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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035971/dietary-patterns-and-cognition-in-older-persons
#1
Angela M Abbatecola, Marcello Russo, Michelangela Barbieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews recently published evidence of the important role that specific dietary patterns may hold on preventing cognitive impairment and dementia over aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Specific dietary patterns attributed to targeting cardiovascular risk factors may protect against the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that multinutrient approaches using the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), dietary approach to systolic hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) are associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment, MCI and Alzheimer's disease in older persons...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035944/association-between-common-carotid-artery-diameter-and-target-organ-damage-in-essential-hypertension
#2
Yan Yang, Yan Wang, Jianzhong Xu, Pingjin Gao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between common carotid artery diameter (CCA-D) and target organ damage (TOD) in essential hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 200 essential hypertensive patients were enrolled (mean age 62.5 ± 9.5, men 59.0%) and were classified into two groups by the height-adjusted mean median of CCA-D: patients with CCA-D/height less than 3.905 mm/m (n = 100, 50%) and patients with CCA-D/height more than 3.905 mm/m (n = 100, 50%)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032666/24-hour-blood-pressure-response-to-lower-dose-30-mg-fimasartan-in-korean-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-essential-hypertension
#3
Hae-Young Lee, Cheol-Ho Kim, Jae-Kwan Song, Shung Chull Chae, Myung Ho Jeong, Dong-Soo Kim, Byung-Hee Oh
Background/Aims: Fimasartan is an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) which has comparable efficacy and tolerability with other ARBs. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy and the tolerability of the low dose fimasartan compared with valsartan in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Methods: This study was a phase II, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-grouped trial. A total of 75 hypertensive patients, whose mean ambulatory BP monitoring values were ≥ 135/85 mmHg, were randomized to either fimasartan 30 mg or valsartan 80 mg daily...
October 17, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031726/reduced-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-contributes-to-elevated-glycosuria-and-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-hypothalamus-specific-pomc-knockout-mice
#4
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Donald A Morgan, Benjamin P Tooke, Jessica M Adams, Kamal Rahmouni, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific pro-opiomelanocortin deficient (ArcPomc(-/-)) mice exhibit improved glucose tolerance despite massive obesity and insulin resistance. We demonstrated previously that their improved glucose tolerance is due to elevated glycosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms that link glucose reabsorption in the kidney with ArcPomc remain unclear. Given the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in controlling sympathetic outflow, we hypothesized that reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in ArcPomc(-/-) mice could explain their elevated glycosuria and consequent enhanced glucose tolerance...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029087/the-effect-of-sacubitril-valsartan-compared-to-olmesartan-on-cardiovascular-remodelling-in-subjects-with-essential-hypertension-the-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-study
#5
Roland E Schmieder, Frank Wagner, Michael Mayr, Christian Delles, Christian Ott, Christian Keicher, Maja Hrabak-Paar, Tobias Heye, Solveig Aichner, Yasser Khder, Denise Yates, Diego Albrecht, Thomas Langenickel, Patrick Freyhardt, Rolf Janka, Jens Bremerich
Aims: Progressive aortic stiffening eventually leads to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and heart failure if left untreated. Anti-hypertensive agents have been shown to reverse this to some extent. The effects of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a dual-action angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and neprilysin inhibitor, on arterial stiffness and LV remodelling have not been investigated. Methods and results: This was a randomized, multi-centre, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel group, study to compare the effects on cardiovascular remodelling of sacubitril/valsartan with those of olmesartan in patients with hypertension and elevated pulse pressure...
September 27, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029082/decreased-homocysteine-trans-sulfuration-in-hypertension-with-hyperhomocysteinemia-relationship-with-insulin-resistance
#6
Paolo Tessari, Monica Vettore, Lucia Puricelli, Diego Cecchet, Anna Coracina, Edward Kivanuka
Context: Homocysteine is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and is increased in essential hypertension. Insulin stimulates homocysteine catabolism in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia and its relationship with insulin resistance in essential hypertension are unknown. Objective: To investigate whole-body methionine and homocysteine kinetics, and the effects of insulin, in essential hypertension. Design & Setting: Eight hypertensive male subjects, and six male normotensive controls, were infused with L-[methyl-2H3,1-13C]methionine for 6 hrs...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026759/quality-of-life-among-elderly-population-residing-in-urban-field-practice-area-of-a-tertiary-care-institute-of-ahmedabad-city-gujarat
#7
Venu R Shah, Donald S Christian, Arpit C Prajapati, Mansi M Patel, K N Sonaliya
INTRODUCTION: Overall improvement in the living standards of country's population is leading to longer life expectancy. To emphasize the medical and psychological difficulties faced by geriatric people is essential to know status of their quality of life (QOL). METHODOLOGY: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out at urban field practice area of one of the teaching institutes of Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Considering the prevalence of about 7.5% of 60 years and above people sample size of 250 was calculated...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026467/chromogranin-a-as-a-biochemical-marker-for-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-single-center-experience-at-royal-hospital-oman
#8
Elham S Al-Risi, Fatma S Al-Essry, Waad-Allah S Mula-Abed
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of serum chromogranin A (CgA) status in patients with and without different neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) by conducting a retrospective assessment of the diagnostic utility and limitations of CgA as a biomarker for NETs in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of CgA requests referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman over a 24-month period (April 2012 to March 2014)...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022570/arterial-stiffness-as-a-risk-factor-for-clinical-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Michel E Safar
In patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension, cardiac output remains within normal ranges and intravascular volume is normal or low, assuming the presence of a sufficient Windkessel effect and usual resistance and compliance calculations. However, mean circulatory pressure is elevated in these patients. In addition, vascular resistance is augmented, and most importantly, the viscoelasticity of the cardiovascular system is substantially impaired. Such considerations are essential to understanding the mechanisms behind carotid-femoral arterial stiffness, a major risk factor in individuals with hypertension...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018032/n-acetyltransferase-2-genotype-dependent-n-acetylation-of-hydralazine-in-human-hepatocytes
#10
Cecily E Allen, Mark A Doll, David W Hein
Hydralazine is used in treatment of essential hypertension and is under investigation for epigenetic therapy in the treatment of neoplastic and renal diseases. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) exhibits a common genetic polymorphism in human populations. Following recombinant expression in yeast, human NAT2 exhibited an apparent Km (20.1 ± 8.8 μM) for hydralazine over 20-fold lower than the apparent Km (456 ± 57 μM) for recombinant human NAT1 (p=0.0016). The apparent Vmax for recombinant human NAT1 (72.2 ± 17...
October 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017485/bidens-pilosa-ethylene-acetate-extract-can-protect-against-l-name-induced-hypertension-on-rats
#11
Danielle Claude Bilanda, Paul Désiré D Dzeufiet, Léontine Kouakep, Bibi Farouck O Aboubakar, Léonard Tedong, Pierre Kamtchouing, Théophile Dimo
BACKGROUND: Essential hypertension is mainly caused by endothelial dysfunction which results from nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. The present study was design to evaluate the protective effect of Bidens pilosa ethylene acetate extract (Bp) on L-NAME induced hypertension and oxidative stress in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were used to induce hypertension by the administration of L-NAME (a non-pecific nitric oxide inhibitor) (50 mg/kg/day). The others groups were receiving concomitantly L-NAME plus Bp extract (75 and 150 mg/kg/day) or losartan (25 mg/kg/day)...
October 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993149/relationship-of-blood-pressure-and-erectile-dysfunction-in-men-without-previously-diagnosed-hypertension
#12
Arto Heikkilä, Antti Kaipia, Maarit Venermo, Hannu Kautiainen, Päivi Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual disorder that affects all age groups and has a close association with essential hypertension. AIM: To characterize the relation of blood pressure and ED in detail. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 45- to 70-year-old men without previously diagnosed hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, renal disease, or diabetes was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in southwestern Finland...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991393/screening-of-analgesic-and-anti-inflammatory-active-component-in-fructus-alpiniae-zerumbet-based-on-spectrum-effect-relationship-and-gc-ms
#13
Rui-Yao Xiao, Ling-Jing Wu, Xiao-Xiao Hong, Ling Tao, Peng Luo, Xiang-Chun Shen
Fructus Alpiniae zerumbet was widely used in Guizhou province as miao folk herb with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, protection against cardiovascular diseases, anti-hypertension, and antioxidant activities. To further investigate the chemical material basis, the spectrum-effect relationship was established using grey relational analysis between the chromatographic fingerprint and its bioactivities. Herein, the fingerprints of essential oils from Fructus Alpiniae zerumbet (EOFAZ) from various sources were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the analgesic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities were investigated by the mice model of acetic acid-induced writhing test and dimethylbenzene-induced mice ear edema test...
October 9, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991151/optic-disc-drusen-and-family-history-of-glaucoma-results-of-a-patient-directed-survey
#14
Gwendolyn Gramer, Eugen Gramer, Nicole Weisschuh
PURPOSE: Prospective evaluation of family history (FH) of glaucoma and FH of optic disc drusen (ODD) in patients with sonographically confirmed ODD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 87 patients with ODD interviewed all their first-degree and second-degree relatives using a detailed questionnaire on whether an ophthalmologist had diagnosed or excluded glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OH). Using a second questionnaire, 62 of these patients also provided information about ODD in their FH...
October 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990216/left-atrial-volume-changes-is-an-early-marker-of-end-organ-damage-in-essential-hypertension-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-an-old-problem
#15
Batur Kanar, Beste Ozben, Hatice Selen Kanar, Aysu Arsan, Kursat Tigen
PURPOSE: Left atrial (LA) volume has been shown to be a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between LA phasic volumes and hypertensive end-organ damage (EOD), by using real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in patients with essential hypertension (HT). METHODS: The study included 95 essential hypertensive patients (60 ± 10 years, 37 males). The patients were divided into three according to the presence of EOD, namely microalbuminuria and retinal vascular changes detected by direct ophthalmoscopy...
October 9, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986358/pulmonary-vasodilation-by-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-is-enhanced-and-nitric-oxide-independent-in-early-pulmonary-hypertension-after-myocardial-infarction
#16
Richard W B van Duin, Birgit Houweling, Andre Uitterdijk, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Myocardial infarction (MI) may result in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle, has become part of the contemporary therapeutic armamentarium for pulmonary arterial hypertension and may also be of benefit in PH secondary to MI. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important source of cGMP and can be enhanced in early PH and decreased in severe PH. In the present study we investigated if PDE5-inhibition ameliorates pulmonary hemodynamics in swine with PH secondary to MI and whether NO is essential...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985269/impact-of-the-national-essential-public-health-services-policy-on-hypertension-control-in-china
#17
Donglan Zhang, Xi Pan, Shukai Li, Di Liang, Zhiyuan Hou, Yan Li, Lu Shi
BACKGROUND: Hypertension remains a severe challenge to population health worldwide. This study assessed the impact of a nationwide program in China-Essential Public Health Services (EPHS) on improvement of hypertension treatment and control. METHODS: A cohort of hypertensive patients was identified from the 2011-2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Hypertension was defined based on: (i) an average systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg, and/or an average diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg; and/or (ii) currently taking antihypertensive medications...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985244/menthol-induced-cutaneous-vasodilation-is-preserved-in-essential-hypertensive-men-and-women
#18
Daniel H Craighead, Lacy M Alexander
BACKGROUND: Menthol is a selective transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel agonist that induces cutaneous vasodilation in young, normotensive men and women through nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-, and sensory nerve-mediated mechanisms. Microvascular dysfunction is present in essential hypertension and whether menthol induces vasodilation is men and women with essential hypertension is equivocal. METHODS: Four intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm of 9 essential hypertensive and 10 age-matched normotensive control subjects...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979783/obesity-and-listing-for-renal-transplantation-weighing-the-evidence-for-a-growing-problem
#19
Mohammed Hossain, Alexander Woywodt, Titus Augustine, Videha Sharma
A 56-year-old female patient was referred to the transplant assessment clinic in July 2016. She started haemodialysis in 2012 for renal failure due to urinary tract infections. She is doing very well on dialysis and has an excellent exercise tolerance without shortness of breath or angina. She has had no infections since starting dialysis and no other comorbidity, except well-controlled hypertension and hyperparathyroidism requiring treatment with cinacalcet. Clinical examination is essentially normal except for truncal obesity with height 167 cm and weight 121 kg, giving her a body mass index of 43...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979077/developing-an-integrated-treatment-pathway-for-a-post-coronary-artery-bypass-grating-cabg-geriatric-patient-with-comorbid-hypertension-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-for-treating-acute-hypoglycemia-and-electrolyte-imbalance
#20
Atta Abbas Naqvi, Amna Shah, Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad
INTRODUCTION: The ailments afflicting the elderly population is a well-defined specialty of medicine. It calls for an immaculately designed health-care plan to treat diseases in geriatrics. For chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary heart disease, and hypertension (HTN), they require proper management throughout the rest of patient's life. An integrated treatment pathway helps in treatment decision-making and improving standards of health care for the patient. CASE PRESENTATION: This case describes an exclusive clinical pharmacist-driven designing of an integrated treatment pathway for a post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) geriatric male patient with DM type I and HTN for the treatment of hypoglycemia and electrolyte imbalance...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
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