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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333083/optimal-load-for-bone-tissue-scaffolds-with-an-assigned-geometry
#1
Antonio Boccaccio, Antonio E Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Giuseppe Monno, Andrea Ballini, Apollonia Desiate
Thanks to the recent advances of three-dimensional printing technologies the design and the fabrication of a large variety of scaffold geometries was made possible. The surgeon has the availability of a wide number of scaffold micro-architectures thus needing adequate guidelines for the choice of the best one to be implanted in a patient-specific anatomic region. We propose a mechanobiology-based optimization algorithm capable of determining, for bone tissue scaffolds with an assigned geometry, the optimal value Lopt of the compression load to which they should be subjected, i...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331757/hedging-bets-applying-new-zealand-s-gambling-machine-regime-to-cannabis-legalization
#2
Jonathan P Caulkins
Cannabis legalization is often falsely depicted as a binary choice between status quo prohibition and legalizing production and distribution by (regulated) for-profit industry. There are, however, many more prudent architectures for legalization, such as restricting production and distribution licenses to not-for-profit entities. Wilkins describes how New Zealand applied that concept to gambling machines and proposes a parallel for cannabis legalization. Greater investment in proposing good designs along these lines, including attending to governance structures, would be valuable...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249632/perforator-flaps-from-the-lower-leg-for-intraoral-reconstruction-experience-of-131-flaps
#3
Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Andrea Rau, Andreas Kolk
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, perforator flaps have become popular for defect cover in the head and neck because they increase the choice of reconstructive possibilities and can lead to minimal donor site morbidity. In particular, the lower leg is considered a suitable option, as it provides thin and pliable skin for intraoral lining. Having gained experience with 131 flaps raised from four different donor sites at the lower leg, the aim of this paper is to evaluate success rates and patient satisfaction, but also difficulties and pitfalls during flap transfer...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236205/a-novel-fibrin-based-artificial-ovary-prototype-resembling-human-ovarian-tissue-in-terms-of-architecture-and-rigidity
#4
Maria Costanza Chiti, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans, Lucie Mortiaux, Flanco Zhuge, Emna Ouni, Parinaz Asiabi Kohneh Shahri, Evelyne Van Ruymbeke, Sophie-Demoustier Champagne, Jacques Donnez, Christiani Andrade Amorim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to optimize fibrin matrix composition in order to mimic human ovarian tissue architecture for human ovarian follicle encapsulation and grafting. METHODS: Ultrastructure of fresh human ovarian cortex in age-related women (n = 3) and different fibrin formulations (F12.5/T1, F30/T50, F50/T50, F75/T75), rheology of fibrin matrices and histology of isolated and encapsulated human ovarian follicles in these matrices. RESULTS: Fresh human ovarian cortex showed a highly fibrous and structurally inhomogeneous architecture in three age-related patients, but the mean ± SD of fiber thickness (61...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234333/putative-microsatellite-dna-marker-based-wheat-genomic-resource-for-varietal-improvement-and-management
#5
Sarika Jaiswal, Sonia Sheoran, Vasu Arora, Ulavappa B Angadi, Mir A Iquebal, Nishu Raghav, Bharti Aneja, Deepender Kumar, Rajender Singh, Pradeep Sharma, G P Singh, Anil Rai, Ratan Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar
Wheat fulfills 20% of global caloric requirement. World needs 60% more wheat for 9 billion population by 2050 but climate change with increasing temperature is projected to affect wheat productivity adversely. Trait improvement and management of wheat germplasm requires genomic resource. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) being highly polymorphic and ubiquitously distributed in the genome, can be a marker of choice but there is no structured marker database with options to generate primer pairs for genotyping on desired chromosome/physical location...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226262/topology-optimization-aided-structural-design-interpretation-computational-aspects-and-3d-printing
#6
Georgios Kazakis, Ioannis Kanellopoulos, Stefanos Sotiropoulos, Nikos D Lagaros
Construction industry has a major impact on the environment that we spend most of our life. Therefore, it is important that the outcome of architectural intuition performs well and complies with the design requirements. Architects usually describe as "optimal design" their choice among a rather limited set of design alternatives, dictated by their experience and intuition. However, modern design of structures requires accounting for a great number of criteria derived from multiple disciplines, often of conflicting nature...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215125/large-scale-2d-3d-hybrids-based-on-gallium-nitride-and-transition-metal-dichalcogenides
#7
Kehao Zhang, Bhakti Jariwala, Jun Li, Natalie C Briggs, Baoming Wang, Dmitry Ruzmetov, Robert A Burke, Jordan O Lerach, Tony G Ivanov, Md Haque, Randall M Feenstra, Joshua A Robinson
Two and three-dimensional (2D/3D) hybrid materials have the potential to advance communication and sensing technologies by enabling new or improved device functionality. To date, most 2D/3D hybrid devices utilize mechanical exfoliation or post-synthesis transfer, which can be fundamentally different from directly synthesized layers that are compatible with large scale industrial needs. Therefore, understanding the process/property relationship of synthetic heterostructures is priority for industrially relevant material architectures...
December 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189294/using-choice-architecture-to-integrate-substance-use-services-with-primary-care-commentary-on-donohue-et-al-2017
#8
Leo Beletsky
: At a time when death and disability linked to problematic substance use have reached crisis levels, integration of substance use disorder (SUD) services into primary care settings is a clear national priority. Incentive-based interventions can catalyze such adoption, but have thus far demonstrated limited efficaciousness. Behavioral Economics can inform efforts to incentivize healthcare providers to adopt SUD interventions. Choice architecture principles dictate pegging rewards to defined quality metrics, improving provider information about effective and cost-effective practices, and reducing barriers to SUD service provision through technological tools, tackling stigma, and addressing real and perceived regulatory burdens and risks...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183131/resolving-the-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-hetero-dimer-binding-paradox-strain-and-frustration-guide-the-binding-of-dimeric-transcription-factors
#9
Davit A Potoyan, Carlos Bueno, Weihua Zheng, Elizabeth A Komives, Peter G Wolynes
Many eukaryotic transcription factors function after forming oligomers. The choice of protein partners is a non random event that has distinct functional consequences for gene regulation. In the present work we examine three dimers of transcription factors in the NFκB family; p50p50, p50p65 and p65p65. The NFκB dimers bind to a myriad of genomic sites and switch the targeted genes on or off with precision. The p65p50 hetero-dimer of NFκB is the strongest DNA binder and its unbinding is controlled kinetically by molecular stripping from the DNA induced by IκB...
November 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165382/review-of-the-functions-of-archimedes-spiral-metallic-nanostructures
#10
REVIEW
Zhongyi Guo, Zixiang Li, Jingran Zhang, Kai Guo, Fei Shen, Qingfeng Zhou, Hongping Zhou
Here, we have reviewed some typical plasmonic structures based on Archimedes' spiral (AS) architectures, which can produce polarization-sensitive focusing phenomenon and generate plasmonic vortices (PVs) carrying controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) because of the relation between the incident polarized states and the chiralities of the spiral structures. These features can be used to analyze different circular polarization states, which has been one of the rapidly developing researching topics in nanophotonics in recent years...
November 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165360/dynamic-docking-a-paradigm-shift-in-computational-drug-discovery
#11
REVIEW
Dario Gioia, Martina Bertazzo, Maurizio Recanatini, Matteo Masetti, Andrea Cavalli
Molecular docking is the methodology of choice for studying in silico protein-ligand binding and for prioritizing compounds to discover new lead candidates. Traditional docking simulations suffer from major limitations, mostly related to the static or semi-flexible treatment of ligands and targets. They also neglect solvation and entropic effects, which strongly limits their predictive power. During the last decade, methods based on full atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) have emerged as a valid alternative for simulating macromolecular complexes...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164196/supramolecular-polymeric-biomaterials
#12
REVIEW
Joseph L Mann, Anthony C Yu, Gillie Agmon, Eric A Appel
Polymeric chains crosslinked through supramolecular interactions-directional and reversible non-covalent interactions-compose an emerging class of modular and tunable biomaterials. The choice of chemical moiety utilized in the crosslink affords different thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of association, which in turn illustrate the connectivity and dynamics of the system. These parameters, coupled with the choice of polymeric architecture, can then be engineered to control environmental responsiveness, viscoelasticity, and cargo diffusion profiles, yielding advanced biomaterials which demonstrate rapid shear-thinning, self-healing, and extended release...
November 22, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140990/cultivar-architecture-modulates-spore-dispersal-by-rain-splash-a-new-perspective-to-reduce-disease-progression-in-cultivar-mixtures
#13
Tiphaine Vidal, Pauline Lusley, Marc Leconte, Claude de Vallavieille-Pope, Laurent Huber, Sébastien Saint-Jean
Cultivar mixtures can be used to improve the sustainability of disease management within farming systems by growing cultivars that differ in their disease resistance level in the same field. The impact of canopy aerial architecture on rain-splash dispersal could amplify disease reduction within mixtures. We designed a controlled conditions experiment to study single splash-dispersal events and their consequences for disease. We quantified this impact through the spore interception capacities of the component cultivars of a mixture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121209/genomic-environment-impacts-color-vision-evolution-in-a-family-with-visually-based-sexual-selection
#14
Benjamin A Sandkam, Jeffrey B Joy, Corey T Watson, Felix Breden
Many models of evolution by sexual selection predict a co-evolution of sensory systems and mate preferences, but the genomic architecture (number and arrangement of contributing loci) underlying these characters could constrain this co-evolution. Here we examine how the genomic organization and evolution of the opsin genes (responsible for tuning color vision) can influence the evolutionary trajectory of sexually selected traits across 15 species in the family Poeciliidae, which includes classic systems for studies of color-mediated sexual selection such as guppies, swordtails and mollies...
November 7, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114071/working-memory-and-decision-making-in-a-fronto-parietal-circuit-model
#15
John D Murray, Jorge Jaramillo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Working memory (WM) and decision making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices (PPC and PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically-based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multi-regional networks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111720/constant-ph-molecular-dynamics-simulations-for-large-biomolecular-systems
#16
Brian K Radak, Christophe Chipot, Donghyuk Suh, Sunhwan Jo, Wei Jiang, James C Phillips, Klaus Schulten, Benoît Roux
An increasingly important endeavor is to develop computational strategies that enable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecular systems with spontaneous changes in protonation states under conditions of constant pH. The present work describes our efforts to implement the powerful constant-pH MD simulation method based on a hybrid nonequilibrium MD/Monte Carlo (neMD/MC) technique within the highly scalable program NAMD. The constant-pH hybrid neMD/MC method has a number of appealing features; it samples the correct semi-grand canonical ensemble rigorously, the computational cost increases linearly with the number of titratable sites, and it is applicable to explicit solvent simulations...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101018/tissue-processing-techniques-for-fabrication-of-covered-stents-for-small-diameter-vascular-intervention
#17
Shahar Cohen, Smadar Magal, Itay Yakov, Evyatar Sirabella, Anna Bitman, Gabriel Groisman, Chaim Lotan
Animal-derived pericardial tissue is a widely used biomaterial typically treated with glutaraldehyde (GA) to achieve immunological acceptance and long-term durability. However, GA fixation of biological tissue is associated with long-term failure due to degeneration and calcification. In this study, we evaluated two alternative tissue processing methods for the fabrication of pericardial tissue covered stents: detergent-based decellularization (decell) and limited exposure to GA (gentle-glut). Processed pericardial tissues were extensively characterized both in-vitro and in-vivo...
October 31, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098300/-ultrasound-of-muscular-diseases-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
L von Rohden, Julian H W Jürgens
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of treatable hereditary neuromuscular diseases in children requires a diagnostic tool that can quickly, safely, and noninvasively identify affected patients directly after birth or when showing initial clinical symptoms. With clinical analysis alone, this is very difficult. IMAGING MODALITY: Near-field sonography of skeletal muscles has gradually become established as a successful method over the last 35 years. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Examination is performed using a strictly standardized protocol in isotopic muscle regions and with standardized sections and application parameters...
November 2, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078303/search-predicts-and-changes-patience-in-intertemporal-choice
#19
Crystal Reeck, Daniel Wall, Eric J Johnson
Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people's patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077746/value-based-decision-making-via-sequential-sampling-with-hierarchical-competition-and-attentional-modulation
#20
Jaron T Colas
In principle, formal dynamical models of decision making hold the potential to represent fundamental computations underpinning value-based (i.e., preferential) decisions in addition to perceptual decisions. Sequential-sampling models such as the race model and the drift-diffusion model that are grounded in simplicity, analytical tractability, and optimality remain popular, but some of their more recent counterparts have instead been designed with an aim for more feasibility as architectures to be implemented by actual neural systems...
2017: PloS One
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