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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213043/emerging-insights-into-the-biology-of-typhoid-toxin
#1
REVIEW
Casey C Fowler, Shu-Jung Chang, Xiang Gao, Tobias Geiger, Gabrielle Stack, Jorge E Galán
Typhoid toxin is a unique A2B5 exotoxin and an important virulence factor for Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. In the decade since its initial discovery, great strides have been made in deciphering the unusual biological program of this toxin, which is fundamentally different from related toxins in many ways. Purified typhoid toxin administered to laboratory animals causes many of the symptoms of typhoid fever, suggesting that typhoid toxin is a central factor in this disease. Further advances in understanding the biology of this toxin will help guide the development of badly needed diagnostics and therapeutic interventions that target this toxin to detect, prevent or treat typhoid fever...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203469/salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-bacteremia-complicating-pregnancy-in-the-third-trimester
#2
George F Guirguis, Krunal Patel, Lisa Gittens-Williams, Joseph J Apuzzio, Kristina Martimucci, Shauna F Williams
Background. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an anaerobic gram-negative enteric rod that causes infection when contaminated food or water is ingested and may cause illness in pregnancy. Case. This is a patient who presented at 31 weeks' gestation with abdominal pain and fever and was diagnosed with S. Typhi bacteremia. Conclusion. S. Typhi should be considered in febrile patients with recent travel presenting with abdominal discomfort with or without elevated liver enzymes.
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202086/differential-roles-for-pathogenicity-islands-spi-13-and-spi-8-in-the-interaction-of-salmonella-enteritidis-and-salmonella-typhi-with-murine-and-human-macrophages
#3
Rodrigo A Espinoza, Cecilia A Silva-Valenzuela, Fernando A Amaya, Ítalo M Urrutia, Inés Contreras, Carlos A Santiviago
BACKGROUND: Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-13 is conserved in many serovars of S. enterica, including S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Gallinarum. However, it is absent in typhoid serovars such as S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, which carry SPI-8 at the same genomic location. Because the interaction with macrophages is a critical step in Salmonella pathogenicity, in this study we investigated the role played by SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi with cultured murine (RAW264...
February 15, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199144/attachment-of-13-types-of-foodborne-bacteria-to-jalape%C3%A3-o-and-serrano-peppers-and-antibacterial-effect-of-roselle-calyx-extracts-sodium-hypochlorite-colloidal-silver-and-acetic-acid-against-these-foodborne-bacteria-on-peppers
#4
Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Reyna N Falfan-Cortes, María L Rodríguez-Marín, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Javier Castro-Rosas
Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193398/incidence-of-invasive-salmonella-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicentre-population-based-surveillance-study
#5
Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Eric D Mintz, Joel M Montgomery, Aissatou Ahmet Niang, Chelsea Nichols, Beatrice Olack, Gi Deok Pak, Ursula Panzner, Jin Kyung Park, Se Eun Park, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Tiana Mirana Raminosoa, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe, Emmanuel Sampo, Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt, Amy Gassama Sow, Nimako Sarpong, Hye Jin Seo, Arvinda Sooka, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Adama Tall, Mekonnen Teferi, Kamala Thriemer, Michelle R Warren, Biruk Yeshitela, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
BACKGROUND: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. METHODS: We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites)...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177798/the-mals-5-utr-regulates-hisg-a-keygene-in-the-histidine-biosynthetic-pathway-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#6
Ying Zhang, Dongmei Yan, Lin Xia, Xin Zhao, George Osei-Adjei, Shungao Xu, Xiumei Sheng, Xinxiang Huang
Bacterial noncoding RNAs regulate diverse cellular processes, including virulence and environmental fitness. The malS-5'UTR was identified as a regulatory ncRNA that increases the invasive capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. An IntaRNA search suggested base pairing between malS-5'UTR and hisG mRNA, a key gene in the histidine biosynthetic pathway. Overexpression of malS-5'UTR markly reduced bacterial growth in minimal medium without histidine. Overexpression of malS-5'UTR increased mRNA from his operon genes, independently of the bax gene, and decreased HisG protein in S...
December 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167670/salmonella-typhi-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-modifications-impact-on-serum-resistance-and-antibody-recognition
#7
Erica Kintz, Christian Heiss, Ian Black, Nicholas Donohue, Naj Brown, Mark R Davies, Parastoo Azadi, Stephen Baker, Paul M Kaye, Marjan van der Woude
Salmonella Typhi is a human restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. The composition of the O-antigen can be modified by activity of glycosyltransferase (gtr) operons acquired by horizontal gene transfer...
February 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160653/monitoring-of-microbial-cell-viability-using-nanostructured-electrodes-modified-with-graphene-alumina-nanocomposite
#8
Rabeay Y A Hassan, Moataz M Mekawy, Pankaj Ramnani, Ashok Mulchandani
Microbial infections are rapidly increasing; however most of the existing microbiological and molecular detection methods are time consuming and/or cannot differentiate between the viable and dead cells which may overestimate the risk of infections. Therefore, a bioelectrochemical sensing platform with a high potential to the microbial-electrode interactions was designed based on decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet with alumina (Al2O3) nanocrystals. GO-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized using self-assembly of GO and Al2O3 and characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV)...
January 26, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144154/occurrence-of-extended-spectrum-and-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-multiple-drug-resistant-salmonella-isolates-from-clinical-samples-in-lagos-nigeria
#9
K O Akinyemi, Bamidele Abiodun Iwalokun, Akeeb O Bola Oyefolu, C O Fakorede
PURPOSE: Salmonella spp. are important foodborne pathogens exhibiting increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to broad-spectrum β-lactams, mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase enzymes is fast spreading and has had negative impacts on the clinical outcomes, particularly on third-generation cephalosporins. This study investigated the carriage of AmpC gene among multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp. from Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: Forty Salmonella spp...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137507/construction-and-evaluation-of-an-edwardsiella-tarda-dna-vaccine-encoding-outer-membrane-protein-c
#10
Fuguo Liu, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Outer membrane protein C is a porin that resides in the outer membrane, and it has been identified as an antigenic protein in many bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda. In the present work, we aimed at evaluating the immune protective potential of E. tarda OmpC as a DNA vaccine. For this purpose, a recombinant DNA plasmid encoding OmpC (pCG-OmpC) gene was constructed and its vaccine potential was analyzed in a flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) model...
January 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134792/from-immunologically-archaic-to-neoteric-glycovaccines
#11
REVIEW
Marco Cavallari, Gennaro De Libero
Polysaccharides (PS) are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory...
January 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134744/non-typhoidal-salmonella-osteomyelitis-in-immunocompetent-children-without-hemoglobinopathies-a-case-series-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
Alicia Gill, Martha Muller, David Pavlik, Jonathan Eldredge, Jennifer Johnston, Megan Eickman, Walter Dehority
Salmonella osteomyelitis is well-described in children with hemoglobinopathies, particularly infection with Salmonella typhi. To characterize non-typhoidal osteomyelitis in otherwise healthy children without hemoglobinopathies, we performed a retrospective review of children discharged from our institution with this condition, supplemented with a systematic literature review. Among the 46 subjects identified, common risk factors for Salmonella infection were frequently absent and complications were common.
January 26, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107379/experimental-and-in-silico-investigation-of-anti-microbial-activity-of-1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane-derivatives-of-thiomorpholine-piperazine-and-morpholine
#13
Charles O Nwuche, Oguejiofo T Ujam, Akachukwu Ibezim, Ifeoma B Ujam
The Antibiogram properties of 1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane derivatives of thiomorpholine (CTC), piperazine (CPC) and morpholine (CMC) were evaluated by the approved agar well diffusion, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in silico techniques. A total of fourteen microbial cultures consisting of ten bacteria and four yeast strains were used in the biological study while affinity of the compounds for DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target, was investigated by docking method. Results indicate that both thiomorpholine and piperazine had zero activity against the Gram negative organisms tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104185/causes-and-outcomes-of-sepsis-in-southeast-asia-a-multinational-multicentre-cross-sectional-study
#14
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of pathogens that cause sepsis would aid management and antimicrobial selection. In this study, we aimed to identify the causative pathogens of sepsis in southeast Asia. METHODS: In this multinational multicentre cross-sectional study of community-acquired sepsis and severe sepsis, we prospectively recruited children (age ≥30 days and <18 years) and adults (age ≥18 years) at 13 public hospitals in Indonesia (n=3), Thailand (n=4), and Vietnam (n=6)...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090278/isolation-and-identification-of-phyllospheric-bacteria-possessing-antimicrobial-activity-from-astragalus-obtusifolius-prosopis-juliflora-xanthium-strumarium-and-hippocrepis-unisiliqousa
#15
Zohreh Mazinani, Marzieh Zamani, Soroush Sardari
BACKGROUND: The widespread utilization of antimicrobial compounds has caused emergence of resistant microorganisms in the world. Hence, the research to probe the products with antimicrobial features has led to finding natural habitats and discovering new pharmaceutical products. METHODS: In this study, an attempt was made to explore the niche of novel habitat to isolate pyllospheric bacteria from the above ground parts (stems and leaves) of Astragalus obtusifolius, Prosopis juliflora, Xanthium strumarium, and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa to evaluate their antimicrobial features...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087987/nmr-line-fitting-quantification-of-polysaccharide-n-acylurea-based-modification-in-glycoconjugates-of-salmonella-typhi-vi-polysaccharide
#16
Raine Garrido, Jean Pierre Soubal, Leonid Torres, Ubel Ramirez, Vicente Vérez
The polysaccharides modification via carbodiimide reaction is one of most applied method for obtaining conjugated vaccines against Salmonella enterica. However, N-acylurea carbodiimide adduct generated in the process is a critical impurity in carbohydrate-based vaccines. A quantitative NMR method was developed for assessing the N-acylurea carbodiimide adduct impurity. The procedure was based on line-fitting facilities for processing the NMR signals on complex spectra. The method showed good linearity, accuracy and precision under inter-operator variation (relative standard deviation <5%)...
January 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076882/characterization-of-salmonella-typhi-ompc-and-ompf-porins-engineered-with-hiv-gp41-epitope-on-the-surface-loops
#17
Madhuranayaki Thulasingam, Subha Damodharan, Gopal Madhana Vigneshwari, Eswari P J Pandaranayaka, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Ramakrishnan Usha, Sankaran Krishnaswamy
Porins form trimers in the outer membrane and help transport nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane. Porin loops are suitable candidates as display systems due to their high immunogenicity and presentation at the bacterial cell surface. In this study, Salmonella typhi porins (OmpC and OmpF) engineered with the Kennedy peptide from gp41 of HIV were characterised. The chimeric OmpC carrying the Kennedy peptide in loop7 did not trimerise, whereas the chimeric OmpF with the epitope in loop5 formed trimers and also was recognised by the antibodies in the HIV patient serum...
January 11, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070309/bacterial-etiology-of-bloodstream-infections-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-dhaka-bangladesh-2005-2014
#18
Dilruba Ahmed, Md Ausrafuggaman Nahid, Abdullah Bashar Sami, Farhana Halim, Nasrin Akter, Tuhin Sadique, Md Sohel Rana, Md Shahriar Bin Elahi, Md Mahbubur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections due to bacterial pathogens are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In these countries, most patients are treated empirically based on their clinical symptoms. Therefore, up to date etiological data for major pathogens causing bloodstream infections may play a positive role in better healthcare management. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial pathogens causing major bloodstream infections in Dhaka, Bangladesh and determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063328/long-term-persistence-of-inflammation-in-children-vaccinated-with-salmonella-conjugate-vaccine-is-associated-with-augmented-th9-th17-cytokine
#19
Chinnasamy Balaji, Vijayakumar Kevinkumar, Vivekanandhan Aravindhan
Vaccine induced serum cytokines not only serves as a biomarker of immunity but also serves as a reliable measure of inflammation. Long term persistence of inflammation can lead to metabolic derangement. Towards this end, in the present study, we measured levels of cytokines along with hormones (insulin, leptin and adiponectin) in children who have been vaccinated with Salmonella typhi Vi conjugate vaccine, 30months after vaccination. Vaccinated children showed a unique cytokine profile with suppressed Th1-Th2 and increased Th9-Th17 cytokines indicating immune polarization which was associated with decreased serum adiponectin (but not insulin or leptin) levels...
January 4, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062286/qseb-mediates-biofilm-formation-and-invasion-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#20
Ying Ji, Wenliang Li, Ying Zhang, Long Chen, Yiquan Zhang, Xueming Zheng, Xinxiang Huang, Bin Ni
QseB is a response regulator of the QseBC two-component system (TCS) which is associated with quorum sensing and functions as a global regulator of flagella, biofilm formation, and virulence. The function of QseB and its interaction with QseC has been the subject of study in some organisms, however, little work was done in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of QseB on biofilm formation and virulence in S. Typhi. It showed that the biofilm formation ability of qseC mutant was limited as compared to the wild type strain...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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