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Choice architecture

Magali De Koninck, Ana Losada
Cohesin is a large ring-shaped protein complex, conserved from yeast to human, which participates in most DNA transactions that take place in the nucleus. It mediates sister chromatid cohesion, which is essential for chromosome segregation and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair. Together with architectural proteins and transcriptional regulators, such as CTCF and Mediator, respectively, it contributes to genome organization at different scales and thereby affects transcription, DNA replication, and locus rearrangement...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Andrew Mccarthy, Sally Loomis, Brian Eastwood, Keith A Wafford, Raphaëlle Winsky-Sommerer, Gary Gilmour
While several methods have been used to restrict the sleep of experimental animals, it is often unclear whether these different forms of sleep restriction have comparable effects on sleep-wake architecture or functional capacity. The present study compared four models of sleep restriction, using enforced wakefulness by rotation of cylindrical home cages over 11 h in male Wistar rats. These included an electroencephalographic-driven 'Biofeedback' method and three non-invasive methods where rotation was triggered according to a 'Constant', 'Decreasing' or random protocol based upon the 'Weibull' distribution fit to an archival Biofeedback dataset...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
A V Radhamani, K M Shareef, M S Ramachandra Rao
Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) with aqueous electrolyte medium have recently become the focus of increasing research. For high performance ASCs, selection of cathode materials play a crucial role and core-shell nanostructures are found to be of a good choice. We successfully synthesised, ZnO@MnO2 core-shell nanofibers (NFs) by modification of high-aspect-ratio-electrospun ZnO NFs hydrothermally with MnO2 nanoflakes. High conductivity of the ZnO NFs and the exceptionally high pseudocapacitive nature of MnO2 nanoflakes coating delivered a specific capacitance of 907 Fg-1 at 0...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alexey S Cherevan, Spencer Robbins, Dennis Dieterle, Paul Gebhardt, Ulrich Wiesner, Dominik Eder
In this work we synthesized well-ordered, Ta2O5 films with a 3D-interconnected gyroid mesopore architecture with large pore sizes beyond 30 nm and extended crystalline domains through self-assembly of tailor-made triblock-terpolymers. This has effectively eliminated diffusion limitations inherent to previously reported mesoporous photocatalysts and resulted in superior hydrogen evolution with apparent quantum yields of up to 4.6% in the absence of any cocatalyst. We further show that the injection barrier at the solid-liquid interface constitutes a key criterion for photocatalytic performance and can be modified by the choice of the carbon template...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
Chrys Wesdemiotis
Multidimensional mass spectrometry interfaces a suitable ionization technique and mass analysis (MS) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS²) fragmentation and an orthogonal online separation method. Separation choices include liquid chromatography (LC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), which disperse pre-ionization in the solution state or post-ionization in the gas phase, respectively. The MS step provides elemental composition information, while MS² exploits differences in the bond stabilities of a polymer, yielding connectivity and sequence information...
October 6, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Avik Samanta, Zhichang Liu, Siva Krishna Mohan Nalluri, Yu Zhang, George C Schatz, James Fraser Stoddart
Solid-state superstructures, resulting from assemblies programmed by homochirality are attracting considerable attention. In addition, artificial double-helical architectures are being investigated, especially in relation to the ways in which homochiral small molecules can be induced to yield helical forms as a result of chiral induction. Herein, we report the highly specific self-assembly upon crystallization of a double helical superstructure from an enantiopure macrocyclic dimer which adopts two diastereoisomeric conformations in a molar ratio of 1...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Keith M Marzilli Ericson, Amanda Starc
This paper examines the effect of choice architecture on Massachusetts' Health Insurance Exchange. A policy change standardized cost-sharing parameters of plans across insurers and altered information presentation. Post-change, consumers chose more generous plans and different brands, but were not more price-sensitive. We use a discrete choice model that allows the policy to affect how attributes are valued to decompose the policy's effects into a valuation effect and a product availability effect. The brand shifts are largely explained by the availability effect and the generosity shift by the valuation effect...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
Brigitte Barrois, Olivier Remy Neris, Pierre-Alain Joseph, Marc Genty, Michel Enjalbert, Olivier Jonquet, Thierry Lavigne, Claude Jeandel, Catherine Chapuis, Bruno Grandbastien, Elise Seringe, Benoit Nicolas, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Laurent Thefenne, Nacera Bradai, Philippe Saliou, Julia Facione-Roger, Hugues Aumaitre, Fabrice Mairot
Infectious risk and crossing transmission: which guidelines? Crossing transmission risk is important in SSR wards, although patients have few invasive acts but are moving. A piloting group chose 6 questions. Two experts analyzed each question, bibliographic analysis to look for formal guidelines, convincing elements and persistent questions. Those results were discussed during an expert conference to develop best practices guidelines for rehabilitation organization in SSR ward: - for SSR patients, can we define clinical and microbiological characteristics enable to improve crossing transmission risk? disease? Microbiological location?; - for patients with BMR or BHR bacteria, how can we use, organize and manage technical tools (architecture, tools, group work, swimming pools, cleaning) to reduce crossing transmission risk?; - for patients with BMR or BHR bacteria, how can we organize patients transfers out of room? To technical tools? To common places (restaurant, lounge), to home return (permission included) or to reduce crossing transmission risk?; - for patients with BMR or BHR bacteria (contact or bearer), how can SSR professional organize to reduce crossing transmission risk? Coordination between professionals, care planning, choice and use of tools and techniques…; - to reduce crossing transmission risk, what are located units, clinical and biological screening units, follow up BMR and BHR?; - for patients with BMR or BHR bacteria (contact or bearer), how information transmission can improve before, during and after SSR stay? Short guidelines will be held during next conference and long guidelines will be totally written...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
J-F Song, A E-J Lim, X-S Luo, Q Fang, C Li, L X Jia, X-G Tu, Y Huang, H-F Zhou, T-Y Liow, G-Q Lo
Conventional silicon photonic integrated circuits do not normally possess memory functions, which require on-chip power in order to maintain circuit states in tuned or field-configured switching routes. In this context, we present an electrically programmable add/drop microring resonator with a wavelength shift of 426 pm between the ON/OFF states. Electrical pulses are used to control the choice of the state. Our experimental results show a wavelength shift of 2.8 pm/ms and a light intensity variation of ~0...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Xiaofan Zhou, David Peris, Jacek Kominek, Cletus P Kurtzman, Chris Todd Hittinger, Antonis Rokas
The availability of genomes across the tree of life is highly biased toward vertebrates, pathogens, human disease models, and organisms with relatively small and simple genomes. Recent progress in genomics has enabled the de novo decoding of the genome of virtually any organism, greatly expanding its potential for understanding the biology and evolution of the full spectrum of biodiversity. The increasing diversity of sequencing technologies, assays, and de novo assembly algorithms have augmented the complexity of de novo genome sequencing projects in non-model organisms...
September 16, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Javad Amanpour, Gongfang Hu, Eric J Alexy, Amit Kumar Mandal, Hyun Suk Kang, Jonathan M Yuen, James R Diers, David F Bocian, Jonathan S Lindsey, Dewey Holten
Light-harvesting architectures that afford strong absorption across the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared region, namely, panchromatic absorptivity, are potentially valuable for capturing the broad spectral distribution of sunlight. One previously reported triad consisting of two perylene monoimides strongly coupled to a free base porphyrin via ethyne linkers (FbT) shows panchromatic absorption together with a porphyrin-like S1 excited state albeit at lower energy than that of a typical monomeric porphyrin...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Anja Mikic, Cara E Pietrolungo
There is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. Early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. In this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. Research has focused on the effects of mixed meal patterns, such as high-carbohydrate plus low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets, over the short term on sleep...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Laura M König, Helge Giese, Harald T Schupp, Britta Renner
Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew G Sampson
The discovery of genetic variation associated with pediatric kidney disease has shed light on the biology underlying these conditions and, in some cases, has improved our clinical management of patients. We are challenged to continue the momentum of the genomic era in pediatric nephrology by identifying novel disease-associated genetic variation and translating these discoveries into clinical applications. This article reviews the diverse forms of genetic architecture that have been found to be associated with kidney diseases and traits...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Binod Dhakal, Saulius Girnius, Parameswaran Hari
There have been major recent advancements in the understanding and management of multiple myeloma. Diagnostic criteria have been revised and former ultra-high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma is now considered multiple myeloma in need of treatment. Understanding clonal progression, evolution, and tides not only has helped elucidate the disease behavior but might help expand therapeutic choices in order to select appropriate treatment for patients. Unprecedented response rates with modern triplet induction therapies containing proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulators have made this approach standard for initial treatment...
2016: F1000Research
François Goudail, Matthieu Boffety
We address the comparison of contrast improvement obtained with a fully adaptive polarimetric imager and the best channel of a static polarimetric imager in the presence of both intensity and polarization differences between the target and the background. We develop an in-depth quantitative study of the performance loss incurred by a static imager compared to a fully adaptive one in this case. These results are useful to make a well-informed choice between these two polarimetric imaging architectures in a given application...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Hicham Saad, Jennifer A Cobb
The nucleus is a hub for gene expression and is a highly organized entity. The nucleoplasm is heterogeneous, owing to the preferential localization of specific metabolic factors, which lead to the definition of nuclear compartments or bodies. The genome is organized into chromosome territories, as well as heterochromatin and euchromatin domains. Recent observations have indicated that nuclear organization is important for maintaining genomic stability. For example, nuclear organization has been implicated in stabilizing damaged DNA, repair-pathway choice, and in preventing chromosomal rearrangements...
October 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Sumit Sahu, David P Goldberg
The rational design of well-defined, first-row transition metal complexes that can activate dioxygen has been a challenging goal for the synthetic inorganic chemist. The activation of O2 is important in part because of its central role in the functioning of metalloenzymes, which utilize O2 to perform a number of challenging reactions including the highly selective oxidation of various substrates. There is also great interest in utilizing O2, an abundant and environmentally benign oxidant, in synthetic catalytic oxidation systems...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Michael W Seward, Jason P Block, Avik Chatterjee
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether traffic-light labeling and choice architecture interventions improved dietary choices among students at a northeastern US university. METHODS: In 6 cafeterias at Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, we implemented a 7-week intervention including traffic-light labeling (red: least nutrient rich; yellow: nutrient neutral; green: most nutrient rich), choice architecture (how choices are presented to consumers), and "healthy-plate" tray stickers...
October 2016: American Journal of Public Health
D Brodoceanu, C T Bauer, E Kroner, E Arzt, T Kraus
The extraordinary adherence and climbing agility of geckos on rough surfaces has been attributed to the multiscale hierarchical structures on their feet. Hundreds of thousands of elastic hairs called setae, each of which split into several spatulae, create a large number of contact points that generate substantial adhesion through van der Waals interactions. The hierarchical architecture provides increased structural compliance on surfaces with roughness features ranging from micrometers to millimeters. We review synthetic adhesion surfaces that mimic the naturally occurring hierarchy with an emphasis on microfabrication strategies, material choice and the adhesive performance achieved...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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