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Essential hypertension

Gabrielius Jakutis, Vytautas Juknevičius, Juratė Barysienė, Dalia Matačiūnienė, Birutė Petrauskienė, Žaneta Petrulionienė, Aleksandras Laucevičius
Introduction: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-related bradyarrhythmia syndrome is characterized by pathological asystoles during the REM sleep phase. It is a rare rhythm disorder, being reported only few times in the literature. Due to non-specific symptoms, REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia might be often underdiagnosed. Other cardiac diseases associated with pathological sinus arrests must be excluded to establish the correct diagnosis of and appropriate therapy for REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Huijie Ma 马会杰, Shao-Rui Chen 陈少瑞, Hong Chen 陈红, Lingyong Li 李令勇, De-Pei Li 李德培李德培, Jing-Jing Zhou 周京京, Hui-Lin Pan 潘惠麟
Both the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system are critically involved in hypertension development. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons to increase sympathetic vasomotor tone, the molecular mechanism mediating this action remains unclear. The glutamate N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the PVN controls sympathetic outflow in hypertension. In this study, we determined the interaction between α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1 ), commonly known as a Ca2+ channel subunit, and NMDARs in the hypothalamus and its role in Ang II-induced synaptic NMDAR activity in PVN presympathetic neurons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yeji Seo, Ji-Su Kim, Eun-Shim Park, Eunjung Ryu
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the level of knowledge and awareness of its related conditions in a sample of cancer survivor patients. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-reported questionnaire was administered to outpatients aged >20 years with a diagnosis of cancer. This self-reported questionnaire on patient demographic characteristics, disease characteristics, and knowledge and awareness of metabolic syndrome was used as an instrument to assess patient's knowledge of metabolic syndrome...
2018: PloS One
Joanna E Kontaraki, Maria E Marketou, George E Kochiadakis, Spyros Maragkoudakis, John Konstantinou, Panos E Vardas, Fragiskos I Parthenakis
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in the modulation of cardiac hypertrophy and they represent potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the expression profiles of selected lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with essential hypertension in relation to left ventricular hypertrophy. We assessed the expression levels of the lncRNAs MHRT, FENDRR and CARMEN using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hypertensive patients showed significantly higher MHRT, FENDRR and CARMEN expression levels compared with healthy controls...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Shashi Kant, Ravneet Kaur, Sumit Malhotra, Partha Haldar, Akhil Dhanesh Goel
Background: The maternal mortality ratio in India is high. An effective emergency obstetric care (EmOC) strategy has been identified as a priority to reduce maternal deaths. Since the capacity of different levels of public health facilities to provide EmOC is varied, an effective referral system is crucial. However, few studies have evaluated the functioning and quality of referral systems in India. A systematic monitoring of referrals helps to identify current gaps in the provision of essential obstetric care...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Mohammad Shoaib Hamrah, Mohammad Hassan Hamrah, Hideki Ishii, Susumu Suzuki, Mohammad Hussain Hamrah, Ahmad Edris Hamrah, Ahmad Elias Dahi, Maimaiti Yisireyili, Naoaki Kano, Kyosuke Takeshita, Mohammad Hashem Hamrah, Junichi Sakamoto, Toyoaki Murohara
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and proteinuria are known as independent predictors of cardiovascular death in hypertension. However, LVH and its association with proteinuria have not been investigated in adult hypertensive patients in Afghanistan. The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence of LVH and the correlation between LVH and proteinuria among the Afghan adult hypertensive population visiting an outpatient clinic in Afghanistan. We retrospectively evaluated 789 hypertensive patients (mean age is 56 years and 46% were men) who visited the clinic between December 2014 and August 2016...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Jinkwon Kim, Cheryl D Bushnell, Hye Sun Lee, Sang Won Han
Hypertension is the single most important risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke, a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Adherence to antihypertensive medication is essential to achieving strict blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common in clinical practice. We evaluated adherence to antihypertensive medication in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke and its effects on long-term outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study based on a nationwide health insurance claims database in South Korea...
June 18, 2018: Hypertension
Guido Grassi, Anna Pisano, Davide Bolignano, Gino Seravalle, Graziella D'Arrigo, Fosca Quarti-Trevano, Francesca Mallamaci, Carmine Zoccali, Giuseppe Mancia
Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) has shown that sympathetic activation may occur in essential hypertension (EHT). However, the small sample size of the studies, the heterogeneity of the patients examined, and the presence of confounders represented major weaknesses not allowing to draw definite conclusions. Among the 432 studies identified providing information in EHT on MSNA, 63 were eligible (1216 patients) and meta-analyzed grouping them on the basis of clinically relevant questions: (1) Is MSNA increased in hypertension of mild/moderate-to-severe degree? (2) Does sympathetic activation occur in borderline, white-coat, and masked EHT? (3) Is MSNA related to clinic and ambulatory blood pressure and target organ damage? (4) Are heart rate and venous plasma norepinephrine valuable surrogate markers of MSNA in clinical practice? The results show that MSNA was significantly greater (1...
June 18, 2018: Hypertension
Kosuke Otani, Mai Yokoya, Tomoko Kodama, Kiko Hori, Kengo Matsumoto, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Exosomes, the smallest extracellular vesicle, contain various molecules and mediate cell-cell communication. A number of studies demonstrate exosomes are involved in important physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, microRNA (miRNA) regulating hypertension development through the suppression of certain translation was recently reported. However, roles of exosomes containing various molecules including miRNA on development of essential hypertension have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that plasma exosomes regulate systemic blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Laura K Schenk, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Boris V Skryabin, Rainer Schreiber, Hermann Pavenstädt, Karl Kunzelmann
The Ca2+ -activated phospholipid scramblase and ion channel TMEM16F is expressed in podocytes of renal glomeruli. Podocytes are specialized cells that form interdigitating foot processes as an essential component of the glomerular filter. These cells, which participate in generation of the primary urine, are often affected during primary glomerular diseases, such as glomerulonephritis and secondary hypertensive or diabetic nephropathy, which always leads to proteinuria. Because the function of podocytes is known to be controlled by intracellular Ca2+ signaling, it is important to know about the role of Ca2+ -activated TMEM16F in these cells...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erdem Kucukal, Anton Ilich, Nigel S Key, Jane A Little, Umut A Gurkan
In sickle cell disease (SCD), 'disease severity' associates with increased RBC adhesion to quiescent endothelium, but the impact on activated endothelium is not known. Increased concentrations of free heme result from intravascular hemolysis in SCD. Heme is essential for aerobic metabolism, and plays an important role in numerous biological processes. Excess free heme induces reactive oxygen species generation and endothelial activation, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and thrombosis...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Shintaro Mandai, Takayasu Mori, Naohiro Nomura, Taisuke Furusho, Yohei Arai, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Emi Sasaki, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
With-no-lysine (K) (WNK) kinases, which are mutated in the inherited form of hypertension pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, are essential regulators of membrane ion transporters. Here, we report that WNK1 positively regulates skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via mediating the function of the pro-longevity transcription factor forkhead box protein O4 (FOXO4) independent of the conventional WNK signaling pathway linking SPS/STE20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress response kinase 1 (OSR1) to downstream effector ion transporters...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rong Chen, Shiying Chen, Tingxing Zhang, Jiabing Lin, Chunyu Wan, Zhou Chen, Huangyuan Li, Yan Ding, Siying Wu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the main environmental factors of hypertension, and to explore the relationship between hypertension and leukocyte long noncoding RNA. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in a hospital in Fuzhou City by using stratified random sampling method between Nov. 2014 and Jun. 2015 including 382 essential hypertension patients and 382 control subjects. The related surveys included questionnaire investigation, physical examination and laboratory detection...
November 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Tahrin Mahmood, Robert Puckrin, Linda Sugar, David Naimark
Rationale: Staphylococcus-associated glomerulonephritis (SAGN) is a rare immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis associated with active Staphylococcus infection. We report a case illustrating the importance of clinical history and kidney biopsy findings in establishing the correct diagnosis. Presenting concerns of the patient: We report the case of a 64-year-old man with alcohol-associated cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension who presented to hospital with lower back and abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, a purpuric lower extremity rash, and oliguric acute kidney injury with microscopic hematuria and nephrotic-range proteinuria...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Svein Olav Kolset, Marianne Nordstrøm, Sigrun Hope, Kjetil Retterstøl, Per Ole Iversen
Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) are dependent on nutritional policies that have so far not been addressed in a systematic and health-promoting manner in Norway and other nations with a high socioeconomic standard. In many poor countries, such issues have not even been raised nor addressed. Nutritional issues facing persons with ID include the risk of both underweight and overweight. Deficiency in energy, vitamins, essential fatty acids and micronutrients can increase the risk of additional health burdens in already highly vulnerable individuals...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Satoshi Akagi, Hiromi Matsubara, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Ito
Treatment goals in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) include improved quality of life and exercise capacity as well as improved life prognosis. In our experience, only remarkable reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) improve long-term survival. Lowering PAP could contribute to reverse remodeling by reducing hemodynamic stress. Proper and prompt use of PAH-specific drugs lowers PAP in patients with PAH. Upfront combination therapy with different PAH-specific drugs and quickly establishing high-dose epoprostenol lowers PAP sufficiently to improve prognosis in patients with PAH...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Helena Zivna, Iveta Gradošová, Pavel Zivny, Eva Cermakova, Vladimir Palicka
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) represent a model of essential hypertension. We studied the effect of amlodipine (AML) on bone markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical properties of osteopenic bone induced by orchidectomy in male SHR. Rats were allocated to 3 groups and were sacrificed after 12 weeks: sham-operated control; orchidectomised control; and orchidectomised receiving a diet supplemented with AML. Indicators of bone turnover were assessed in bone homogenate, BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the femurs were subjected to biomechanical testing...
June 13, 2018: Pharmacology
Mario A Inchiosa
The principal finding from this study was the recognition that the α-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, possesses histone deacetylase inhibitory activity. Phenoxybenzamine is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypertensive crises associated with tumors of the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas. It has several "off label" indications relative to its capacity to relax vascular smooth muscle and smooth muscle of the urogenital tract. The drug also has a long history of apparent efficacy in ameliorating, and perhaps reversing, the severe symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes...
2018: PloS One
Yue Zhao, Chunhong Wang, Cong Wang, Xue Hong, Jinhua Miao, Yulin Liao, Lili Zhou, Youhua Liu
Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with hypertension and heart disease. However, how RAS activation causes cardiac lesions remains elusive. Here we report the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in this process. In rats with chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), eight Wnt ligands were induced and β-catenin activated in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. Blockade of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by small molecule inhibitor ICG-001 restrained Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by normalizing heart size and inhibiting hypertrophic marker genes...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Oleg Palygin, Oleh Pochynyuk, Alexander Staruschenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and translational evidence support benefits of high potassium diet; however, there many uncertainties underlying the molecular and cellular mechanisms determining effects of dietary potassium. Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 proteins form a functional heteromer (Kir4.1/Kir5.1), which is the primary inwardly rectifying potassium channel on the basolateral membrane of both distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the collecting duct principal cells. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize latest advances in our understanding of the evolution, physiological relevance and mechanisms controlling these channels...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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