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Choice architecture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634673/b-mode-and-doppler-ultrasound-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-dogs-and-cats
#1
REVIEW
Nathália Bragato, Naida Cristina Borges, Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti
Ultrasound is the imaging test of choice for renal evaluation, because it provides information about the position, size, shape, internal architecture and hemodynamics of the kidneys without harming the patient. In chronic kidney disease, the main findings observed in B-mode ultrasound images are increased cortical echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, reduced renal volume and irregular renal contour, and when these changes are associated, they are indicative of end-stage renal disease. However, the cause of kidney disease cannot be determined by ultrasonography, but must be confirmed by means of biopsy, although the presence of ultrasonographic changes indicative of the end-stage of the disease may contraindicate this procedure...
June 21, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632258/materials-and-microfluidics-enabling-the-efficient-isolation-and-analysis-of-circulating-tumour-cells
#2
REVIEW
Joshua M Jackson, Małgorzata A Witek, Joyce W Kamande, Steven A Soper
We present a critical review of microfluidic technologies and material effects on the analyses of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) selected from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. CTCs are a minimally invasive source of clinical information that can be used to prognose patient outcome, monitor minimal residual disease, assess tumour resistance to therapeutic agents, and potentially screen individuals for the early diagnosis of cancer. The performance of CTC isolation technologies depends on microfluidic architectures, the underlying principles of isolation, and the choice of materials...
June 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616251/physical-micro-environment-interventions-for-healthier-eating-in-the-workplace-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial
#3
Milica Vasiljevic, Emma Cartwright, Rachel Pechey, Gareth J Hollands, Dominique-Laurent Couturier, Susan A Jebb, Theresa M Marteau
BACKGROUND: An estimated one third of energy is consumed in the workplace. The workplace is therefore an important context in which to reduce energy consumption to tackle the high rates of overweight and obesity in the general population. Altering environmental cues for food selection and consumption-physical micro-environment or 'choice architecture' interventions-has the potential to reduce energy intake. The first aim of this pilot trial is to estimate the potential impact upon energy purchased of three such environmental cues (size of portions, packages and tableware; availability of healthier vs...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610759/how-architectural-design-affords-experiences-of-freedom-in-residential-care-for-older-people
#4
Iris Van Steenwinkel, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé, Ann Heylighen
Human values and social issues shape visions on dwelling and care for older people, a growing number of whom live in residential care facilities. These facilities' architectural design is considered to play an important role in realizing care visions. This role, however, has received little attention in research. This article presents a case study of a residential care facility for which the architects made considerable effort to match the design with the care vision. The study offers insights into residents' and caregivers' experiences of, respectively, living and working in this facility, and the role of architectural features therein...
April 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578434/artificial-enamel-induced-by-phase-transformation-of-amorphous-nanoparticles
#5
Kazuo Onuma, Mayumi Iijima
Human tooth enamel has tightly packed c-axis-oriented hydroxyapatite (HAP: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) nanorods with high elastic modulus. Fabrication of an enamel architecture in vitro supports the repair of teeth using HAP; however, existing methods require complex and laborious steps to form an enamel-like structure. Here we present a very simple and effective technique for forming artificial enamel in near-physiological solution using a substrate composed of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles. Without any functionalized modification of the substrate surface, faint dissolution and successive phase transformation automatically induce formation of an intermediate layer of low-crystalline HAP nanoparticles, on which highly oriented HAP nanorods grow by geometrical selection...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574426/comparative-study-of-neural-network-frameworks-for-the-next-generation-of-adaptive-optics-systems
#6
Carlos González-Gutiérrez, Jesús Daniel Santos, Mario Martínez-Zarzuela, Alistair G Basden, James Osborn, Francisco Javier Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier De Cos Juez
Many of the next generation of adaptive optics systems on large and extremely large telescopes require tomographic techniques in order to correct for atmospheric turbulence over a large field of view. Multi-object adaptive optics is one such technique. In this paper, different implementations of a tomographic reconstructor based on a machine learning architecture named "CARMEN" are presented. Basic concepts of adaptive optics are introduced first, with a short explanation of three different control systems used on real telescopes and the sensors utilised...
June 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560794/a-novel-marketing-mix-and-choice-architecture-framework-to-nudge-restaurant-customers-toward-healthy-food-environments-to-reduce-obesity-in-the-united-states
#7
REVIEW
V I Kraak, T Englund, S Misyak, E L Serrano
This review identified and adapted choice architecture frameworks to develop a novel framework that restaurant owners could use to promote healthy food environments for customers who currently overconsume products high in fat, sugar and sodium that increase their risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This review was conducted in three steps and presented as a narrative summary to demonstrate a proof of concept. Step 1 was a systematic review of nudge or choice architecture frameworks used to categorize strategies that cue healthy behaviours in microenvironments...
May 31, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534816/roi-based-on-board-compression-for-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-images-on-gpu
#8
Rossella Giordano, Pietro Guccione
In recent years, hyperspectral sensors for Earth remote sensing have become very popular. Such systems are able to provide the user with images having both spectral and spatial information. The current hyperspectral spaceborne sensors are able to capture large areas with increased spatial and spectral resolution. For this reason, the volume of acquired data needs to be reduced on board in order to avoid a low orbital duty cycle due to limited storage space. Recently, literature has focused the attention on efficient ways for on-board data compression...
May 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521784/functional-regression-method-for-whole-genome-eqtl-epistasis-analysis-with-sequencing-data
#9
Kelin Xu, Li Jin, Momiao Xiong
BACKGROUND: Epistasis plays an essential rule in understanding the regulation mechanisms and is an essential component of the genetic architecture of the gene expressions. However, interaction analysis of gene expressions remains fundamentally unexplored due to great computational challenges and data availability. Due to variation in splicing, transcription start sites, polyadenylation sites, post-transcriptional RNA editing across the entire gene, and transcription rates of the cells, RNA-seq measurements generate large expression variability and collectively create the observed position level read count curves...
May 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516387/a-diffusion-weighted-imaging-informed-continuum-model-of-the-rabbit-triceps-surae-complex
#10
M Alipour, K Mithraratne, J Fernandez
The NZ white rabbit is the animal of choice for much experimental work due to its muscular frame and similar response to human diseases, and is one of the few mammals that have had their genome sequenced. However, continuum-level computational models of rabbit muscle detailing fibre architecture are limited in the literature, especially the triceps surae complex (gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus), which has similar biomechanics and translatable findings to the human. This study presents a geometrical model of the rabbit triceps surae informed with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-based fibres...
May 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450168/tuning-complement-activation-and-pathway-through-controlled-molecular-architecture-of-dextran-chains-in-nanoparticle-corona
#11
Jean-Baptiste Coty, Elquio Eleamen Oliveira, Christine Vauthier
The understanding of complement activation by nanomaterials is a key to a rational design of safe and efficient nanomedicines. This work proposed a systematic study investigating how molecular design of nanoparticle coronas made of dextran impacts on mechanisms that trigger complement activation. The nanoparticles used for this work consisted of dextran-coated poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) (PIBCA) nanoparticles have already been thoroughly characterized. Their different capacity to trigger complement activation established on the cleavage of the protein C3 was also already described making these nanoparticles good models to investigate the relation between the molecular feature of their corona and the mechanism by which they triggered complement activation...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449714/detecting-central-fixation-by-means-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-a-pediatric-vision-screener-using-retinal-birefringence-scanning
#12
Boris I Gramatikov
BACKGROUND: Reliable detection of central fixation and eye alignment is essential in the diagnosis of amblyopia ("lazy eye"), which can lead to blindness. Our lab has developed and reported earlier a pediatric vision screener that performs scanning of the retina around the fovea and analyzes changes in the polarization state of light as the scan progresses. Depending on the direction of gaze and the instrument design, the screener produces several signal frequencies that can be utilized in the detection of central fixation...
April 27, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439858/circular-chromosome-conformation-capture-in-plants
#13
Stefan Grob
The study of nuclear architecture promises novel insights into genome function and regulation. Hereby, quantitative methods based on chromosome conformation capture (3C) revolutionized the field, as they allow accurate and unbiased characterization of 3D genome organization of genomic regions of interest. The choice of the appropriate 3C derivate is crucial to acquire results suited for a specific research question. Circular 3C (4C) is the method of choice to study the genome-wide 3D architecture of a specific genomic region of interest...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414531/a-system-architecture-for-efficient-transmission-of-massive-dna-sequencing-data
#14
Mahmut Şamİl Sağiroğlu, M Oğuzhan Külekcİ
The DNA sequencing data analysis pipelines require significant computational resources. In that sense, cloud computing infrastructures appear as a natural choice for this processing. However, the first practical difficulty in reaching the cloud computing services is the transmission of the massive DNA sequencing data from where they are produced to where they will be processed. The daily practice here begins with compressing the data in FASTQ file format, and then sending these data via fast data transmission protocols...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412442/human-brain-mapping-a-systematic-comparison-of-parcellation-methods-for-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#15
REVIEW
Salim Arslan, Sofia Ira Ktena, Antonios Makropoulos, Emma C Robinson, Daniel Rueckert, Sarah Parisot
The macro-connectome elucidates the pathways through which brain regions are structurally connected or functionally coupled to perform a specific cognitive task. It embodies the notion of representing and understanding all connections within the brain as a network, while the subdivision of the brain into interacting functional units is inherent in its architecture. As a result, the definition of network nodes is one of the most critical steps in connectivity network analysis. Although brain atlases obtained from cytoarchitecture or anatomy have long been used for this task, connectivity-driven methods have arisen only recently, aiming to delineate more homogeneous and functionally coherent regions...
April 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#16
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399374/role-of-hydrophobic-aromatic-residues-on-the-stability-of-double-wall-%C3%AE-sheet-structures-formed-by-a-triblock-peptide
#17
Beytullah Ozgur, Mehmet Sayar
Bioinspired self-assembling peptides serve as powerful building blocks in the manufacturing of nanomaterials with tailored features. Because of their ease of synthesis, biocompatibility, and tunable activity, this emerging branch of biomolecules has become very popular. The triblock peptide architecture designed by the Hartgerink group is a versatile system that allows control over its assembly and has been shown to demonstrate tunable bioactivity. Three main forces, Coulomb repulsion, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity act together to guide the triblock peptides' assembly into one-dimensional objects and hydrogels...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391054/breaking-the-rules-in-perceptual-information-integration
#18
Maxim A Bushmakin, Ami Eidels, Andrew Heathcote
We develop a broad theoretical framework for modelling difficult perceptual information integration tasks under different decision rules. The framework allows us to compare coactive architectures, which combine information before it enters the decision process, with parallel architectures, where logical rules combine independent decisions made about each perceptual source. For both architectures we test the novel hypothesis that participants break the decision rules on some trials, making a response based on only one stimulus even though task instructions require them to consider both...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389770/a-fast-genomic-selection-approach-for-large-genomic-data
#19
Hailan Liu, Guo-Bo Chen
We propose a novel computational method for genomic selection that combines identical-by-state (IBS)-based Haseman-Elston (HE) regression and best linear prediction (BLP), called HE-BLP. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) has been widely used in whole-genome prediction for breeding programs. To determine the total genetic variance of a training population, a linear mixed model (LMM) should be solved via restricted maximum likelihood (REML), whose computational complexity is the cube of the sample size...
June 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379693/influence-of-linker-flexibility-on-the-binding-affinity-of-bidentate-binders
#20
Miguel A Soler, Sara Fortuna
The design of responsive nanosensors typically relies on the availability of probes capable of capturing their target with high affinity and specificity. This can be achieved by coupling two or more binding units through a linker. In this work, we study the dependence on the binder architecture of the binding affinity between a target molecule and a semirigid bidentate binder. Using two different binder architectures, central-rigid and extreme-rigid, and modifying the length and the flexibility degree of the linker we generated 153 different architectures...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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