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Salmonella typhi

H Memona, F Manzoor, A A Anjum
This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Rapeephan R Maude, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Amir Hossain, Md Rezaul Karim, Abdullah Abu Sayeed, Stannie van den Ende, Sujat Pal, A S M Zahed, Wahid Rahman, Rifat Karnain, Rezina Islam, Dung Thi Ngoc Tran, Tuyen Thanh Ha, Anh Hong Pham, James I Campbell, H Rogier van Doorn, Richard J Maude, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga, Nicholas P J Day, Stephen Baker, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher M Parry, Md Abul Faiz
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. METHODS: Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Manoj Gowda A, Nithin Rao, Ranjit Mohan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jill Koshiol, Aniela Wozniak, Paz Cook, Christina Adaniel, Johanna Acevedo, Lorena Azócar, Ann W Hsing, Juan C Roa, Marcela F Pasetti, Juan F Miquel, Myron M Levine, Catterina Ferreccio
In Chile, where gallbladder cancer (GBC) rates are high and typhoid fever was endemic until the 1990s, we evaluated the association between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) antibodies and GBC. We tested 39 GBC cases, 40 gallstone controls, and 39 population-based controls for S. Typhi Vi antibodies and performed culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the subset with bile, gallstone, tissue, and stool samples available. We calculated gender and education-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with GBC...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Tomas de Wouters, Julia Werder, Christophe Chassard, Christophe Lacroix
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vanessa K Wong, Stephen Baker, Thomas R Connor, Derek Pickard, Andrew J Page, Jayshree Dave, Niamh Murphy, Richard Holliman, Armine Sefton, Michael Millar, Zoe A Dyson, Gordon Dougan, Kathryn E Holt
The population of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, exhibits limited DNA sequence variation, which complicates efforts to rationally discriminate individual isolates. Here we utilize data from whole-genome sequences (WGS) of nearly 2,000 isolates sourced from over 60 countries to generate a robust genotyping scheme that is phylogenetically informative and compatible with a range of assays. These data show that, with the exception of the rapidly disseminating H58 subclade (now designated genotype 4...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Lidwina Faraline Triprisila, Suharjono Suharjono, Antonius Christianto, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah
BACKGROUND: Goat milk is reported to have antimicrobial activity of several pathogen bacteria that contained on food materials. The research related with antimicrobial activity of Alpha-S2 casein from goat milk is relatively less than other casein components. Herein, we reported the antimicrobial activity of caprine Alpha-S2 Casein (CSN1S2) protein from Ethawah breed goat milk and yoghurt in Gram positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and negative pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri)...
July 24, 2016: Materia Socio-medica
G Devanand Venkatasubbu, R Baskar, T Anusuya, C Arun Seshan, Ramachandran Chelliah
Food preservation is an important field of research. It extends the shelf life of major food products. Our current study is based on food preservation through TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. TiO2 and ZnO are biocompatible nanomaterial. The biocompatibility of the materials were established through toxicity studies on cell lines. Titanium dioxide and Zinc Oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by wet chemical process. They are characterized by X-Ray diffraction and TEM. The antibacterial activities of both the materials were analysed to ensure their effectiveness as food preservative against Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexneri...
September 28, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
César García Vera, María García Ventura, Guadalupe Del Castillo Aguas, Begoña Domínguez Aurrecoechea, María Jesús Esparza Olcina, Ana Martínez Rubio, José María Mengual Gil
OBJECTIVE: To determine the main clinical and epidemiological features of bacterial gastroenteritis in our environment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational study of a Spanish population in 17 Autonomous Communities. Questionnaires of children with a stool positive culture to bacteria were collected over a one year period. A bivariate analysis was performed on the variables involved, as well as two multivariate models (for antibiotic treatment variables, and comparison Campylobacter/Salmonella)...
September 26, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Madhusudana Pulaganti, Anuradha C M, Chitta Suresh Kumar
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aeruginosa) is an opportunistic microorganism causing diseases both in animals and humans. In case of human pathology, the role of P.aeruginosa is one of the major concerns in intensive care septicemia. Presently the drug resistance strains of P.aeruginosa are arising mainly by developing multiple mechanisms due to its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. As a result, there is a direneed to invent new drugs so that they may restrict the outbreak of multidrug resistant strains...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Jerusha A Hema, Rajkumari Malaka, Narayanan P Muthukumarasamy, Akilandeswari Sambandam, Subakanmani Subramanian, Murugan Sevanan
The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been proved to be a cost effective and environmental friendly approach toward chemical and physical methods. In the present study, biosynthesis of AgNPs was carried out using aqueous extract of Zea mays (Zm) husk. The initial colour change from golden yellow to orange was observed between 410 and 450 nm which confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. Also, dynamic light scattering-particle size analysis confirmed the average size to be 113 nm and zeta potential value of -28 kV...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Madushini N Dharmasena, Catherine M Feuille, Carly Elizabeth C Starke, Arvind A Bhagwat, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
Öznur Küçük, Suat Biçer, Meltem Ugraş, Defne Çöl, Tuba Giray, Gülay Çiler Erdag, Yeşim Gürol, Gülden Yilmaz, Zerrin Yalvaç, Ayça Vitrinel, Çigdem Kaspar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory data of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. infections. Clinical (demographic data, symptoms and findings) and laboratory data (stool microscopy, rapid antigen tests, culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and blood test results) of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. between January 2010 and October 2012 were evaluated. Differences between the groups for categorical variables were estimated with a chi-square or Fisher exact test; for continuous variables with two independent samples a t test was used...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Mohamad S Alsalhi, Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Akram A Alfuraydi, Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji, Murugan A Munusamy, Kadarkarai Murugan, Marcello Nicoletti, Giovanni Benelli
BACKGROUND: The present study focused on a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with multipurpose anticancer and antimicrobial activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a green synthesis route to produce AgNPs by using an aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum seeds (3 mM). Their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells (hSSCs) and colon cancer cells (HT115) were assessed. RESULTS: A biophysical characterization of the synthesized AgNPs was realized: the morphology of AgNPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Virtu Solano-Collado, Adam Rofe, Stefania Spanò
Our immune system is engaged in a continuous battle against invading pathogens, many of which have evolved to survive in intracellular niches of mammalian hosts. A variety of cellular processes are involved in preventing bacterial invasion or in killing bacteria that successfully invade host cells. Recently, the Rab GTPase Rab32 emerged as critical regulator of a host defense pathway that can eliminate bacterial pathogens. Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterium and a major cause of infections and deaths in humans...
September 20, 2016: Small GTPases
Md Mamun Or Rashida, Md Shafiul Islam, Md Azizul Haque, Md Arifur Rahman, Md Tanvir Hossain, Md Abdul Hamid
Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Rezwanul Wahid, Stephanie Fresnay, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
The live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a elicits predominantly CD8+, as well as CD4+ T cells mediated immune responses.Clinical field studies showed that Ty21a is moderately effective against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi B, but not S. Paratyphi A infections. In this study we describe the in depth characterization of S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B cross-reactive CD4+ T cell responses elicited following immunization with Ty21a.PBMC samples were collected from 16 healthy volunteers before and 42/84days after Ty21a immunization and stimulated ex-vivo with Salmonella-infected targets...
September 12, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Priyadarshini Sharavanan, Dhivyalakshmi Shanmugam, Kennedy Kumar Palraj, Tessa Antony, Premamalini Thayanidhi
Splenic abscess as a complication of enteric fever due to Salmonella typhi is a rare entity. Here, we are presenting a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella typhi with a blunt injury to the abdomen as the predisposing factor. The patient underwent total splenectomy due to failure of conservative management. Splenic abscess is a potential life threatening disease if left untreated. In spite of its rarity, Salmonella typhi has to be considered as a possible pathogen causing the disease.
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Muthu Gopal, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Suresh Arumugam, Vishnuprabu Durairajpandian, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Esthermary Selvam, Srivani Seetharaman
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is endemic in India and other developing countries, causing major public health problems with high morbidity and mortality. The resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) towards commonly prescribed antimicrobials is increasing in developing countries. However, there have been several reports of the therapeutic failure of fluoroquinolones in patients with Salmonella infection. Resistance to quinolones/ fluoroquinolones commonly arises due to target site mutation...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Soumya Soman, J G Ray
Biological approach to synthesis of metal nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract is a highly relevant and recent theme in nanotechnological research. Phytosynthesized AgNPs have better inhibitory and antimicrobial effects compared to aqueous leaf extract and silver nitrate. In the present investigation crystalline silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with size of 10nm have been successfully synthesized using aqueous leaf extract (AQLE) of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill., which act as both reducing as well as capping agent...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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