David R Gandara, Karen Kelly, Regina M Santella, Kathy S Albain, Christine B Ambrosone
Background: To what extent steroid hormones contribute to lung cancer in male and female never smokers and smokers is unclear. We examined expression of hormone receptors in lung tumors by sex and smoking. Methods: Patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer were recruited into an Intergroup study in the United States and Canada, led by SWOG (S0424). Tumors from 813 cases (450 women and 363 men) were assayed using immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346536/residual-carcinoma-cells-after-chemoradiotherapy-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-striving-toward-appropriate-judgment-of-biopsy
#11
F Fujishima, Y Taniyama, Y Nakamura, H Okamoto, Y Ozawa, K Ito, H Ishida, T Konno-Kumagai, A Kasajima, S Taniuchi, M Watanabe, T Kamei, H Sasano
In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients who are treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), identification of the presence or absence of residual or recurrent carcinoma is usually pivotal in their clinical management. In addition, the extent of carcinoma invasion into the esophageal wall could determine the clinical outcome of these patients following CRT. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the response to CRT both macroscopically and histologically in a consecutive series of 42 ESCC patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following curative esophageal resection at Tohoku University Hospital between August 2011 and December 2012...
January 13, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346528/a-novel-stromal-lncrna-signature-reprograms-fibroblasts-to-promote-the-growth-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-lncrna-caf-interleukin-33
#12
Liang Ding, Jing Ren, Dongya Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Qingang Hu, Hui Wang, Yuxian Song, Yanhong Ni, Yayi Hou
Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346513/pancancer-analysis-identifies-prognostic-high-apobec1-expression-level-implicated-in-cancer-in-frame-insertions-and-deletions
#13
Ahmadreza Niavarani, Asieh Shahrabi Farahani, Maryam Sharafkhah, Minoo Rassoulzadegan
Genome insertions and deletions (indels) show tremendous functional impacts despite they are much less common than single nucleotide variants, which are at the center of studies assessing cancer mutational signatures. We studied 8,891 tumor samples of 32 types from The Cancer Genome Atlas in order to explore those genes which are potentially implicated in cancer indels. Survival analysis identified in-frame indels as the most important variants predicting adverse outcome. Transcriptome-wide association study identified 16 genes overexpressed in both tumor samples and tumor types with high number of in-frame indels, of whom four (APOBEC1, BCL2L15, FOXL1, and PDX1) were identified with gene products distributed within the nucleus...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346403/prime-incision-a-minimally-invasive-approach-to-breast-cancer-surgical-treatment-a-2-cohort-retrospective-comparison-with-conventional-breast-conserving-surgery
#14
Silvio Eduardo Bromberg, Patricia Rodrigues Alves de Figueiredo Moraes, Felipe Ades
The prime incision technique is an oncoplastic surgery aimed to remove both the breast tumor and the sentinel lymph node through one incision, thus providing better aesthetic results than the conventional breast conservative two incision technique. We retrospectively evaluated 2 cohorts of 60 consecutive breast cancer patients operated by either conventional breast conservative surgery (N = 26) or one incision surgery (N = 34). There were no recurrence or death events observed in any group. No difference was seen regarding the incidence of surgical complications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346400/the-mechanisms-how-heparin-affects-the-tumor-cell-induced-vegf-and-chemokine-release-from-platelets-to-attenuate-the-early-metastatic-niche-formation
#15
Jan Moritz Ponert, Svenja Schwarz, Reza Haschemi, Jens Müller, Bernd Pötzsch, Gerd Bendas, Martin Schlesinger
Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer associated fatalities. Tumor cells leaving the primary tumor and entering the blood flow immediately interact with platelets. Activated platelets contribute in different ways to cancer cell survival and proliferation, e.g. in formation of the early metastatic niche by release of different growth factors and chemokines. Here we show that a direct interaction between platelets and MV3 melanoma or MCF7 breast cancer cells induces platelet activation and a VEGF release in citrated plasma that cannot be further elevated by the coagulation cascade and generated thrombin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346386/histological-subtypes-of-mouse-mammary-tumors-reveal-conserved-relationships-to-human-cancers
#16
Daniel P Hollern, Matthew R Swiatnicki, Eran R Andrechek
Human breast cancer has been characterized by extensive transcriptional heterogeneity, with dominant patterns reflected in the intrinsic subtypes. Mouse models of breast cancer also have heterogeneous transcriptomes and we noted that specific histological subtypes were associated with particular subsets. We hypothesized that unique sets of genes define each tumor histological type across mouse models of breast cancer. Using mouse models that contained both gene expression data and expert pathologist classification of tumor histology on a sample by sample basis, we predicted and validated gene expression signatures for Papillary, EMT, Microacinar and other histological subtypes...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346317/liposomal-tricurin-a-synergistic-combination-of-curcumin-epicatechin-gallate-and-resveratrol-repolarizes-tumor-associated-microglia-macrophages-and-eliminates-glioblastoma-gbm-and-gbm-stem-cells
#17
Sumit Mukherjee, Juliet N E Baidoo, Samay Sampat, Andrew Mancuso, Lovena David, Leah S Cohen, Shuiqin Zhou, Probal Banerjee
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly brain tumor with a current mean survival of 12-15 months. Despite being a potent anti-cancer agent, the turmeric ingredient curcumin (C) has limited anti-tumor efficacy in vivo due to its low bioavailability. We have reported earlier a strategy involving the use two other polyphenols, epicatechin gallate (E) from green tea and resveratrol (R) from red grapes at a unique, synergistic molar ratio with C (C:E:R: 4:1:12.5, termed TriCurin) to achieve superior potency against HPV+ tumors than C alone at C:E:R (μM): 32:8:100 (termed 32 μM+ TriCurin)...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346311/apoptotic-and-nonapoptotic-activities-of-pterostilbene-against-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Rong-Jane Chen, Hsiao-Che Kuo, Li-Hsin Cheng, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Wen-Tsan Chang, Bour-Jr Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Hung-Chi Cheng
Cancer is a major cause of death. The outcomes of current therapeutic strategies against cancer often ironically lead to even increased mortality due to the subsequent drug resistance and to metastatic recurrence. Alternative medicines are thus urgently needed. Cumulative evidence has pointed out that pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene, PS) has excellent pharmacological benefits for the prevention and treatment for various types of cancer in their different stages of progression by evoking apoptotic or nonapoptotic anti-cancer activities...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346284/double-heterozygosity-for-brca1-pathogenic-variant-and-brca2-polymorphic-stop-codon-k3326x-a-case-report-in-a-southern-italian-family
#19
Raffaele Palmirotta, Domenica Lovero, Luigia Stefania Stucci, Erica Silvestris, Davide Quaresmini, Angela Cardascia, Franco Silvestris
Here, we describe a patient with bilateral breast cancer and melanoma, and with a concomitant double variant, namely p.Gln563Ter in BRCA1 and p.Lys3326Ter in BRCA2. The BRCA2 p.Lys3326Ter (K3326X) (rs11571833) mutation identified in our patient is a debated substitution of thymidine for adenine which is currently regarded as benign polymorphism in main gene databases. Recent studies, however, describe this variant as associated with breast and ovarian tumors. Based on the observation of the cancer's earliest age of onset in this subject, our purpose was to reevaluate this variant according to recent papers indicating a role of powerful modifier of the genetic penetrance...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346265/halfway-between-2d-and-animal-models-are-3d-cultures-the-ideal-tool-to-study-cancer-microenvironment-interactions
#20
REVIEW
Jessica Hoarau-Véchot, Arash Rafii, Cyril Touboul, Jennifer Pasquier
An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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