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Choice architecture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919153/-nudge-strategies-at-a-glance-an-overview-more-freedom-or-new-paternalism
#1
Luca Leone
Under the theoretical assumptions of individual bounded rationality and of behavioural psychology about human actions and agency, nudge has been promoted as an alternative to traditional regulatory tools, characterized by being inexpensive, choice-preserving, and bound to promote legitimate goals and citizens' welfare within through specific choice architectures. Applicable to several domains, health included, the nudging approach runs in connection with requests and needs arising from marketing strategies, with the aim of maximizing economic rationality and efficiency...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917669/use-of-core-biopsy-in-diagnosing-cervical-lymphadenopathy-a-viable-alternative-to-surgical-excisional-biopsy-of-lymph-nodes
#2
D Allin, S David, A Jacob, N Mir, A Giles, N Gibbins
OBJECTIVES Lymphoma often presents with a neck mass and while fine-needle aspiration cytology may be suggestive, tissue biopsy is required for reliable diagnosis and classification of a lymphoma that is sufficient to deliver the correct treatment for the patient. Traditionally, excisional biopsy of a lymph node has been the standard method of tissue sampling, providing ample tissue for assessment. However, this requires theatre time, and preceding fine-needle aspiration cytology, which may incur a delay. With careful use of tissue, coupled with advances in immunohistochemical and molecular investigative techniques, core biopsy provides a possible alternative to traditional fine-needle aspiration and excisional biopsy...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896989/opening-the-door-to-the-large-scale-use-of-clinical-lab-measures-for-association-testing-exploring-different-methods-for-defining-phenotypes
#3
Christopher R Bauer, Daniel Lavage, John Snyder, Joseph Leader, J Matthew Mahoney, Sarah A Pendergrass
The past decade has seen exponential growth in the numbers of sequenced and genotyped individuals and a corresponding increase in our ability of collect and catalogue phenotypic data for use in the clinic. We now face the challenge of integrating these diverse data in new ways new that can provide useful diagnostics and precise medical interventions for individual patients. One of the first steps in this process is to accurately map the phenotypic consequences of the genetic variation in human populations. The most common approach for this is the genome wide association study (GWAS)...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894378/an-experimental-approach-to-linguistic-representation
#4
Holly P Branigan, Martin J Pickering
Within the cognitive sciences, most researchers assume that it is the job of linguists to investigate how language is represented, and that they do so largely by building theories based on explicit judgments about patterns of acceptability - whereas it is the task of psychologists to determine how language is processed, and that in doing so, they do not typically question the linguists' representational assumptions. We challenge this division of labor, by arguing that structural priming provides an implicit method of investigating linguistic representations that should end the current reliance on acceptability judgments...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893365/design-and-choice-of-visual-display-solutions-in-the-training-domain
#5
Amela Sadagic
Visual display solutions are a key element of computer-based system architectures intended for human-system interaction. Particularly in the training domain, an ill-matched visual display can render a system unusable or ineffectual, which may cause underutilization or a negative transfer of training. This article outlines a set of approaches and best practices used in research efforts focused on the design of novel military training systems.
November 2016: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890020/choice-architecture-to-promote-fruit-and-vegetable-purchases-by-families-participating-in-the-special-supplemental-program-for-women-infants-and-children-wic-randomized-corner-store-pilot-study
#6
Anne N Thorndike, Oliver-John M Bright, Melissa A Dimond, Ronald Fishman, Douglas E Levy
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study to determine if improving the visibility and quality of fresh produce (choice architecture) in corner stores would increase fruit/vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). DESIGN: Six stores were randomly assigned to choice architecture intervention or control. Store-level WIC sales data were provided by the state. Primary outcomes were WIC fruit/vegetable voucher and non-fruit/vegetable voucher sales, comparing trends from baseline (December 2012-October 2013) with the five-month intervention period (December 2013-April 2014)...
November 28, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869075/-cell-therapies-for-cardiopathies-the-shift-of-paradigms
#7
Jean-Thomas Vilquin, Jessy Etienne
Heart failure is a major concern for public health systems, and several approaches of cellular therapy are being investigated with the goal of improving the function of these failing hearts. Many cell types have been used (skeletal myoblasts, hematopoietic, endothelial or mesenchymal progenitors, cardiac cells…), most often in the indication of post-ischemic heart failure rather than in the indication of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy. It is easier, indeed, to target a restricted area than the whole myocardium...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860169/environmental-interventions-for-altering-eating-behaviours-of-employees-in-the-workplace-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
J Allan, D Querstret, K Banas, M de Bruin
Environmental, or 'choice-architecture', interventions aim to change behaviour by changing properties/contents of the environment and are commonly used in the workplace to promote healthy behaviours in employees. The present review aimed to evaluate and synthesize the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of environmental interventions targeting eating behaviour in the workplace. A systematic search identified 8157 articles, of which 22 were included in the current review. All included studies were coded according to risk of bias and reporting quality and were classified according to the emergent typology of choice-architecture interventions...
November 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847762/endovascular-treatment-of-symptomatic-vertebral-artery-dissecting-aneurysms
#9
Jinsol Han, Dong-Jun Lim, Sung-Kon Ha, Jong-Il Choi, Sung-Won Jin, Se-Hoon Kim
OBJECTIVE: Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) are rare and many debates are present about treatment options. We review types and efficacy of our endovascular treatments and establish a safe endovascular therapeutic strategy regard to the angio-architecture of VADAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2008 and October 2015, we treated 22 patients with symptomatic VADAs. Fifteen patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured VADAs, digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance image confirmed the diagnosis and endovascular treatments were followed as their angio-architecture...
September 2016: Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824569/system-level-design-of-an-integrated-receiver-front-end-for-a-wireless-ultrasound-probe
#10
Tommaso Di Ianni, Martin Christian Hemmsen, Pere Llimos Muntal, Ivan Harald Holger Jorgensen, Jorgen Arendt Jensen
In this paper, a system-level design is presented for an integrated receive circuit for a wireless ultrasound probe, which includes analog front ends and beamformation modules. This paper focuses on the investigation of the effects of architectural design choices on the image quality. The point spread function is simulated in Field II from 10 to 160 mm using a convex array transducer. A noise analysis is performed, and the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements are derived for the low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) and A/D converters (ADCs) to fulfill the design specifications of a dynamic range of 60 dB and a penetration depth of 160 mm in the B-mode image...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775922/tunneling-mechanism-and-contact-mechanics-of-colloidal-nanoparticle-assemblies
#11
Moussa Biaye, Ewa Zbydniewska, Thierry Mélin, Dominique Deresmes, Guillaume Copie, Fabrizio Cleri, Neralagatta Sangeetha, Nicolas Decorde, Benoit Viallet, Jérémie Grisolia, Laurence Ressier, Heinrich Diesinger
Nanoparticle assemblies with thiol-terminated alkyl chains are studied by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) regarding their use as strain gauges for touch-sensitive panels. Current-force spectroscopy is used as a characterization tool complementary to the macroscopic setup since it allows a bias to be applied to a limited number of junctions, overcoming the Coulomb blockade energy and focusing on the contact electromechanics and the transport mechanism across the ligand. First, transition voltage spectroscopy is applied with varying force to target the underlying tunneling mechanism by observing whether the transition between the ohmic and exponential current-voltage behavior is force-dependent...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773338/biomacromolecules-based-core-shell-architecture-toward-biomedical-applications
#12
Wei Cui, Anhe Wang, Jie Zhao, Junbai Li
Polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules have become a novel and promising class of hybrid materials with great potential since they can be applied in various areas, such as pharmaceutical sciences, biotechnology, and biomedicine. The concept of using such carriers for biology application is diagnosis and treatment of diseases for convenience, safety and specific targeting. Therefore, the development of biocompatible, biodegradable and specific characteristic nanostructure material is highly desirable. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective techniques to fabricate such materials...
October 6, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760553/closing-the-loop-3c-versus-dna-fish
#13
Luca Giorgetti, Edith Heard
Chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques have revolutionized the field of nuclear organization, partly replacing DNA FISH as the method of choice for studying three-dimensional chromosome architecture. Although DNA FISH is commonly used for confirming 3C-based findings, the two techniques are conceptually and technically different and comparing their results is not trivial. Here, we discuss both 3C-based techniques and DNA FISH approaches to highlight their similarities and differences. We then describe the technical biases that affect each approach, and review the available reports that address their compatibility...
October 19, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754571/design-synthesis-and-self-assembly-behavior-of-liquid-crystalline-bis-60-fullerodendrimers
#14
Virginie Russo, Pauline Pieper, Benoît Heinrich, Bertrand Donnio, Robert Deschenaux
Bis-[60]fullerodendrimers were synthesized by assembling [60]fullerene-containing type I (terminal olefin) and type II (α,β-unsaturated carbonyl olefin) olefins through the olefin cross-metathesis reaction. The synthetic modular approach developed in this study allowed the preparation of mono-[60]fullerodendrimers and their [60]fullerene-free analogues. First- and second-generation poly(aryl ester) dendrons carrying cyanobiphenyl mesogens were used as liquid-crystalline promoters. The liquid-crystalline properties were studied by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and small-angle X-ray scattering...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742736/cohesin-mutations-in-cancer
#15
Magali De Koninck, Ana Losada
Cohesin is a large ring-shaped protein complex, conserved from yeast to human, which participates in most DNA transactions that take place in the nucleus. It mediates sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair. Together with architectural proteins and transcriptional regulators, such as CTCF and Mediator, respectively, it contributes to genome organization at different scales and thereby affects transcription, DNA replication, and locus rearrangement...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739157/modelling-maintenance-of-wakefulness-in-rats-comparing-potential-non-invasive-sleep-restriction-methods-and-their-effects-on-sleep-and-attentional-performance
#16
Andrew Mccarthy, Sally Loomis, Brian Eastwood, Keith A Wafford, Raphaëlle Winsky-Sommerer, Gary Gilmour
While several methods have been used to restrict the sleep of experimental animals, it is often unclear whether these different forms of sleep restriction have comparable effects on sleep-wake architecture or functional capacity. The present study compared four models of sleep restriction, using enforced wakefulness by rotation of cylindrical home cages over 11 h in male Wistar rats. These included an electroencephalographic-driven 'Biofeedback' method and three non-invasive methods where rotation was triggered according to a 'Constant', 'Decreasing' or random protocol based upon the 'Weibull' distribution fit to an archival Biofeedback dataset...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726336/zno-mno2-core-shell-nanofiber-cathodes-for-high-performance-asymmetric-supercapacitors
#17
A V Radhamani, K M Shareef, M S Ramachandra Rao
Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) with aqueous electrolyte medium have recently become the focus of increasing research. For high performance ASCs, selection of cathode materials play a crucial role and core-shell nanostructures are found to be of a good choice. We successfully synthesised, ZnO@MnO2 core-shell nanofibers (NFs) by modification of high-aspect-ratio-electrospun ZnO NFs hydrothermally with MnO2 nanoflakes. High conductivity of the ZnO NFs and the exceptionally high pseudocapacitive nature of MnO2 nanoflakes coating delivered a specific capacitance of 907 Fg-1 at 0...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714100/ordered-gyroidal-tantalum-oxide-photocatalysts-eliminating-diffusion-limitations-and-tuning-surface-barriers
#18
Alexey S Cherevan, Spencer Robbins, Dennis Dieterle, Paul Gebhardt, Ulrich Wiesner, Dominik Eder
In this work we synthesized well-ordered, Ta2O5 films with a 3D-interconnected gyroid mesopore architecture with large pore sizes beyond 30 nm and extended crystalline domains through self-assembly of tailor-made triblock-terpolymers. This has effectively eliminated diffusion limitations inherent to previously reported mesoporous photocatalysts and resulted in superior hydrogen evolution with apparent quantum yields of up to 4.6% in the absence of any cocatalyst. We further show that the injection barrier at the solid-liquid interface constitutes a key criterion for photocatalytic performance and can be modified by the choice of the carbon template...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712048/multidimensional-mass-spectrometry-of-synthetic-polymers-and-advanced-materials
#19
Chrys Wesdemiotis
Multidimensional mass spectrometry interfaces a suitable ionization technique and mass analysis (MS) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS²) fragmentation and an orthogonal online separation method. Separation choices include liquid chromatography (LC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), which disperse pre-ionization in the solution state or post-ionization in the gas phase, respectively. The MS step provides elemental composition information, while MS² exploits differences in the bond stabilities of a polymer, yielding connectivity and sequence information...
October 6, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709916/supramolecular-double-helix-formation-by-diastereoisomeric-conformations-of-configurationally-enantiomeric-macrocycles
#20
Avik Samanta, Zhichang Liu, Siva Krishna Mohan Nalluri, Yu Zhang, George C Schatz, James Fraser Stoddart
Solid-state superstructures, resulting from assemblies programmed by homochirality are attracting considerable attention. In addition, artificial double-helical architectures are being investigated, especially in relation to the ways in which homochiral small molecules can be induced to yield helical forms as a result of chiral induction. Herein, we report the highly specific self-assembly upon crystallization of a double helical superstructure from an enantiopure macrocyclic dimer which adopts two diastereoisomeric conformations in a molar ratio of 1...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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