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Choice architecture

Chong Luo, Che-Ning Yeh, Jesus M Lopez Baltazar, Chao-Lin Tsai, Jiaxing Huang
Properly cut sheets can be converted into complex 3D structures by three basic operations including folding, bending, and pasting to render new functions. Folding and bending are extensively employed in crumpling, origami, and pop-up fabrications for 3D structures. Pasting joins different parts of a material together, and can create new geometries that are fundamentally unattainable by folding and bending. However, it has been much less explored, likely due to limited choice of weldable thin film materials and residue-free glues...
March 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Boyce S Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Joel Cutinho, Martin M Thuo
A facile method is reported for rapid, room-temperature synthesis of block copolymers (BCP) of complex morphology and hence nontraditional spherical assembly. The use of solvated electrons generates radical anions on olefinic monomers, and with a felicitous choice of monomer pairs, this species will propagate bimechanistically (via radical and the anion) to form BCPs. Molecular weight of the obtained BCP range from Mw = 97 000-404 000 g mol-1 (polydispersity index, PDI = 1.4-3.0) depending on monomer pairs...
March 8, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Robespierre Pita, Clicia Pinto, Samila Sena, Rosemeire Fiaccone, Leila Amorim, Sandra Reis, Mauricio L Barreto, Spiros Denaxas, Marcos Ennes Barreto
Data linkage refers to the process of identifying and linking records that refer to the same entity across multiple heterogeneous data sources. This method has been widely utilized across scientific domains, including public health where records from clinical, administrative, and other surveillance databases are aggregated and used for research, decision making, and assessment of public policies. When a common set of unique identifiers does not exist across sources, probabilistic linkage approaches are used to link records using a combination of attributes...
March 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
An Chen, Paul Martin Lillrank, Henni Tenhunen, Antti Peltokorpi, Paulus Torkki, Seppo Heinonen, Vedran Stefanovic
Purpose In healthcare, there is limited knowledge of and experience with patient choice management. The purpose of this paper is to focus on patient choice, apply and test demand-supply-based operating (DSO) logic integrated with clinical setting in clarifying choice contexts, investigate patient's choice-making at different contexts and suggest context-based choice architectures to manage and develop patient choice. Design/methodology/approach Prenatal screening and testing in the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District (HUS), Finland, was taken as an example...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Thomas Chung Wai Mak, Chun Fai Ng, Hak Fun Chow
Construction of the smallest single-component supramolecular triangle and unprecedented spontaneous resolution of pairs of intertwined supramolecular 31- and 32-double helices by the self-assembly of achiral 2-(iodoethynyl)pyridine and its derivatives have been achieved through intermolecular ethynyl C-I∙∙∙∙N halogen bonds in the crystalline state. Fine-tuning of the molecular structure of the achiral monomer and choice of solvents for crystallization have a dominant effect on the resultant supramolecular architectures...
March 1, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Marcin Kwit, Joanna Szymkowiak, Beata Warżajtis, Urszula Rychlewska
The substituted 2,4- and 4,6-dihydroxyisopthalaldehydes were condensed with optically pure and racemic trans-1,2-diaminecyclohexane to form resorcinarene-like polyimine macrocycles (resorcinsalens) of the structure and stoichiometry controlled by the choice of the reaction medium. Particularly, the cyclocondensation reactions are driven by the solubility, tautomerisation or by social self-sorting. The resorcinsalens crystallize as inclusion compounds, where the guest molecules are situated either in channels or in voids...
February 27, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Elizabeth Velema, Ellis L Vyth, Trynke Hoekstra, Ingrid H M Steenhuis
Background: Currently, many studies focus on how the environment can be changed to encourage healthier eating behavior, referred to as choice architecture or "nudging." However, to date, these strategies are not often investigated in real-life settings, such as worksite cafeterias, or are only done so on a short-term basis. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the effects of a healthy worksite cafeteria ["worksite cafeteria 2.0" (WC 2...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Joshua M Miller, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W Coltman
Elucidating the genetic basis of fitness-related traits is a major goal of molecular ecology. Traits subject to sexual selection are particularly interesting, as non-random mate choice should deplete genetic variation and thereby their evolutionary benefits. We examined the genetic basis of three sexually selected morphometric traits in bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ): horn length, horn base circumference, and body mass. These traits are of specific concern in bighorn sheep as artificial selection through trophy hunting opposes sexual selection...
2018: PeerJ
Liga Jasulaneca, Jelena Kosmaca, Raimonds Meija, Jana Andzane, Donats Erts
This review summarizes relevant research in the field of electrostatically actuated nanobeam-based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches. The main switch architectures and structural elements are briefly described and compared. Investigation methods that allow for exploring coupled electromechanical interactions as well as studies of mechanically or electrically induced effects are covered. An examination of the complex nanocontact behaviour during various stages of the switching cycle is provided. The choice of the switching element and the electrode is addressed from the materials perspective, detailing the benefits and drawbacks for each...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Jalie A Tucker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Addiction
Anna Pomerenke
Human lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with nearly 2 million of new cases diagnosed each year, often too late for a successful therapeutic intervention. In this chapter, organotypic models of lung cancer will be reviewed. Ex vivo tissue explants, spheroids, organoids, and novel bioengineering approaches are currently being used to study human lung cancer. Although there is no ideal method that will fully recapitulate the complex human lung architecture, the three-dimensional (3D) organotypic models described here represent a major advance from classical two-dimensional (2D) tissue culture models...
February 9, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Anaeze C Offodile, Mark W Clemens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Leo Beletsky
: At a time when death and disability linked to problematic substance use have reached crisis levels, integration of substance use disorder (SUD) services into primary care settings is a clear national priority. Incentive-based interventions can catalyze such adoption, but have thus far demonstrated limited efficaciousness. Behavioral Economics can inform efforts to incentivize healthcare providers to adopt SUD interventions. Choice architecture principles dictate pegging rewards to defined quality metrics, improving provider information about effective and cost-effective practices, and reducing barriers to SUD service provision through technological tools, tackling stigma, and addressing real and perceived regulatory burdens and risks...
February 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Azmi Mohamed, Tretya Ardyani, Suriani Abu Bakar, Masanobu Sagisaka, Yasushi Umetsu, J J Hamon, Bazura Abdul Rahim, Siti Rahmah Esa, H P S Abdul Khalil, Mohamad Hafiz Mamat, Stephen King, Julian Eastoe
HYPOTHESIS: Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be dispersed in natural rubber matrices using surfactants. The stability and properties of these composites can be optimized by the choice of surfactants employed as stabilizers. Surfactants can be designed and synthesized to have enhanced compatibility with GNPs as compared to commercially available common surfactants. Including aromatic groups in the hydrophobic chain termini improves graphene compatibility of surfactants, which is expected to increase with the number of aromatic moieties per surfactant molecule...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
P Cortelletti, A Skripka, C Facciotti, M Pedroni, G Caputo, N Pinna, M Quintanilla, A Benayas, F Vetrone, A Speghini
Lanthanide-activated SrF2 nanoparticles with a multishell architecture were investigated as optical thermometers in the biological windows. A ratiometric approach based on the relative changes in the intensities of different lanthanide (Nd3+ and Yb3+) NIR emissions was applied to investigate the thermometric properties of the nanoparticles. It was found that an appropriate doping with Er3+ ions can increase the thermometric properties of the Nd3+-Yb3+ coupled systems. In addition, a core containing Yb3+ and Tm3+ can generate light in the visible and UV regions upon near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation at 980 nm...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tang, Xianyou He, Guangyao Chen
According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2)...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Marco Di Giovannantonio, Giorgio Contini
Surface-confined polymerization is a bottom-up strategy to create one- and two-dimensional covalent organic nanostructures with a π-conjugated backbone, which are suitable to be employed in real-life electronic devices, due to their high mechanical resistance and electronic charge transport efficiency. This strategy makes it possible to change the properties of the final nanostructures by a careful choice of the monomer architecture (<i>i.e.</i> of its constituent atoms and their spatial arrangement)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Antonio Boccaccio, Antonio E Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Giuseppe Monno, Andrea Ballini, Apollonia Desiate
Thanks to the recent advances of three-dimensional printing technologies the design and the fabrication of a large variety of scaffold geometries was made possible. The surgeon has the availability of a wide number of scaffold micro-architectures thus needing adequate guidelines for the choice of the best one to be implanted in a patient-specific anatomic region. We propose a mechanobiology-based optimization algorithm capable of determining, for bone tissue scaffolds with an assigned geometry, the optimal value Lopt of the compression load to which they should be subjected, i...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Jonathan P Caulkins
Cannabis legalization is often falsely depicted as a binary choice between status quo prohibition and legalizing production and distribution by (regulated) for-profit industry. There are, however, many more prudent architectures for legalization, such as restricting production and distribution licenses to not-for-profit entities. Wilkins describes how New Zealand applied that concept to gambling machines and proposes a parallel for cannabis legalization. Greater investment in proposing good designs along these lines, including attending to governance structures, would be valuable...
March 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Andrea Rau, Andreas Kolk
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, perforator flaps have become popular for defect cover in the head and neck because they increase the choice of reconstructive possibilities and can lead to minimal donor site morbidity. In particular, the lower leg is considered a suitable option, as it provides thin and pliable skin for intraoral lining. Having gained experience with 131 flaps raised from four different donor sites at the lower leg, the aim of this paper is to evaluate success rates and patient satisfaction, but also difficulties and pitfalls during flap transfer...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
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