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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#1
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#2
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319869/biofilm-inhibition-formation-of-clinical-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutans-photocatalytic-activity-of-azo-dye-and-gc-ms-analysis-of-leaves-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa
#3
V Sai Saraswathi, Neethu Kamarudheen, K V Bhaskara Rao, K Santhakumar
The investigation was conducted to analyse the bioactive compounds from the leaf extracts of L. speciosa by GC-MS. The extracts were screened for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against potential clinical strains. The bioactive compounds from the leaves of L. speciosa were extracted by soxhlet continuous extraction method and their chemical composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical strain like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303985/pattern-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-of-salmonella-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-islamabad
#4
Azmat Ali, Hafiz Awais Ali, Fazal Hussain Shah, Arslan Zahid, Hina Aslam, Benazir Javed
OBJECTIVE: To see the pattern of antimicrobial drug resistance among Salmonella serovars. METHODS: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted at Khan Research Laboratories Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May 2012 to December 2014. All patients presenting with typhoid fever with positive blood culture were included. Age, gender, salmonella serovar and sensitivity to 9 antimicrobial drugs were taken into account. The tested antimicrobial drugs were ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefixime...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303820/characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonellae-during-2014-2015-from-four-centres-across-india-an-icmr-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-network-report
#5
Sushila Dahiya, Priyanka Sharma, Bhavana Kumari, Sangeeta Pandey, Rooma Malik, Neelam Manral, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Pallab Ray, Vikas Gautam, Sujata Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Kamini Walia, Vinod Ohri, Bimal Kumar Das, Seema Sood, Arti Kapil
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to establish 'Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network' in India and to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical isolates to establish a national network across the country for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, nodal centre with clinical isolates of Salmonellae collected from four centres across India, which included Christian Medical College, Vellore; Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303138/importance-of-salmonella-typhi-responsive-cd8-t-cell-immunity-in-a-human-typhoid-fever-challenge-model
#6
Stephanie Fresnay, Monica A McArthur, Laurence S Magder, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Claire S Waddington, Christoph J Blohmke, Brian Angus, Myron M Levine, Andrew J Pollard, Marcelo B Sztein
Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we report that high levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T cells at baseline significantly correlate with an increased risk of disease in humans challenged with a high dose (~10(4) CFU) wild-type S. Typhi. Typhoid fever development was associated with higher multifunctional S...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282600/determination-of-free-polysaccharide-in-vi-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-typhoid-fever
#7
C Giannelli, E Cappelletti, R Di Benedetto, F Pippi, M Arcuri, V Di Cioccio, L B Martin, A Saul, F Micoli
Glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi capsular polysaccharide directed against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are licensed or in development against typhoid fever, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Quantification of free polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines is an important quality control for release, to monitor vaccine stability and to ensure appropriate immune response. However, we found that existing separation methods based on size are not appropriate as free Vi non-specifically binds to unconjugated and conjugated protein...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280021/whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing-of-cephalosporin-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#8
Camilla Rodrigues, Arti Kapil, Anita Sharma, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Gagandeep Kang
Typhoid is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains isolated from bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital. The sequence data indicate genomes of ~4.5 Mb for all isolates, with one plasmid in each.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270274/crispr-cas-system-presents-multiple-transcriptional-units-including-antisense-rnas-that-are-expressed-in-minimal-medium-and-upregulated-by-ph-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#9
Liliana Medina-Aparicio, Javier E Rebollar-Flores, América A Beltrán-Luviano, Alejandra Vázquez, Rosa M Gutiérrez-Ríos, Leticia Olvera, Edmundo Calva, Ismael Hernández-Lucas
The CRISPR-Cas system is involved in bacterial immunity, virulence, gene regulation, biofilm formation and sporulation. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, this system consists of five transcriptional units including antisense RNAs. It was determined that these genetic elements are expressed in minimal medium and are up-regulated by pH. In addition, a transcriptional characterization of cas3 and ascse2-1 is included herein.
February 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268075/vaccination-of-active-component-us-military-personnel-against-salmonella-typhi
#10
Chad K Porter, Tia Sorrell, Indrani Mitra, Mark S Riddle
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Typhi. We describe the use of S. Typhi vaccination in this population and the acute reactogenicity profile of these vaccines. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and vaccination identified between 1998 and 2011 from vaccination codes...
March 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261270/cooccurrence-of-metastatic-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-and-salmonella-induced-neck-abscess-in-a-cervical-lymph-node
#11
Jae-Myung Kim, Ju-Yeon Kim, Eun Jung Jung, Eun Jin Song, Dong Chul Kim, Chi-Young Jeong, Young-Tae Ju, Young-Joon Lee, Soon-Chan Hong, Sang-Kyung Choi, Woo-Song Ha
Cervical lymph node metastasis is common in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Salmonella species are rarely reported as causative agents in focal infections of the head and neck. The cooccurrence of lymph node metastasis from PTC and a bacterial infection is rare. This report describes a 76-year-old woman with a cervical lymph node metastasis from PTC and Salmonella infection of the same lymph node. The patient presented with painful swelling in her left lateral neck region for 15 days, and neck ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a cystic mass along left levels II-IV...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260765/comparison-of-molecular-detection-method-nested-polymerase-chain-reaction-with-blood-culture-and-paired-widal-test-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-typhoid-fever
#12
S Khan, R A Miah, S Pal, S Khatun, N Fatema, R R Roy, C R Naheen
Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Blood culture & serological tests (specially Widal test) which are invariably done in Bangladesh for typhoid fever diagnosis give unacceptable levels of false negative & false positive results respectively. This cross sectional study was done at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from March 2013 to February 2014. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-based technique (which has 100% specificity for Salmonella Typhi) was compared with blood culture and widal test among 80 clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256469/epidemiological-investigation-of-an-outbreak-of-typhoid-fever-in-jorhat-town-of-assam-india
#13
Jashbeer Singh Roy, Lahari Saikia, Mithu Medhi, Dipak Tassa
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a global health problem and is also endemic in India. An outbreak of fever occurred in January 2014 in Jorhat Town in Assam, India. Here we report the results of an investigation done to find out the aetiology and source of the outbreak. METHODS: The affected areas were visited on January 23, 2014 by a team of Jorhat district Integrated Disease Surveillance Project personnel. A total of 13 blood samples from patients with fever as first symptom and six water samples were collected from the affected areas...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254988/draft-genome-sequence-of-salmonellaenterica-serovar-typhi-imr_tp298-15-a-strain-with-intermediate-susceptibility-to-ciprofloxacin-isolated-from-a-typhoid-outbreak
#14
Norazah Ahmad, Shirley Yi Fen Hii, Rohaidah Hashim, Rahizan Issa
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin is increasingly being reported globally. An outbreak caused by Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility has not been reported before in Malaysia. We present here the annotated draft genome of a Salmonella Typhi strain involved in a typhoid outbreak.
March 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245965/prevalence-serotyping-and-antimicrobials-resistance-mechanism-of-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-clinical-and-environmental-samples-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Mohamed A El-Tayeb, Abdelnasser S S Ibrahim, Ali A Al-Salamah, Khalid S Almaary, Yahya B Elbadawi
Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39...
February 14, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213043/emerging-insights-into-the-biology-of-typhoid-toxin
#16
REVIEW
Casey C Fowler, Shu-Jung Chang, Xiang Gao, Tobias Geiger, Gabrielle Stack, Jorge E Galán
Typhoid toxin is a unique A2B5 exotoxin and an important virulence factor for Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. In the decade since its initial discovery, great strides have been made in deciphering the unusual biological program of this toxin, which is fundamentally different from related toxins in many ways. Purified typhoid toxin administered to laboratory animals causes many of the symptoms of typhoid fever, suggesting that typhoid toxin is a central factor in this disease. Further advances in understanding the biology of this toxin will help guide the development of badly needed diagnostics and therapeutic interventions that target this toxin to detect, prevent or treat typhoid fever...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203469/salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-bacteremia-complicating-pregnancy-in-the-third-trimester
#17
George F Guirguis, Krunal Patel, Lisa Gittens-Williams, Joseph J Apuzzio, Kristina Martimucci, Shauna F Williams
Background. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an anaerobic gram-negative enteric rod that causes infection when contaminated food or water is ingested and may cause illness in pregnancy. Case. This is a patient who presented at 31 weeks' gestation with abdominal pain and fever and was diagnosed with S. Typhi bacteremia. Conclusion. S. Typhi should be considered in febrile patients with recent travel presenting with abdominal discomfort with or without elevated liver enzymes.
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202086/differential-roles-for-pathogenicity-islands-spi-13-and-spi-8-in-the-interaction-of-salmonella-enteritidis-and-salmonella-typhi-with-murine-and-human-macrophages
#18
Rodrigo A Espinoza, Cecilia A Silva-Valenzuela, Fernando A Amaya, Ítalo M Urrutia, Inés Contreras, Carlos A Santiviago
BACKGROUND: Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-13 is conserved in many serovars of S. enterica, including S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Gallinarum. However, it is absent in typhoid serovars such as S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, which carry SPI-8 at the same genomic location. Because the interaction with macrophages is a critical step in Salmonella pathogenicity, in this study we investigated the role played by SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi with cultured murine (RAW264...
February 15, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199144/attachment-of-13-types-of-foodborne-bacteria-to-jalape%C3%A3-o-and-serrano-peppers-and-antibacterial-effect-of-roselle-calyx-extracts-sodium-hypochlorite-colloidal-silver-and-acetic-acid-against-these-foodborne-bacteria-on-peppers
#19
Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Reyna N Falfan-Cortes, María L Rodríguez-Marín, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Javier Castro-Rosas
Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193398/incidence-of-invasive-salmonella-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicentre-population-based-surveillance-study
#20
Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Eric D Mintz, Joel M Montgomery, Aissatou Ahmet Niang, Chelsea Nichols, Beatrice Olack, Gi Deok Pak, Ursula Panzner, Jin Kyung Park, Se Eun Park, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Tiana Mirana Raminosoa, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe, Emmanuel Sampo, Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt, Amy Gassama Sow, Nimako Sarpong, Hye Jin Seo, Arvinda Sooka, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Adama Tall, Mekonnen Teferi, Kamala Thriemer, Michelle R Warren, Biruk Yeshitela, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
BACKGROUND: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. METHODS: We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites)...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
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