Read by QxMD icon Read

Choice architecture

Tiphaine Vidal, Pauline Lusley, Marc Leconte, Claude de Vallavieille-Pope, Laurent Huber, Sébastien Saint-Jean
Cultivar mixtures can be used to improve the sustainability of disease management within farming systems by growing cultivars that differ in their disease resistance level in the same field. The impact of canopy aerial architecture on rain-splash dispersal could amplify disease reduction within mixtures. We designed a controlled conditions experiment to study single splash-dispersal events and their consequences for disease. We quantified this impact through the spore interception capacities of the component cultivars of a mixture...
2017: PloS One
Benjamin A Sandkam, Jeffrey B Joy, Corey T Watson, Felix Breden
Many models of evolution by sexual selection predict a co-evolution of sensory systems and mate preferences, but the genomic architecture (number and arrangement of contributing loci) underlying these characters could constrain this co-evolution. Here we examine how the genomic organization and evolution of the opsin genes (responsible for tuning color vision) can influence the evolutionary trajectory of sexually selected traits across 15 species in the family Poeciliidae, which includes classic systems for studies of color-mediated sexual selection such as guppies, swordtails and mollies...
November 7, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
John D Murray, Jorge Jaramillo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Working memory (WM) and decision making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices (PPC and PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically-based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multi-regional networks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Brian K Radak, Christophe Chipot, Donghyuk Suh, Sunhwan Jo, Wei Jiang, James C Phillips, Klaus Schulten, Benoît Roux
An increasingly important endeavor is to develop computational strategies that enable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecular systems with spontaneous changes in protonation states under conditions of constant pH. The present work describes our efforts to implement the powerful constant-pH MD simulation method based on a hybrid nonequilibrium MD/Monte Carlo (neMD/MC) technique within the highly scalable program NAMD. The constant-pH hybrid neMD/MC method has a number of appealing features; it samples the correct semi-grand canonical ensemble rigorously, the computational cost increases linearly with the number of titratable sites, and it is applicable to explicit solvent simulations...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Shahar Cohen, Smadar Magal, Itay Yakov, Evyatar Sirabella, Anna Bitman, Gabriel Groisman, Chaim Lotan
Animal-derived pericardial tissue is a widely used biomaterial typically treated with glutaraldehyde (GA) to achieve immunological acceptance and long-term durability. However, GA fixation of biological tissue is associated with long-term failure due to degeneration and calcification. In this study, we evaluated two alternative tissue processing methods for the fabrication of pericardial tissue covered stents: detergent-based decellularization (decell) and limited exposure to GA (gentle-glut). Processed pericardial tissues were extensively characterized both in-vitro and in-vivo...
October 31, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
L von Rohden, Julian H W Jürgens
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of treatable hereditary neuromuscular diseases in children requires a diagnostic tool that can quickly, safely, and noninvasively identify affected patients directly after birth or when showing initial clinical symptoms. With clinical analysis alone, this is very difficult. IMAGING MODALITY: Near-field sonography of skeletal muscles has gradually become established as a successful method over the last 35 years. METHODOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS: Examination is performed using a strictly standardized protocol in isotopic muscle regions and with standardized sections and application parameters...
November 2, 2017: Der Radiologe
Crystal Reeck, Daniel Wall, Eric J Johnson
Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people's patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jaron T Colas
In principle, formal dynamical models of decision making hold the potential to represent fundamental computations underpinning value-based (i.e., preferential) decisions in addition to perceptual decisions. Sequential-sampling models such as the race model and the drift-diffusion model that are grounded in simplicity, analytical tractability, and optimality remain popular, but some of their more recent counterparts have instead been designed with an aim for more feasibility as architectures to be implemented by actual neural systems...
2017: PloS One
Jara Radeck, Daniel Meyer, Nina Lautenschläger, Thorsten Mascher
Bacillus subtilis combines natural competence for genetic transformation with highly efficient homologous recombination. These features allow using vectors that integrate into the genome via double homologous recombination. So far, their utilization is restricted by the fixed combination of resistance markers and integration loci, as well as species- or strain-specific regions of homology. To overcome these limitations, we developed a toolbox for the creation of personalized Bacillus vectors in a standardized manner with a focus on fast and easy adaptation of the sequences specifying the integration loci...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Friedner D Wittman, Douglas L Polcin, Dave Sheridan
PURPOSE: Roughly half a million persons in the United States are homeless on any given night and over a third of those individuals have significant alcohol/other drug (AOD) problems. Many are chronically homeless and in need of assistance for a variety of problems. However, the literature on housing services for this population has paid limited attention to comparative analyses contrasting different approaches. APPROACH: We examined the literature on housing models for homeless persons with AOD problems and critically analyzed how service settings and operations aligned with service goals...
2017: Drugs and Alcohol Today
Elliot S Gershon, Godfrey Pearlson, Matcheri S Keshavan, Carol Tamminga, Brett Clementz, Peter F Buckley, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Chunyu Liu, John A Sweeney, Sarah Keedy, Shashwath A Meda, Neeraj Tandon, Rebecca Shafee, Jeffrey R Bishop, Elena I Ivleva
Several studies of complex psychotic disorders with large numbers of neurobiological phenotypes are currently under way, in living patients and controls, and on assemblies of brain specimens. Genetic analyses of such data typically present challenges, because of the choice of underlying hypotheses on genetic architecture of the studied disorders and phenotypes, large numbers of phenotypes, the appropriate multiple testing corrections, limited numbers of subjects, imputations required on missing phenotypes and genotypes, and the cross-disciplinary nature of the phenotype measures...
October 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Arpita Saha, Elena Oleshkevich, Clara Vinas, Francesc Teixidor
Closely packed hollow spheres connected through pillars to a CdSe quantum dot (QD) core produce channels through which ions navigate. This particular structure is well represented by [CdSe@CarbOPH(O)]@Cl/[N(Caprylyl)3 Me1 ] indicating that in the channels between the canopy made by the carboranyl spheres (carboranylphosphinate, CarbOPH(O)) and the CdSe core exist chloride anions. Due to the close packing, the spheres produce openings. These are converted into gates because [N(Caprylyl)3 Me1 ] acts as a plug...
October 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Mario Raspanti, Marcella Reguzzoni, Marina Protasoni, Petra Basso
For many decades the fibrillar collagens have been the subject of a remarkable body of ultrastructural research. The vast majority of the studies, however, were carried out on tendon or on tendon-derived material. For many reasons this reflects an obvious choice but at the same time it also is an unfortunate circumstance, because this flooding of tendon-related data can easily encourage the false confidence that all connective tissues are similar. The reality is quite the opposite, and a different fibrillar structure has been long time observed on collagen fibrils from different tissues, the most notable example being offered by corneal fibrils...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chang S Han, Niels J Dingemanse
Empirical studies imply that sex-specific genetic architectures can resolve evolutionary conflicts between males and females, and thereby facilitate the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Sex-specificity of behavioural genetic architectures has, however, rarely been considered. Moreover, as the expression of genetic (co)variances is often environment-dependent, general inferences on sex-specific genetic architectures require estimates of quantitative genetics parameters under multiple conditions. We measured exploration and aggression in pedigreed populations of southern field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) raised on either naturally balanced (free-choice) or imbalanced (protein-deprived) diets...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ravi Boya, Anurupa Devi Yadavalli, Sameena Nikhat, Sreenivasulu Kurukuti, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Jagan M R Pongubala
Genome organization in 3D nuclear-space is important for regulation of gene expression. However, the alterations of chromatin architecture that impinge on the B cell-fate choice of multi-potent progenitors are still unclear. By integrating in situ Hi-C analyses with epigenetic landscapes and genome-wide expression profiles, we tracked the changes in genome architecture as the cells transit from a progenitor to a committed state. We identified the genomic loci that undergo developmental switch between A and B compartments during B-cell fate determination...
August 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Zahra Hosseini, Nima Taghavinia, Eric Wei-Guang Diau
Relative to the broad-band solar spectrum, a narrow range of spectral absorption of photovoltaic (PV) devices is considered an important reason for the efficiency of harvesting light of these devices being less than unity. Having the narrowest spectral response to solar radiation among all PV devices, a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) suffers severely from this loss. Luminescent spectral conversion provides a mechanism to manipulate and to adapt the incident solar spectrum through converting solar photons into energies that are more effectively captured by a PV device through photoluminescence...
October 3, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Leticia Ortega-Evangelio, Javier Navarrete-Sanchis, Basil K Williams, Juan Miguel Tomás-Torrent
PURPOSE: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a panuveitis syndrome that may lead to severe complications such as cystoid macular edema (CME). There is no consensus about the best treatment. We report one case of CME secondary to ARN managed with intravitreal aflibercept. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old woman with a history of successfully treated varicella-zoster virus-associated ARN developed an epiretinal membrane (ERM) and underwent pars plana vitrectomy, ERM removal, inner limiting membrane peel, and lensectomy...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Marek Cyrklaff, Friedrich Frischknecht, Mikhail Kudryashev
In recent years, novel imaging approaches revolutionised our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of microorganisms. These include advances in fluorescent probes, dynamic live cell imaging, superresolution light and electron microscopy. Currently, a major transition in the experimental approach shifts electron microscopy studies from a complementary technique to a method of choice for structural and functional analysis. Here we review functional insights into the molecular architecture of viruses, bacteria and parasites as well as interactions with their respective host cells gained from studies using cryogenic electron tomography and related methodologies...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Promita Bhattacharjee, Banani Kundu, Deboki Naskar, Hae-Won Kim, Tapas K Maiti, Debasis Bhattacharya, Subhas C Kundu
Bone tissue plays multiple roles in our day-to-day functionality. The frequency of accidental bone damage and disorder is increasing worldwide. Moreover, as the world population continues to grow, the percentage of the elderly population continues to grow, which results in an increased number of bone degenerative diseases. This increased elderly population pushes the need for artificial bone implants that specifically employ biocompatible materials. A vast body of literature is available on the use of silk in bone tissue engineering...
November 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Daniel Pérez, Ivana Gasulla, Lee Crudgington, David J Thomson, Ali Z Khokhar, Ke Li, Wei Cao, Goran Z Mashanovich, José Capmany
Integrated photonics changes the scaling laws of information and communication systems offering architectural choices that combine photonics with electronics to optimize performance, power, footprint, and cost. Application-specific photonic integrated circuits, where particular circuits/chips are designed to optimally perform particular functionalities, require a considerable number of design and fabrication iterations leading to long development times. A different approach inspired by electronic Field Programmable Gate Arrays is the programmable photonic processor, where a common hardware implemented by a two-dimensional photonic waveguide mesh realizes different functionalities through programming...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"