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Choice architecture

Thomas E Frederick, Jeffrey W Peng
Increasing evidence shows that active sites of proteins have non-trivial conformational dynamics. These dynamics include active site residues sampling different local conformations that allow for multiple, and possibly novel, inhibitor binding poses. Yet, active site dynamics garner only marginal attention in most inhibitor design efforts and exert little influence on synthesis strategies. This is partly because synthesis requires a level of atomic structural detail that is frequently missing in current characterizations of conformational dynamics...
2018: PloS One
Algimantas Venčkauskas, Nerijus Morkevicius, Kazimieras Bagdonas, Robertas Damaševičius, Rytis Maskeliūnas
The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited...
May 14, 2018: Sensors
Taras Pasternak, William Teale, Thorsten Falk, Benedetto Ruperti, Klaus Palme
In plants as well as other organisms, protein localization alone is insufficient to provide a mechanistic link between stimulus and process regulation. This is because protein-protein interactions are central to the regulation of biological processes. However, they remain very difficult to detect in situ, with the choice of tools for the detection of protein-protein interaction in situ still in need of expansion. Here, we provide a protocol for the detection and accurate localization of protein interactions based on the combination of a whole-mount proximity ligation assay and iRoCS, a coordinate system able to standardize subtle differences between the architecture of individual Arabidopsis roots...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Edward Sankowski
Cass R. Sunstein's book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Ronald F White
Let's begin by addressing the most obvious question: given the vast number of books published on political science every year, why would the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) and its journal Politics and the Life Sciences expend time, energy, and resources publishing a multiple-author analysis of a series of books that contain little (if anything) about the life sciences, Darwin, or evolution? The answer is that Cass R. Sunstein's recent research on "nudge science" provides an excellent opportunity for APLS to expand its commitment to interdisciplinarity, especially its long-standing interest in behavioral economics...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Eliah J White
From a psychological perspective, Cass R. Sunstein's 2016 book The Ethics of Influence is an insightful examination of the ethics of using social and cognitive psychological principles to influence behavior and decision-making. The United States has been experiencing what can only be described as an obesity epidemic. Scientists know that this epidemic has been brought about in part by the prevailing choice architecture, which influences what we eat, how much we eat, and how little we exercise. From a public health perspective, the policy issue centers on how a democracy can employ a combination of bans, mandates, and nudges to reshape our dietary habits to combat obesity...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Krishna P Katuri, Shafeer Kalathil, Ala'a Ragab, Bin Bian, Manal F Alqahtani, Deepak Pant, Pascal E Saikaly
Dual-function electrocatalytic and macroporous hollow-fiber cathodes are recently proposed as promising advanced material for maximizing the conversion of waste streams such as wastewater and waste CO2 to valuable resources (e.g., clean freshwater, energy, value-added chemicals) in microbial electrochemical systems. The first part of this progress report reviews recent developments in this type of cathode architecture for the simultaneous recovery of clean freshwater and energy from wastewater. Critical insights are provided on suitable materials for fabricating these cathodes, as well as addressing some challenges in the fabrication process with proposed strategies to overcome them...
April 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Scott Emory Moore, Holley H Ulbrich, Kenneth Hepburn, Bonnie Holaday, Rachel Mayo, Julia Sharp, Rosanne H Pruitt
PURPOSE: This article seeks to take the next step in examining the insights that nurses and other healthcare providers can derive from applying behavioral economic concepts to support genomic decision making. As genomic science continues to permeate clinical practice, nurses must continue to adapt practice to meet new challenges. Decisions associated with genomics are often not simple and dichotomous in nature. They can be complex and challenging for all involved. DESIGN: This article offers an introduction to behavioral economics as a possible tool to help support patients', families', and caregivers' decision making related to genomics...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Chen-Mei Hsu, Li-Lin Liang, Yun-Te Chang, Wang-Chuan Juang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (ED) is a worldwide health problem. The Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation has stressed the importance of finding solutions to overcrowding, including, reducing the number of patients with >48 h stay in the ED. Moreover, the Ministry of Health and Welfare aims at transferring non-critical patients to district or regional hospitals. We report the results of our Quality Improvement Project (QIP) on ED overcrowding, especially focusing on reducing length of stay (LOS) in ED...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Wi Hoon Jung, Sangil Lee, Caryn Lerman, Joseph W Kable
Risk tolerance, the degree to which an individual is willing to tolerate risk in order to achieve a greater expected return, influences a variety of financial choices and health behaviors. Here we identify intrinsic neural markers for risk tolerance in a large (n = 108) multimodal imaging dataset of healthy young adults, which includes anatomical and resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Using a data-driven approach, we found that higher risk tolerance was most strongly associated with greater global functional connectivity (node strength) of and greater gray matter volume in bilateral amygdala...
March 28, 2018: Neuron
Javier A Caballero, Mark D Humphries, Kevin N Gurney
Decision formation recruits many brain regions, but the procedure they jointly execute is unknown. Here we characterize its essential composition, using as a framework a novel recursive Bayesian algorithm that makes decisions based on spike-trains with the statistics of those in sensory cortex (MT). Using it to simulate the random-dot-motion task, we demonstrate it quantitatively replicates the choice behaviour of monkeys, whilst predicting losses of otherwise usable information from MT. Its architecture maps to the recurrent cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops, whose components are all implicated in decision-making...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Xin Chen, Lixia Yuan, Zhangxiang Hao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Jingwei Xiang, Zhuoran Zhang, Yunhui Huang, Jia Xie
Freestanding paper cathodes with layer-by-layer structure are synthesized for high-loading lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. Sulfur is loaded in a three dimensional (3D) interconnected nitrogen-doped carbonfiber (CNF) framework impregnated with Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The 3D-interconnected CNF framework creates an architecture with outstanding mechanical properties. Synergetic effects generated from physical and chemical entrapment could effectively suppress the dissolution and diffusion of the polysulfides. Electrochemical measurements suggest that the rationally designed structure endows the electrode with high utilization of sulfur and good cycle performance...
April 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Moriya Slavin, Nir Kalisman
Cross-linking and mass spectrometry is used more and more for the structural analysis of large proteins and protein complexes. Although essentially a low-resolution method, it avoids the main drawbacks of established structural techniques. Particularly, it is largely insensitive to the inherent flexibility of the studied complexes and is applied under native conditions. It is also applicable to nearly every structural system. Therefore, cross-linking and mass spectrometry is the method of choice for elucidating the general architecture of protein complexes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eduardo Victor Peris, Susana Ibáñez
We describe a new di-gold metallo-tweezer whose complex supramolecular landscape is controlled by adding a series of metal cations. This metallo-tweezer has a strong tendency to form interesting supramolecular structures upon addition of Tl+, Ag+ and Cu+. The choice of the cation is used to directing the formation of the designated molecular architecture. The addition of thallium facilitates the formation of a self-aggregated duplex structure, with the cation occupying the cavity of the dimer. The same type of structure is formed when Cu+ is added, and the resulting duplex inclusion complex displays interesting vapochromism properties...
March 30, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Douglas J Opel
Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein define a nudge as "any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives." Much has been written about the ethics of nudging competent adult patients. Less has been written about the ethics of nudging surrogates' decision-making and how the ethical considerations and arguments in that context might differ. Even less has been written about nudging surrogate decision-making in the context of pediatrics, despite fundamental differences that exist between the pediatric and adult contexts...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
T Vidal, C Gigot, C de Vallavieille-Pope, L Huber, S Saint-Jean
Background and Aims: Growing cultivars differing by their disease resistance level together (cultivar mixtures) can reduce the propagation of diseases. Although architectural characteristics of cultivars are little considered in mixture design, they could have an effect on disease, in particular through spore dispersal by rain splash, which occurs over short distances. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of plant height of wheat cultivars in mixtures on splash dispersal of Zymoseptoria tritici, which causes septoria tritici leaf blotch...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Indranil Sinha, Partha Sarathi Mukherjee
The scholastic significance of supramolecular chemistry continues to grow with the recent development of catalytic transformations in confined space of supramolecular architectures. It has come a long way from a natural cavity containing molecules to modern smart materials capable of manipulating reaction pathways. The rise of self-assembled coordination complexes provided a diverse array of host structures. Starting from purely organic compounds to metalloligand surrogates, supramolecular host cavities were tuned according to the requirement of the reactions...
March 26, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
David M Weekes, Danielle A Salvatore, Angelica Reyes, Aoxue Huang, Curtis P Berlinguette
Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion at near ambient temperatures and pressures offers a potential means of converting waste greenhouse gases into fuels or commodity chemicals (e.g., CO, formic acid, methanol, ethylene, alkanes, and alcohols). This process is particularly compelling when driven by excess renewable electricity because the consequent production of solar fuels would lead to a closing of the carbon cycle. However, such a technology is not currently commercially available. While CO2 electrolysis in H-cells is widely used for screening electrocatalysts, these experiments generally do not effectively report on how CO2 electrocatalysts behave in flow reactors that are more relevant to a scalable CO2 electrolyzer system...
March 23, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Chong Luo, Che-Ning Yeh, Jesus M Lopez Baltazar, Chao-Lin Tsai, Jiaxing Huang
Properly cut sheets can be converted into complex 3D structures by three basic operations including folding, bending, and pasting to render new functions. Folding and bending are extensively employed in crumpling, origami, and pop-up fabrications for 3D structures. Pasting joins different parts of a material together, and can create new geometries that are fundamentally unattainable by folding and bending. However, it has been much less explored, likely due to limited choice of weldable thin film materials and residue-free glues...
April 2018: Advanced Materials
Boyce S Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Joel Cutinho, Martin M Thuo
A facile method is reported for rapid, room-temperature synthesis of block copolymers (BCP) of complex morphology and hence nontraditional spherical assembly. The use of solvated electrons generates radical anions on olefinic monomers, and with a felicitous choice of monomer pairs, this species will propagate bimechanistically (via radical and the anion) to form BCPs. Molecular weight of the obtained BCP range from Mw = 97 000-404 000 g mol-1 (polydispersity index, PDI = 1.4-3.0) depending on monomer pairs...
April 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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