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Opiate research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861516/cannabis-as-a-substitute-for-opioid-based-pain-medication-patient-self-report
#1
Amanda Reiman, Mark Welty, Perry Solomon
Introduction: Prescription drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Alternatives to opioids for the treatment of pain are necessary to address this issue. Cannabis can be an effective treatment for pain, greatly reduces the chance of dependence, and eliminates the risk of fatal overdose compared to opioid-based medications. Medical cannabis patients report that cannabis is just as effective, if not more, than opioid-based medications for pain. Materials and Methods: The current study examined the use of cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication by collecting survey data from 2897 medical cannabis patients...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841113/pharmacoepigenomics-of-opiates-and-methadone-maintenance-treatment-current-data-and-perspectives
#2
Cynthia Marie-Claire, Clément Jourdaine, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Frank Bellivier, Vanessa Bloch, Florence Vorspan
Current treatments of opioid addiction include primarily maintenance medications such as methadone. Chronic exposure to opiate and/or long-lasting maintenance treatment induce modulations of gene expression in brain and peripheral tissues. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications underlie these modulations. This review summarizes published results on opioid-induced epigenetic changes in animal models and in patients. The epigenetic modifications observed with other drugs of abuse often used by opiate abusers are also outlined...
September 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826827/role-of-orexin-type-1-receptors-in-paragiganto-coerulear-modulation-of-opioid-withdrawal-and-tolerance-a-site-specific-focus
#3
REVIEW
S Mohammad Ahmadi-Soleimani, Hossein Azizi, Heinrich S Gompf, Saeed Semnanian
Orexin-A and -B neuropeptides are exclusively synthesized in hypothalamic neurons. These have been implicated to play critical roles in the expression of various behavioral manifestations such as feeding, arousal, wakefulness, drug dependence and tolerance. Orexin ligands activate orexin type-1 and orexin type-2 receptors each displaying a distinct selectivity and distribution profile. Orexinergic neurons innervate various brain structures among which the locus coeruleus (LC) and the lateral paragigantocellularis (LPGi) nuclei are well established as the two key mediators of opiate dependence and tolerance...
August 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804788/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220-to-balance-brain-reward-circuitry-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#4
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793780/iatrogenic-opioid-withdrawal-in-critically-ill-patients-a-review-of-assessment-tools-and-management
#6
Ada W Chiu, Sofia Contreras, Sangeeta Mehta, Jennifer Korman, Marc M Perreault, David R Williamson, Lisa D Burry
OBJECTIVE: To (1) provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and risk factors of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients and (2) conduct a literature review of assessment and management of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE (1946-June 2017), EMBASE (1974-June 2017), and CINAHL (1982-June 2017) with the terms opioid withdrawal, opioid, opiate, critical care, critically ill, assessment tool, scale, taper, weaning, and management...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758767/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-opioid-agonist-therapy-a-review
#7
Anthony H Ecker, Natalie Hundt
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) co-occur at high rates, and this co-occurrence is associated with a range of problems related to mental and physical health. OUD is commonly treated with opioid agonist therapies (OAT), which have been shown to be effective for reducing opiate use and related negative health consequences. Given the high comorbidity of PTSD and OUD, many individuals in OAT have PTSD and continue to experience symptoms of both disorders despite OAT treatment...
July 31, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742416/comparisons-of-alcohol-and-drug-dependence-in-terms-of-attachments-and-clinical-issues
#8
Dana Zeid, Joshua Carter, Marc A Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug dependencies are associated with different social stigmas, and some studies suggest they might exhibit different clinical presentations. Further, the treatments for each vary considerably. Alcohol versus drug use problems were compared in terms of attachment patterns and related clinical treatment issues in two interlocking studies using converging logic and designs. METHODS: In Study 1, alcohol versus drug dependence was defined in terms of a known groups design...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700791/efficacy-of-tramadol-extended-release-for-opioid-withdrawal-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Kelly E Dunn, D Andrew Tompkins, George E Bigelow, Eric C Strain
Importance: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem. Supervised withdrawal (ie, detoxification) from opioids using clonidine or buprenorphine hydrochloride is a widely used treatment. Objective: To evaluate whether tramadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER), an approved analgesic with opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of action and low abuse potential, is effective for use in supervised withdrawal settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a residential research setting with 103 participants with OUD...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698329/a-cross-sectional-study-using-freedom-of-information-requests-to-evaluate-variation-in-local-authority-commissioning-of-community-pharmacy-public-health-services-in-england
#10
Adam John Mackridge, Nicola Jane Gray, Janet Krska
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to provide a national picture of the extent and nature of public health services commissioned by local authorities (LAs) from community pharmacies across England in financial year 2014/15. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of public health services commissioned in community pharmacies by LAs, gathered via freedom of information requests and documentary analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All 152 LAs in England. RESULTS: A total of 833 commissioned services were reported across England (range 3-10 per LA)...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697914/introduction-the-specter-of-opiate-addiction-in-reproductive-medicine
#11
William D Schlaff
The alarming trend in opiate misuse in developed countries is prompting an increasingly strident public call for action. Although many in our field have assumed that this building crisis does not really affect us or our patients, data show that the emerging demographic at highest risk for misusing opiates clearly includes patients who seek care in our practices. The goals of this Views and Reviews are to provide a clear understanding of emerging trends in opiate misuse, to review the impact of opiates on the reproductive axis, and to suggest practical recommendations aimed at both mitigating iatrogenic influences on promoting misuse and developing treatment frameworks when misuse is suspected or identified...
August 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690665/use-of-integrative-medicine-in-the-united-states-military-health-system
#12
REVIEW
Cathaleen Madsen, Megan Vaughan, Tracey Pérez Koehlmoos
Integrative medicine (IM) is a model of care which uses both conventional and nonconventional therapies in a "whole person" approach to achieve optimum mental, physical, emotional, spiritual, and environmental health, and is increasingly popular among patients and providers seeking to relieve chronic or multifactorial conditions. The US Department of Defense (DoD) shows particular interest in and usage of IM for managing chronic conditions including the signature "polytrauma triad" of chronic pain, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among its beneficiaries in the Military Health System (MHS)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688295/contingency-management-interventions-for-non-prescribed-drug-use-during-treatment-for-opiate-addiction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Tom S Ainscough, Ann McNeill, John Strang, Robert Calder, Leonie S Brose
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Use of non-prescribed drugs during treatment for opiate addiction reduces treatment success, creating a need for effective interventions. This review aimed to assess the efficacy of contingency management, a behavioural treatment that uses rewards to encourage desired behaviours, for treating non-prescribed drug use during opiate addiction treatment. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Embase, PsychInfo, PsychArticles and Medline from inception to March 2015 was performed...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655025/effect-of-buprenorphine-weekly-depot-cam2038-and-hydromorphone-blockade-in-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Sharon L Walsh, Sandra D Comer, Michelle R Lofwall, Bradley Vince, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Debra Kelsh, Marion A Coe, Jermaine D Jones, Paul A Nuzzo, Fredrik Tiberg, Behshad Sheldon, Sonnie Kim
Importance: Buprenorphine is an efficacious, widely used treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Daily oral transmucosal formulations can be associated with misuse, diversion, and nonadherence; these limitations may be obviated by a sustained release formulation. Objective: To evaluate the ability of a novel, weekly, subcutaneous buprenorphine depot formulation, CAM2038, to block euphorigenic opioid effects and suppress opioid withdrawal in non-treatment-seeking individuals with OUD...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654870/twenty-years-of-take-home-naloxone-for-the-prevention-of-overdose-deaths-from-heroin-and-other-opioids-conception-and-maturation
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca McDonald, Nancy D Campbell, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a major cause of mortality, but injury and fatal outcomes can be prevented by timely administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Pre-provision of naloxone to opioid users and family members (take-home naloxone, THN) was first proposed in 1996, and WHO Guidelines were issued in 2014. While widespread in some countries, THN is minimally available or absent elsewhere. This review traces the development of THN over twenty years, from speculative harm reduction proposal to public health strategy...
May 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642642/access-to-and-payment-for-office-based-buprenorphine-treatment-in-ohio
#16
Theodore V Parran, Joseph Z Muller, Elina Chernyak, Chris Adelman, Christina M Delos Reyes, Douglas Rowland, Mykola Kolganov
IMPORTANCE: Office-based opiate agonist therapy has dramatically expanded access to medication-assisted treatment over the past decade but has also led to increased buprenorphine diversion. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to characterize physicians who participate in office-based therapy (OBT) to assess patient access to OBT in Ohio 10 years after its introduction. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of Drug Addiction Treatment Act-waivered physicians in Ohio listed by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#17
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607934/opioid-addiction-social-problems-associated-and-implications-of-both-current-and-possible-future-treatments-including-polymeric-therapeutics-for-giving-up-the-habit-of-opioid-consumption
#18
REVIEW
M Cristina Benéitez, M Esther Gil-Alegre
BACKGROUND: Detoxification programmes seek to implement the most secure and compassionate ways of withdrawing from opiates so that the inevitable withdrawal symptoms and other complications are minimized. Once detoxification has been achieved, the next stage is to enable the patient to overcome his or her drug addiction by ensuring consumption is permanently and completely abandoned, only after which can the subject be regarded as fully recovered. METHODS: A systematic search on the common databases of relevant papers published until 2016 inclusive...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593192/intravenous-heroin-induces-rapid-brain-hypoxia-and-hyperglycemia-that-precede-brain-metabolic-response
#19
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Yavin Shaham, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Heroin use and overdose have increased in recent years as people transition from abusing prescription opiates to using the cheaper street drug. Despite a long history of research, many physiological effects of heroin and their underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used high-speed amperometry to examine the effects of intravenous heroin on oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in freely-moving rats. Heroin within the dose range of human drug use and rat self-administration (100-200 μg/kg) induced a rapid, strong, but transient drop in NAc oxygen that was followed by a slower and more prolonged rise in glucose...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581025/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-patterns-among-patients-diagnosed-with-cluster-headache-in-u-s-healthcare-claims-data
#20
Casey K Choong, Janet H Ford, Allen W Nyhuis, Shivang G Joshi, Rebecca L Robinson, Sheena K Aurora, James M Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To characterize demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns of patients with cluster headache (CH). BACKGROUND: CH is an uncommon trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia with limited evidence-based treatment options. Patients suffer from extremely painful unilateral headache attacks and autonomic symptoms with episodic and chronic cycles. DESIGN/METHODS: This retrospective analysis used insurance claims from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®) research databases from 2009 to 2014...
June 5, 2017: Headache
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