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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202807/the-genetics-of-mate-preferences-in-hybrids-between-two-young-and-sympatric-lake-victoria-cichlid-species
#1
Ola Svensson, Katie Woodhouse, Cock van Oosterhout, Alan Smith, George F Turner, Ole Seehausen
The genetic architecture of mate preferences is likely to affect significant evolutionary processes, including speciation and hybridization. Here, we investigate laboratory hybrids between a pair of sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fish species that appear to have recently evolved from a hybrid population between similar predecessor species. The species demonstrate strong assortative mating in the laboratory, associated with divergent male breeding coloration (red dorsum versus blue). We show in a common garden experiment, using DNA-based paternity testing, that the strong female mate preferences among males of the two species are fully recovered in a large fraction of their F2 hybrid generation...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188333/use-of-modern-tomato-breeding-germplasm-for-deciphering-the-genetic-control-of-agronomical-traits-by-genome-wide-association-study
#2
Guillaume Bauchet, Stéphane Grenier, Nicolas Samson, Julien Bonnet, Laurent Grivet, Mathilde Causse
A panel of 300 tomato accessions including breeding materials was built and characterized with >11,000 SNP. A population structure in six subgroups was identified. Strong heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium and recombination landscape among groups and chromosomes was shown. GWAS identified several associations for fruit weight, earliness and plant growth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a method of choice in quantitative trait dissection. First limited to highly polymorphic and outcrossing species, it is now applied in horticultural crops, notably in tomato...
February 10, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155662/an-ensemble-micro-neural-network-approach-for-elucidating-interactions-between-zinc-finger-proteins-and-their-target-dna
#3
Shayoni Dutta, Spandan Madan, Harsh Parikh, Durai Sundar
BACKGROUND: The ability to engineer zinc finger proteins binding to a DNA sequence of choice is essential for targeted genome editing to be possible. Experimental techniques and molecular docking have been successful in predicting protein-DNA interactions, however, they are highly time and resource intensive. Here, we present a novel algorithm designed for high throughput prediction of optimal zinc finger protein for 9 bp DNA sequences of choice. In accordance with the principles of information theory, a subset identified by using K-means clustering was used as a representative for the space of all possible 9 bp DNA sequences...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130739/mechanical-cell-cell-communication-in-fibrous-networks-the-importance-of-network-geometry
#4
D L Humphries, J A Grogan, E A Gaffney
Cells contracting in extracellular matrix (ECM) can transmit stress over long distances, communicating their position and orientation to cells many tens of micrometres away. Such phenomena are not observed when cells are seeded on substrates with linear elastic properties, such as polyacrylamide (PA) gel. The ability for fibrous substrates to support far reaching stress and strain fields has implications for many physiological processes, while the mechanical properties of ECM are central to several pathological processes, including tumour invasion and fibrosis...
January 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127607/polymers-from-sugars-cyclic-monomer-synthesis-ring-opening-polymerisation-material-properties-and-applications
#5
Georgina L Gregory, Eva M López-Vidal, Antoine Buchard
Plastics are ubiquitous in modern society. However, the reliance on fossil fuels and the environmental persistence of most polymers make them unsustainable. Scientists are facing the challenge of developing cost-effective and performance-competitive polymers from renewable resources. Carbohydrates are a renewable feedstock with tremendous potential: sugars are widely available, environmentally benign and are likely to impart biocompatibility and degradability properties to polymers due to their high oxygen content...
January 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122979/nucleic-and-amino-acid-sequences-support-structure-based-viral-classification
#6
Robert M Sinclair, Janne J Ravantti, Dennis H Bamford
: Viral capsids ensure viral genome integrity by protecting the enclosed nucleic acids. Interactions between the genome, capsid and between individual capsid proteins (i.e. "capsid architecture") are intimate and expected to be characterized by strong evolutionary conservation. For this reason, a capsid structure-based viral classification has been proposed as a way to bring order to the viral universe. The seeming lack of sufficient sequence similarity to reproduce this classification has made it difficult to reject structural convergence as the basis for the classification...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120757/-bone-substitutes
#7
Fabienne Jordana, Catherine Le Visage, Pierre Weiss
Bone substitutes, used to fill a defect after a surgery or a trauma, provide a mechanical support and might induce bone healing. They constitute an alternative to autogenous bone grafts, the 'gold standard' which remains the reference despite its risk of postoperative complications. The clinician choice of a bone substitute is based on the required bone volume, the handling (injectability, malleability) and mechanical properties (setting time, viscosity, resorbability among others) of the material. Bone substitutes are commonly used in orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, stomatology and dental applications...
January 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095197/solving-nonlinearly-separable-classifications-in-a-single-layer-neural-network
#8
Nolan Conaway, Kenneth J Kurtz
Since the work of Minsky and Papert (1969), it has been understood that single-layer neural networks cannot solve nonlinearly separable classifications (i.e., XOR). We describe and test a novel divergent autoassociative architecture capable of solving nonlinearly separable classifications with a single layer of weights. The proposed network consists of class-specific linear autoassociators. The power of the model comes from treating classification problems as within-class feature prediction rather than directly optimizing a discriminant function...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070572/electrostatic-layer-by-layer-construction-of-fibrous-tmv-biofilms
#9
Brylee David B Tiu, Daniel L Kernan, Sicily B Tiu, Amy M Wen, Yi Zheng, Jonathan K Pokorski, Rigoberto C Advincula, Nicole F Steinmetz
As nature's choice in designing complex architectures, the bottom-up assembly of nanoscale building blocks offers unique solutions in achieving more complex and smaller morphologies with wide-ranging applications in medicine, energy, and materials science as compared to top-down manufacturing. In this work, we employ charged tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-wt and TMV-lys) nanoparticles in constructing multilayered fibrous networks via electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. In neutral aqueous media, TMV-wt assumes an anionic surface charge...
January 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065769/habitual-and-recent-sleep-durations-graded-and-interactive-risk-for-impaired-glycemic-control-in-a-biracial-population
#10
Donald L Bliwise, Sophia A Greer, Michael K Scullin, Lawrence S Phillips
BACKGROUND: We examined how habitual sleep duration interacts with recent sleep (2 nights) to predict morning oral glucose tolerance test results. We hypothesized that short habitual and recent sleep durations would be additive for poor glucose control. METHODS: A biracial population of adults (n = 1559) without known diabetes and recruited from the workforce of 2 urban universities was assessed for glycated hemoglobin and underwent oral glucose tolerance testing...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063221/novel-circulating-biomarkers-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Elena Sancho, David Abelló, Jordi Camps, Jorge Joven
Currently, a liver biopsy remains the only reliable way to precisely diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and establish the severity of liver injury, presence of fibrosis and architecture remodeling. However, the cost and the intrinsic invasive procedure of a liver biopsy rules it out as a gold standard diagnostic test, and the imaging test are not the best choice due to the price, and currently is being refined. The lack of a biomarker of NAFLD pushes to develop this new line of research. The aim of the present systematic review is to clarify and update all the NAFLD biomarkers described in the literature until recently...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057725/the-neuro-computational-architecture-of-value-based-selection-in-the-human-brain
#12
Philippe Domenech, Jérôme Redouté, Etienne Koechlin, Jean-Claude Dreher
Current neural models of value-based decision-making consider choices as a 2-stage process, proceeding from the "valuation" of each option under consideration to the "selection" of the best option on the basis of their subjective values. However, little is known about the computational mechanisms at play at the selection stage and its implementation in the human brain. Here, we used drift-diffusion models combined with model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, effective connectivity, and multivariate pattern analysis to characterize the neuro-computational architecture of value-based decisions...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050473/evaluation-of-sinonasal-diseases-by-computed-tomography
#13
Rashmi Kandukuri, Suresh Phatak
INTRODUCTION: Computed Tomography (CT) plays an important diagnostic role in patients with sinonasal diseases and determines the treatment. The CT images clearly show fine structural architecture of bony anatomy thereby determining various anatomical variation, extent of disease and characterization of various inflammatory, benign and malignant sinonasal diseases. AIM: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of CT in diagnosis of sinonasal diseases and to characterise the benign and malignant lesions with the help of various CT parameters...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049701/three-dimensional-genome-organization-and-function-in-drosophila
#14
Yuri B Schwartz, Giacomo Cavalli
Understanding how the metazoan genome is used during development and cell differentiation is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. Early studies in Drosophila suggested that three-dimensional (3D) chromosome organization plays important regulatory roles in this process and recent technological advances started to reveal connections at the molecular level. Here we will consider general features of the architectural organization of the Drosophila genome, providing historical perspective and insights from recent work...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047596/su-f-i-60-icc-miwg-displays-final-recommendations-for-visualization-of-medical-content-on-color-display-systems
#15
T Kimpe, P Green, C Revie, M Flynn
PURPOSE: Use of color images in medical imaging has increased significantly the last few years. There is no agreement yet on what is an appropriate visualization framework for color medical images. This lack of standardization results into large variability of color appearance and makes consistency and quality assurance a challenge. The ICC Medical-Imaging-Working-Group (MIWG) has defined recommendations for visualization of medical content on color display systems, whereby DICOM GSDF images, pseudo color images and color accurate images can all be presented effectively on the same display...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044978/-nudges-relevance-limitations-and-ethical-issues-specifically-in-health-policy
#16
Caroline Huyard
The concept of "nudge" has recently spread accross the field of research that addresses the issue of health behaviours change. According to Thaler and Sunstein (2008) a nudge is "any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives". Similar concepts, such as persuasive technology or manipulation, have been studied for decades in the fields of design, psychology or communication. The novelty of the concept of "nudge"' lies in its particular political purpose, namely libertarian paternalism...
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025895/advanced-diagnostic-plan-applied-to-the-royal-villa-in-naples
#17
Caterina Gattuso, Philomène Gattuso, Jolanda Mastroianni, Valentina Roviello, Luigi Campanella
To achieve adequate restoration project, the moment of choice of the type of intervention is a very delicate phase that necessarily involves a thorough understanding of the asset in all its aspects, as the location, the history, the architecture, the state of preservation, the pathologies causing the degradation, the degradation in itself, the analysis of constituent materials. The set of all that can be investigated on a product (cultural), to obtaining important information for subsequent maintenance, conservation and/or restoration actions, is what is called a diagnostic plan...
December 27, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009280/three-dimensional-architecture-of-the-human-brca1-a-histone-deubiquitinase-core-complex
#18
Otto J P Kyrieleis, Pauline B McIntosh, Sarah R Webb, Lesley J Calder, Janette Lloyd, Nisha A Patel, Stephen R Martin, Carol V Robinson, Peter B Rosenthal, Stephen J Smerdon
BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor found to be mutated in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and plays key roles in the maintenance of genomic stability by homologous recombination repair. It is recruited to damaged chromatin as a component of the BRCA1-A deubiquitinase, which cleaves K63-linked ubiquitin chains attached to histone H2A and H2AX. BRCA1-A contributes to checkpoint regulation, repair pathway choice, and HR repair efficiency through molecular mechanisms that remain largely obscure. The structure of an active core complex comprising two Abraxas/BRCC36/BRCC45/MERIT40 tetramers determined by negative-stain electron microscopy (EM) reveals a distorted V-shape architecture in which a dimer of Abraxas/BRCC36 heterodimers sits at the base, with BRCC45/Merit40 pairs occupying each arm...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933110/profiling-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-liquid-biopsy-can-one-size-fit-all
#19
Harry W Clifford, Amy P Cassidy, Courtney Vaughn, Evaline S Tsai, Bianka Seres, Nirmesh Patel, Hannah L O'Neill, Emil Hewage, John W Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Cancer is first and foremost a disease of the genome. Specific genetic signatures within a tumour are prognostic of disease outcome, reflect subclonal architecture and intratumour heterogeneity, inform treatment choices and predict the emergence of resistance to targeted therapies. Minimally invasive liquid biopsies can give temporal resolution to a tumour's genetic profile and allow the monitoring of treatment response through levels of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, the detection of ctDNA in repeated liquid biopsies is currently limited by economic and time constraints associated with targeted sequencing...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919153/-nudge-strategies-at-a-glance-an-overview-more-freedom-or-new-paternalism
#20
Luca Leone
Under the theoretical assumptions of individual bounded rationality and of behavioural psychology about human actions and agency, nudge has been promoted as an alternative to traditional regulatory tools, characterized by being inexpensive, choice-preserving, and bound to promote legitimate goals and citizens' welfare within through specific choice architectures. Applicable to several domains, health included, the nudging approach runs in connection with requests and needs arising from marketing strategies, with the aim of maximizing economic rationality and efficiency...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
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