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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935924/multipurpose-silicon-photonics-signal-processor-core
#1
Daniel Pérez, Ivana Gasulla, Lee Crudgington, David J Thomson, Ali Z Khokhar, Ke Li, Wei Cao, Goran Z Mashanovich, José Capmany
Integrated photonics changes the scaling laws of information and communication systems offering architectural choices that combine photonics with electronics to optimize performance, power, footprint, and cost. Application-specific photonic integrated circuits, where particular circuits/chips are designed to optimally perform particular functionalities, require a considerable number of design and fabrication iterations leading to long development times. A different approach inspired by electronic Field Programmable Gate Arrays is the programmable photonic processor, where a common hardware implemented by a two-dimensional photonic waveguide mesh realizes different functionalities through programming...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928764/exploring-and-harnessing-haplotype-diversity-to-improve-yield-stability-in-crops
#2
REVIEW
Lunwen Qian, Lee T Hickey, Andreas Stahl, Christian R Werner, Ben Hayes, Rod J Snowdon, Kai P Voss-Fels
In order to meet future food, feed, fiber, and bioenergy demands, global yields of all major crops need to be increased significantly. At the same time, the increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat and drought necessitates improvements in the environmental resilience of modern crop cultivars. Achieving sustainably increase yields implies rapid improvement of quantitative traits with a very complex genetic architecture and strong environmental interaction. Latest advances in genome analysis technologies today provide molecular information at an ultrahigh resolution, revolutionizing crop genomic research, and paving the way for advanced quantitative genetic approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902555/obesity-prevention-in-the-supermarket-choice-architecture-and-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program
#3
Anne N Thorndike, Cass R Sunstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872829/guest-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-as-scaffolds-for-separation-and-sensing-applications
#4
Avishek Karmakar, Partha Samanta, Aamod V Desai, Sujit K Ghosh
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have evolved to be next-generation utility materials because of their serviceability in a wide variety of applications. Built from organic ligands with multiple binding sites in conjunction with metal ions/clusters, these materials have found profound advantages over their other congeners in the domain of porous materials. The plethora of applications that these materials encompass has motivated material chemists to develop such novel materials, and the catalogue of MOFs is thus ever-escalating...
September 5, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837168/quantifying-ligand-effects-in-high-oxidation-state-metal-catalysis
#5
Brennan S Billow, Tanner J McDaniel, Aaron L Odom
Catalysis by high-valent metals such as titanium(IV) impacts our lives daily through reactions like olefin polymerization. In any catalysis, optimization involves a careful choice of not just the metal but also the ancillary ligands. Because these choices dramatically impact the electronic structure of the system and, in turn, catalyst performance, new tools for catalyst development are needed. Understanding ancillary ligand effects is arguably one of the most critical aspects of catalyst optimization and, while parameters for phosphines have been used for decades with low-valent systems, a comparable system does not exist for high-valent metals...
September 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832340/overcoming-the-drawback-of-lower-sense-margin-in-tunnel-fet-based-dynamic-memory-along-with-enhanced-charge-retention-and-scalability
#6
Nupur Navlakha, Abhinav Kranti
The work reports on the use of a planar tri-gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) to operate as dynamic memory at 85 C with an enhanced Sense Margin (SM). The two symmetric gates (G1) aligned to the source at a partial region of intrinsic film result into better electrostatic control that regulates the read mechanism based on Band-to-Band Tunneling (BTBT), while the other gate (G2), positioned adjacent to the first front gate is responsible for charge storage and sustenance. The proposed architecture results into enhanced SM of ~1...
August 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815503/imaging-neural-architecture-in-brainbow-samples
#7
Douglas H Roossien, Dawen Cai
The fluorescent protein revolution has made the light microscope the most widely used tool for studying biological structure from the single-molecule to whole organism scales. However, traditional approaches are limited in their ability to resolve components in highly complex structures, such as the brain. In recent years, this limitation has been circumvented by the development of multicolor labeling methods, termed Brainbow. Brainbow tools rely on site-specific recombinases to make stochastic "choices" between different combinations of fluorescent proteins so that structures in close proximity to one another can be resolved based on their color profile...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#8
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792862/nudging-and-boosting-steering-or-empowering-good-decisions
#9
Ralph Hertwig, Till Grüne-Yanoff
In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782721/engineering-cell-aggregates-through-incorporated-polymeric-microparticles
#10
REVIEW
Caroline C Ahrens, Ziye Dong, Wei Li
Ex vivo cell aggregates must overcome significant limitations in the transport of nutrients, drugs, and signaling proteins compared to vascularized native tissue. Further, engineered extracellular environments often fail to sufficiently replicate tethered signaling cues and the complex architecture of native tissue. Co-cultures of cells with microparticles (MPs) is a growing field directed towards overcoming many of these challenges by providing local and controlled presentation of both soluble and tethered proteins and small molecules...
August 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777539/stoichiometry-and-dispersity-of-dna-nanostructures-using-photobleaching-pair-correlation-analysis
#11
Amani A Hariri, Graham D Hamblin, Jack S Hardwick, Robert Godin, Jean-Francois Desjardins, Paul W Wiseman, Hanadi F Sleiman, Gonzalo Cosa
A wide variety of approaches have become available for the fabrication of nanomaterials with increasing degrees of complexity, precision, and speed while minimizing cost. Their quantitative characterization, however, remains a challenge. Analytical methods to better inspect and validate the structure and composition of large nanoscale objects are required to optimize their applications in diverse technologies. Here, we describe single-molecule fluorescence-based strategies relying on photobleaching and multiple-color co-localization features toward the characterization of supramolecular structures...
August 22, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776517/syntheses-structures-and-characterization-of-isomorphous-co-ii-and-ni-ii-coordination-polymers-based-on-2-1h-imidazol-1-yl-methyl-6-methyl-1h-benzimidazole-and-benzene-1-4-dicarboxylate
#12
Qiu Ying Huang, Yang Zhao, Xiang Ru Meng
Careful choice of the organic ligands is one of the most important parameters in the rational design and synthesis of coordination polymers. Aromatic polycarboxylates have been widely used in the preparation of metal-organic polymers since they can utilize various coordination modes to form diverse structures and can act as hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors in the assembly of supramolecular structures. Nitrogen-heterocyclic organic compounds have also been used extensively as ligands for the construction of polymers with interesting structures...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767643/bow-tie-signaling-in-c-di-gmp-machine-learning-in-a-simple-biochemical-network
#13
Jinyuan Yan, Maxime Deforet, Kerry E Boyle, Rayees Rahman, Raymond Liang, Chinweike Okegbe, Lars E P Dietrich, Weigang Qiu, Joao B Xavier
Bacteria of many species rely on a simple molecule, the intracellular secondary messenger c-di-GMP (Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate), to make a vital choice: whether to stay in one place and form a biofilm, or to leave it in search of better conditions. The c-di-GMP network has a bow-tie shaped architecture that integrates many signals from the outside world-the input stimuli-into intracellular c-di-GMP levels that then regulate genes for biofilm formation or for swarming motility-the output phenotypes...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767102/allocation-to-male-vs-female-floral-function-varies-by-currency-and-responds-differentially-to-density-and-moisture-stress
#14
M T Brock, R L Winkelman, M J Rubin, C E Edwards, B E Ewers, C Weinig
Allocation of finite resources to separate reproductive functions is predicted to vary across environments and affect fitness. Biomass is the most commonly measured allocation currency; however, in comparison with nutrients it may be less limited and express different environmental and evolutionary responses. Here, we measured carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and biomass allocation among floral whorls in recombinant inbred lines of Brassica rapa in multiple environments to characterize the genetic architecture of floral allocation, including its sensitivity to environmental heterogeneity and to choice of currency...
August 2, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755061/a-scoping-review-of-behavioral-economic-interventions-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey T Kullgren, Dina Hafez, Allison Fedewa, Michele Heisler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper was to review studies of behavioral economic interventions (financial incentives, choice architecture modifications, or commitment devices) to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among at-risk patients or improve self-management among patients with T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: We found 15 studies that used varied study designs and outcomes to test behavioral economic interventions in clinical, workplace, or health plan settings...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747529/detection-and-quantification-of-inbreeding-depression-for-complex-traits-from-snp-data
#16
Loic Yengo, Zhihong Zhu, Naomi R Wray, Bruce S Weir, Jian Yang, Matthew R Robinson, Peter M Visscher
Quantifying the effects of inbreeding is critical to characterizing the genetic architecture of complex traits. This study highlights through theory and simulations the strengths and shortcomings of three SNP-based inbreeding measures commonly used to estimate inbreeding depression (ID). We demonstrate that heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium (LD) between causal variants and SNPs biases ID estimates, and we develop an approach to correct this bias using LD and minor allele frequency stratified inference (LDMS)...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734365/automatic-feed-phase-identification-in-multivariate-bioprocess-profiles-by-sequential-binary-classification
#17
Ramin Nikzad-Langerodi, Edwin Lughofer, Susanne Saminger-Platz, Thomas Zahel, Patrick Sagmeister, Christoph Herwig
In this paper, we propose a new strategy for retrospective identification of feed phases from online sensor-data enriched feed profiles of an Escherichia Coli (E. coli) fed-batch fermentation process. In contrast to conventional (static), data-driven multi-class machine learning (ML), we exploit process knowledge in order to constrain our classification system yielding more parsimonious models compared to static ML approaches. In particular, we enforce unidirectionality on a set of binary, multivariate classifiers trained to discriminate between adjacent feed phases by linking the classifiers through a one-way switch...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#18
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#19
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710548/retrospective-evaluation-and-seeg-trajectory-analysis-for-interactive-multi-trajectory-planner-assistant
#20
Davide Scorza, Elena De Momi, Lisa Plaino, Gaetano Amoroso, Gabriele Arnulfo, Massimo Narizzano, Luis Kabongo, Francesco Cardinale
PURPOSE: Focal epilepsy is a neurological disease that can be surgically treated by removing area of the brain generating the seizures. The stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) procedure allows patient brain activity to be recorded in order to localize the onset of seizures through the placement of intracranial electrodes. The planning phase can be cumbersome and very time consuming, and no quantitative information is provided to neurosurgeons regarding the safety and efficacy of their trajectories...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
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