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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919289/correlates-of-sex-trading-among-male-non-injecting-drug-users-in-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Kyi Mar Wai, Krishna C Poudel, Hla Hla Win
BACKGROUND: Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited...
December 5, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#2
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872555/effect-of-intravenous-high-dose-vitamin-c-on-postoperative-pain-and-morphine-use-after-laparoscopic-colectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Younghoon Jeon, Jun Seok Park, Suyoung Moon, Jinseok Yeo
Background and Objective. Vitamin C has antioxidant, neuroprotective, and neuromodulating effects. Recently, it showed antinociceptive effect as a result of the antioxidant properties. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intravenous vitamin C on opiate consumption and pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. Methods. A total of 100 patients were enrolled and allocated to receive 50 mg/kg vitamin C or placebo by intravenous infusion immediately after induction of anesthesia...
2016: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834915/opioid-substitution-treatment-planning-in-a-disaster-context-perspectives-from-emergency-management-and-health-professionals-in-aotearoa-new-zealand
#4
Denise Blake, Antonia Lyons
Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) is a harm reduction strategy enabling opiate consumers to avoid withdrawal symptoms and maintain health and wellbeing. Some research shows that within a disaster context service disruptions and infrastructure damage affect OST services, including problems with accessibility, dosing, and scripts. Currently little is known about planning for OST in the reduction and response phases of a disaster. This study aimed to identify the views of three professional groups working in Aotearoa/New Zealand about OST provision following a disaster...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819741/association-between-dopamine-d2-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-heroin-dependence
#5
N Wang, J B Zhang, J Zhao, X T Cai, Y S Zhu, S B Li
Heroin dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disease. Researchers have reported that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is involved in the development of opiate dependence. To identify markers that contribute to the genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction, we examined the potential association between heroin dependence and six polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene using the MassARRAY system. Three hundred and thirty-four patients with heroin dependence and 299 healthy controls participated in the research. Compared with the healthy controls, heroin-dependent patients had a significantly lower frequency of the AA genotype of rs6275 (P = 0...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811597/predictors-of-at-home-arterial-oxygen-desaturation-events-in-ambulatory-surgical-patients
#6
Chuck Biddle, Charles Elam, Laura Lahaye, Gordon Kerr, Laura Chubb, Brad Verhulst
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the early recovery phase occurring at-home after anesthesia and surgery in ambulatory surgical patients. We studied quantitative oximetry and quality-of-life metrics in the first 48 hours after same-day orthopedic surgery examining the association between the recovery metrics and specific patient and procedural factors. METHODS: We used the STOP-Bang score to quantify patient risk for obstructive sleep apnea in 50 adult patients at 2 centers using continuous portable oximetry and patient journaling...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809831/tailoring-a-brief-intervention-for-illicit-drug-use-and-alcohol-use-in-irish-methadone-maintained-opiate-dependent-patients-a-qualitative-process
#7
Catherine Darker, Brion Sweeney, Eamon Keenan, Lucy Whiston, Rolande Anderson, Joe Barry
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend the tailoring of a brief intervention (BI) programme of research to ensure that it is both culturally and contextually appropriate for the country and the environment in which it is being tested. The majority of BI research has been conducted with non-opioid dependent participants. The current study developed a tailored BI for illicit drug use and alcohol use to a methadone maintained opioid dependent polydrug using cohort of patients...
November 3, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753718/under-reporting-of-risky-drug-use-among-primary-care-patients-in-federally-qualified-health-centers
#8
Curtis Bone, Lilian Gelberg, Mani Vahidi, Barbara Leake, Julia Yacenda-Murphy, Ronald M Andersen
OBJECTIVE: The Affordable Care Act encourages integration of behavioral health into primary care. We aim to estimate the level of under-reporting of drug use in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) among self-reported risky drug users. METHODS: Adult patients in the waiting rooms of 4 FQHCs who self-reported risky drug use on the screening instrument World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (score 4-26), who participated in the "Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial," submitted urine samples for drug testing...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747829/risk-factors-associated-with-the-requirement-for-pharmaceutical-intervention-in-the-hospital-setting-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
Emma Suggett, John Marriott
BACKGROUND: A number of methods exist for the risk assessment of hospital inpatients to determine the likelihood of patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs), including manual review of a patient's medication (medication reviews) and more complex electronic assessment using decision support alerts in electronic prescribing systems. A systematic review was conducted to determine the evidence base for potential risks associated with adult hospital inpatients that could not only lead to medication-related issues but might also be directly associated with pharmacist intervention...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742632/respiratory-health-screening-for-opiate-misusers-in-a-specialist-community-clinic-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study-with-integrated-staff-and-service-user-feedback
#10
Caroline Anne Mitchell, Alice Pitt, Joe Hulin, Rod Lawson, Fleur Ashby, Ivan Appelqvist, Brigitte Delaney
OBJECTIVES: Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. SETTING: Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716238/international-changes-in-end-of-life-practices-over-time-a-systematic-review
#11
Yi-Sheng Chao, Antoine Boivin, Isabelle Marcoux, Geneviève Garnon, Nicholas Mays, Pascale Lehoux, Marie-Claude Prémont, Evert van Leeuwen, Raynald Pineault
BACKGROUND: End-of-life policies are hotly debated in many countries, with international evidence frequently used to support or oppose legal reforms. Existing reviews are limited by their focus on specific practices or selected jurisdictions. The objective is to review international time trends in end-of-life practices. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies on medical end-of-life practices, including treatment withdrawal, the use of drugs for symptom management, and the intentional use of lethal drugs...
October 3, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673424/drugs-guns-and-cars-how-far-we-have-come-to-improve-safety-in-the-united-states-yet-we-still-have-far-to-go
#12
James Dodington, Pina Violano, Carl R Baum, Kirsten Bechtel
Significant breakthroughs in the field of injury prevention and childhood safety have occurred during the past half-century. For example, the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 and the institution of child passenger safety laws are responsible for a significant reduction in injuries among children and adolescents. This review will focus on the following three topics because of their significant contribution to pediatric injury morbidity, especially among adolescents, and their promise for further effective prevention research...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629823/impact-of-early-childhood-trauma-on-retention-and-phase-advancement-in-an-outpatient-buprenorphine-treatment-program
#13
Nihit Kumar, Zachary N Stowe, Xiaotong Han, Michael J Mancino
BACKGROUND: Early adverse life events such as childhood trauma have been linked to development of substance use disorders. The prevalence and impact on treatment of early childhood trauma in opioid-dependent individuals has received limited research attention. The present study examined reported childhood trauma and its relation to retention and adherence in an outpatient buprenorphine treatment program. METHODS: Medical records of individuals who completed childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) were reviewed to extract baseline data and demographics (N = 113)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600363/acute-naltrexone-does-not-remediate-fronto-striatal-disturbances-in-alcoholic-and-alcoholic-polysubstance-dependent-populations-during-a-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#14
Liam J Nestor, Anna Murphy, John McGonigle, Csaba Orban, Laurence Reed, Eleanor Taylor, Remy Flechais, Louise M Paterson, Dana Smith, Edward T Bullmore, Karen D Ersche, John Suckling, Roger Tait, Rebecca Elliott, Bill Deakin, Ilan Rabiner, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, Barbara Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
There is a concerted research effort to investigate brain mechanisms underlying addiction processes that may predicate the development of new compounds for treating addiction. One target is the brain's opioid system, because of its role in the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse. Substance-dependent populations have increased numbers of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in fronto-striatal regions that predict drug relapse, and demonstrate disturbances in these regions during the processing of non-drug rewards...
September 6, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537001/item-analysis-of-the-leeds-dependence-questionnaire-in-community-treatment-centers
#15
Jeffrey M Galecki, Martin F Sherman, Jason M Prenoveau, Kitty S Chan
The present study extends the item-level psychometric information of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ; Raistrick et al., 1994) that has been purported to measure psychological dependence and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th edition substance dependence criteria. Prior research on the LDQ has not established item-level properties or the degree of differential item functioning (DIF) by gender and substance type. Principal component and Mokken scale analyses were used to assess unidimensionality and monotonicity of the responses to the scale items, respectively...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534375/hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-suppresses-withdrawal-signs-in-morphine-dependent-mice
#16
Daniel Nicoara, Yangmiao Zhang, Jordan T Nelson, Abigail L Brewer, Prianka Maharaj, Shea N DeWald, Donald Y Shirachi, Raymond M Quock
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy reportedly reduces opiate withdrawal in human subjects. The purpose of this research was to determine whether HBO2 treatment could suppress physical signs of withdrawal in opiate-dependent mice. Male NIH Swiss mice were injected s.c. with morphine sulfate twice a day for 4 days, the daily dose gradually increasing from 50mg/kg on day 1 to 125mg/kg on day 4. On day 5, withdrawal was precipitated by i.p. injection of 5.0mg/kg naloxone. Mice were observed for physical withdrawal signs, including jumping, forepaw tremor, wet-dog shakes, rearing and defecation for 30min...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529524/-safety-of-sedation-during-gastroscopy-and-colonoscopy-in-low-risk-patients-results-of-a-retrospective-subgroup-analysis-of-a-registry-study-including-over-170%C3%A2-000-endoscopies
#17
A Behrens, C Ell
INTRODUCTION: Administering sedation is an established standard in gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly in situations in which sedation is used to make the examination more comfortable for the patient (e. g., during preventive check-up examinations). It is important to have precise information about the risk of sedation-associated complications. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to record the incidence and type of sedation-associated complications in a low-risk group of patients (ASA 1 or 2) undergoing elective diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510489/enkephalin-fentanyl-multifunctional-opioids-as-potential-neuroprotectants-for-ischemic-stroke-treatment
#18
Mohammad R Islam, Li Yang, Yeon Sun Lee, Victor J Hruby, Vardan T Karamyan, Thomas J Abbruscato
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world and effective neuroprotectants are yet to be developed. Recent studies have demonstrated excellent neuroprotective effects of a bivalent enkephalin opioid agonist, biphalin in multiple stroke models. METHODS: The purpose of this study is to evaluate novel multifunctional enkephalin-fentanyl opioid agonists, LYS436, LYS739 and LYS416 for their neuroprotective potential using in vitro and in vivo ischemic stroke models and to compare the effect to that of biphalin...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506251/brain-reward-circuits-in-morphine-addiction
#19
REVIEW
Juhwan Kim, Suji Ham, Heeok Hong, Changjong Moon, Heh-In Im
Morphine is the most potent analgesic for chronic pain, but its clinical use has been limited by the opiate's innate tendency to produce tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms and rewarding properties with a high risk of relapse. To understand the addictive properties of morphine, past studies have focused on relevant molecular and cellular changes in the brain, highlighting the functional roles of reward-related brain regions. Given the accumulated findings, a recent, emerging trend in morphine research is that of examining the dynamics of neuronal interactions in brain reward circuits under the influence of morphine action...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505059/primary-hydromorphone-related-intrathecal-catheter-tip-granulomas-is-there-a-role-for-dose-and-concentration
#20
I Elias Veizi, Salim M Hayek, Michael Hanes, Ryan Galica, Sivakanth Katta, Tony Yaksh
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery therapy has been used effectively in treating patients with intractable chronic pain. The development of an intrathecal catheter tip granuloma (ICTG) related to delivery of intrathecal opiates is a relatively infrequent, but potentially devastating complication. While there are many morphine-related ICTG cases described, reports of hydromorphone-related ICTG are limited. In addition, studies suggest a strong correlation between the use of higher doses and concentrations of intrathecal opiates and ICTG formation...
October 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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