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Opiate research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700791/efficacy-of-tramadol-extended-release-for-opioid-withdrawal-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Kelly E Dunn, D Andrew Tompkins, George E Bigelow, Eric C Strain
Importance: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem. Supervised withdrawal (ie, detoxification) from opioids using clonidine or buprenorphine hydrochloride is a widely used treatment. Objective: To evaluate whether tramadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER), an approved analgesic with opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of action and low abuse potential, is effective for use in supervised withdrawal settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a residential research setting with 103 participants with OUD...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698329/a-cross-sectional-study-using-freedom-of-information-requests-to-evaluate-variation-in-local-authority-commissioning-of-community-pharmacy-public-health-services-in-england
#2
Adam John Mackridge, Nicola Jane Gray, Janet Krska
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to provide a national picture of the extent and nature of public health services commissioned by local authorities (LAs) from community pharmacies across England in financial year 2014/15. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of public health services commissioned in community pharmacies by LAs, gathered via freedom of information requests and documentary analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All 152 LAs in England. RESULTS: A total of 833 commissioned services were reported across England (range 3-10 per LA)...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697914/introduction-the-specter-of-opiate-addiction-in-reproductive-medicine
#3
William D Schlaff
The alarming trend in opiate misuse in developed countries is prompting an increasingly strident public call for action. Although many in our field have assumed that this building crisis does not really affect us or our patients, data show that the emerging demographic at highest risk for misusing opiates clearly includes patients who seek care in our practices. The goals of this Views and Reviews are to provide a clear understanding of emerging trends in opiate misuse, to review the impact of opiates on the reproductive axis, and to suggest practical recommendations aimed at both mitigating iatrogenic influences on promoting misuse and developing treatment frameworks when misuse is suspected or identified...
July 8, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690665/use-of-integrative-medicine-in-the-united-states-military-health-system
#4
REVIEW
Cathaleen Madsen, Megan Vaughan, Tracey Pérez Koehlmoos
Integrative medicine (IM) is a model of care which uses both conventional and nonconventional therapies in a "whole person" approach to achieve optimum mental, physical, emotional, spiritual, and environmental health, and is increasingly popular among patients and providers seeking to relieve chronic or multifactorial conditions. The US Department of Defense (DoD) shows particular interest in and usage of IM for managing chronic conditions including the signature "polytrauma triad" of chronic pain, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among its beneficiaries in the Military Health System (MHS)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688295/contingency-management-interventions-for-non-prescribed-drug-use-during-treatment-for-opiate-addiction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Tom S Ainscough, Ann McNeill, John Strang, Robert Calder, Leonie S Brose
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Use of non-prescribed drugs during treatment for opiate addiction reduces treatment success, creating a need for effective interventions. This review aimed to assess the efficacy of contingency management, a behavioural treatment that uses rewards to encourage desired behaviours, for treating non-prescribed drug use during opiate addiction treatment. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Embase, PsychInfo, PsychArticles and Medline from inception to March 2015 was performed...
June 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655025/effect-of-buprenorphine-weekly-depot-cam2038-and-hydromorphone-blockade-in-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Sharon L Walsh, Sandra D Comer, Michelle R Lofwall, Bradley Vince, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Debra Kelsh, Marion A Coe, Jermaine D Jones, Paul A Nuzzo, Fredrik Tiberg, Behshad Sheldon, Sonnie Kim
Importance: Buprenorphine is an efficacious, widely used treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Daily oral transmucosal formulations can be associated with misuse, diversion, and nonadherence; these limitations may be obviated by a sustained release formulation. Objective: To evaluate the ability of a novel, weekly, subcutaneous buprenorphine depot formulation, CAM2038, to block euphorigenic opioid effects and suppress opioid withdrawal in non-treatment-seeking individuals with OUD...
June 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654870/twenty-years-of-take-home-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-overdose-deaths-from-heroin-and-other-opioids-conception-and-maturation
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca McDonald, Nancy D Campbell, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a major cause of mortality, but injury and fatal outcomes can be prevented by timely administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Pre-provision of naloxone to opioid users and family members (take-home naloxone, THN) was first proposed in 1996, and WHO Guidelines were issued in 2014. While widespread in some countries, THN is minimally available or absent elsewhere. This review traces the development of THN over twenty years, from speculative harm reduction proposal to public health strategy...
May 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642642/access-to-and-payment-for-office-based-buprenorphine-treatment-in-ohio
#8
Theodore V Parran, Joseph Z Muller, Elina Chernyak, Chris Adelman, Christina M Delos Reyes, Douglas Rowland, Mykola Kolganov
IMPORTANCE: Office-based opiate agonist therapy has dramatically expanded access to medication-assisted treatment over the past decade but has also led to increased buprenorphine diversion. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to characterize physicians who participate in office-based therapy (OBT) to assess patient access to OBT in Ohio 10 years after its introduction. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of Drug Addiction Treatment Act-waivered physicians in Ohio listed by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#9
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607934/opioid-addiction-social-problems-associated-and-implications-of-both-current-and-possible-future-treatments-including-polymeric-therapeutics-for-giving-up-the-habit-of-opioid-consumption
#10
REVIEW
M Cristina Benéitez, M Esther Gil-Alegre
BACKGROUND: Detoxification programmes seek to implement the most secure and compassionate ways of withdrawing from opiates so that the inevitable withdrawal symptoms and other complications are minimized. Once detoxification has been achieved, the next stage is to enable the patient to overcome his or her drug addiction by ensuring consumption is permanently and completely abandoned, only after which can the subject be regarded as fully recovered. METHODS: A systematic search on the common databases of relevant papers published until 2016 inclusive...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593192/intravenous-heroin-induces-rapid-brain-hypoxia-and-hyperglycemia-that-precede-brain-metabolic-response
#11
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Yavin Shaham, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Heroin use and overdose have increased in recent years as people transition from abusing prescription opiates to using the cheaper street drug. Despite a long history of research, many physiological effects of heroin and their underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used high-speed amperometry to examine the effects of intravenous heroin on oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in freely-moving rats. Heroin within the dose range of human drug use and rat self-administration (100-200 μg/kg) induced a rapid, strong, but transient drop in NAc oxygen that was followed by a slower and more prolonged rise in glucose...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581025/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-patterns-among-patients-diagnosed-with-cluster-headache-in-u-s-healthcare-claims-data
#12
Casey K Choong, Janet H Ford, Allen W Nyhuis, Shivang G Joshi, Rebecca L Robinson, Sheena K Aurora, James M Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To characterize demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns of patients with cluster headache (CH). BACKGROUND: CH is an uncommon trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia with limited evidence-based treatment options. Patients suffer from extremely painful unilateral headache attacks and autonomic symptoms with episodic and chronic cycles. DESIGN/METHODS: This retrospective analysis used insurance claims from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®) research databases from 2009 to 2014...
June 5, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578258/alternative-treatment-strategies-for-neuropathic-pain-role-of-indian-medicinal-plants-and-compounds-of-plant-origin-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Hasandeep Singh, Sakshi Bhushan, Rohit Arora, Harpal Singh Buttar, Saroj Arora, Balbir Singh
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state accompanied by tissue injury and nerve damage. This important health issue constitutes a challenge for the modern medicine worldwide. The management of neuropathic pain remains a major clinical challenge, pertaining to an inadequate understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Various classes of drugs have been reported effective for the management of neuropathic pain viz. opiates, tricyclic antidepressants, and antiepileptic agents. However, association of adverse effects with these drugs hinders their confident prescription in people with neuropathic pain...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574997/attenuation-of-postoperative-adhesions-using-a-modeled-manual-therapy
#14
Geoffrey M Bove, Susan L Chapelle, Katherine E Hanlon, Michael P Diamond, David J Mokler
Postoperative adhesions are pathological attachments that develop between abdominopelvic structures following surgery. Considered unavoidable and ubiquitous, postoperative adhesions lead to bowel obstructions, infertility, pain, and reoperations. As such, they represent a substantial health care challenge. Despite over a century of research, no preventive treatment exists. We hypothesized that postoperative adhesions develop from a lack of movement of the abdominopelvic organs in the immediate postoperative period while rendered immobile by surgery and opiates, and tested whether manual therapy would prevent their development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552055/promising-treatments-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-call-for-additional-research
#15
Lorrin M Koran, Elias Aboujaoude
Many patients with OCD respond partially or not at all to standard medications and cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, making alternate treatments necessary. We review the preliminary evidence that exists in support of the use of stimulants, high-dose caffeine, opiates, memantine, ondansetron, ketamine, and transcranial magnetic stimulation in some patients with OCD. Although limited by small or modest sample sizes, open-label study designs, and brief follow-up periods, studies suggest that each of these strategies can help some patients who have inadequately responded to first-line treatments...
May 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542470/differential-physiological-changes-following-internet-exposure-in-higher-and-lower-problematic-internet-users
#16
Phil Reed, Michela Romano, Federica Re, Alessandra Roaro, Lisa A Osborne, Caterina Viganò, Roberto Truzoli
Problematic internet use (PIU) has been suggested as in need of further research with a view to being included as a disorder in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, but lack of knowledge about the impact of internet cessation on physiological function remains a major gap in knowledge and a barrier to PIU classification. One hundred and forty-four participants were assessed for physiological (blood pressure and heart rate) and psychological (mood and state anxiety) function before and after an internet session...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534885/modeling-combination-hcv-prevention-among-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
Natasha K Martin, Britt Skaathun, Peter Vickerman, David Stuart
People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM...
April 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521781/telling-our-stories-heroin-assisted-treatment-and-snap-activism-in-the-downtown-eastside-of-vancouver
#18
Susan Boyd, Dave Murray, Donald MacPherson
BACKGROUND: This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver...
May 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519244/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-update-on-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#19
Genny Raffaeli, Giacomo Cavallaro, Karel Allegaert, Enno Diederik Wildschut, Monica Fumagalli, Massimo Agosti, Dick Tibboel, Fabio Mosca
Substance use among pregnant women is a major public health issue. Both prescription opioid use and illicit opioid abuse have increased dramatically in recent years. Prolonged in utero drug exposure may result in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), an acute multisystemic clinical entity that occurs in the first days of life. This syndrome is caused by abrupt discontinuation of fetal exposure to licit or illicit drugs chronically consumed by the mother during pregnancy and transmitted to the fetus through the placenta...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511485/spiritual-well-being-and-associated-factors-with-relapse-in-opioid-addicts
#20
Mohammad-Reza Noormohammadi, Masoud Nikfarjam, Fatemeh Deris, Neda Parvin
INTRODUCTION: Opioid dependence relapse is a complex and multidimensional problem, and lack of spiritual well-being is a major concern in opioid addicts. AIM: This study was conducted to determine spiritual well-being and factors associated with relapse among opioid addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2015 to September 2015. According to purposive sampling, 312 eligible addicted patients were enrolled in the study...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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