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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920299/the-type-iii-secretion-system-effector-sptp-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#1
Rebecca Johnson, Alexander Byrne, Cedric N Berger, Elizabeth Klemm, Valerie F Crepin, Gordon Dougan, Gad Frankel
: Salmonella enterica serovars causes gastroenteritis or typhoid fever in humans, with virulence depending on the action of two type III secretion systems (SPI-1 and SPI-2). SptP is a Salmonella SPI-1 effector, involved in mediating recovery of the host cytoskeleton post-infection. SptP requires a chaperone, SicP, for stability and secretion. SptP has 94% identity between S Typhimurium and S Typhi; direct comparison of the protein sequences revealed that S Typhi SptP has numerous amino acid changes within its chaperone-binding domain...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919287/chemical-profiling-antimicrobial-and-insecticidal-evaluations-of-polygonum-hydropiper-l
#2
Muhammad Ayaz, Muhammad Junaid, Farhat Ullah, Abdul Sadiq, Muhammad Ovais, Waqar Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad, Anwar Zeb
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat diseases is based on the discovery of potent drugs for the treatment of these challenging diseases. Traditional medicines are one of the major sources for the discovery of safe, effective and economical drug candidates. In order to validate its antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal potentials with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time Polygonum hydropiper against pathogenic bacterial, fungal strains and a variety of insects...
December 5, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916384/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates-from-kolkata-india-over-a-15-years-period-1998-2012
#3
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907208/interaction-between-salmonella-and-schistosomiasis-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Amber Hsiao, Trevor Toy, Hye Jin Seo, Florian Marks
The interaction between schistosomiasis and Salmonella is a particularly important issue in Africa, where dual infection by the parasite and the bacterium are likely common. In this review, the ways in which schistosomiasis affects human biology as it relates to Salmonella are described. Those who are infected by both organisms experience reduced immunological functioning, exhibit irreversible organ damage due to prolonged schistosomiasis infection, and become latent carriers of Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi and S...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906139/myxobacteria-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-impregnation-in-wrapping-paper-used-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-apples
#5
Swati Bhople, Swapnil Gaikwad, Swapna Deshmukh, Shital Bonde, Aniket Gade, Sanjib Sen, Anna Brezinska, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
The authors report Myxobacteria virescens (M. virescens) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-33591), Salmonella typhi (ATCC-51812), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC-14948), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-4030) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-4673). The organism exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics showed remarkable sensitivity, when used in combination of antibiotics and AgNPs. Antimicrobial property of AgNPs is playing a significant role in medicine and food storage...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902389/antimicrobial-susceptibility-to-azithromycin-among-salmonella-enterica-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-isolates-from-india
#6
Richa Misra, Kashi N Prasad
Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity is a significant therapeutic problem. Guidelines for azithromycin disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by CLSI in 2015.We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from blood stream infections from January 2013 to December 2015...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894983/a-case-of-clinical-and-microbiological-failure-of-azithromycin-therapy-in-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-despite-low-azithromycin-mic
#7
Abi Manesh, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar, Priscilla Rupali
Typhoid fever remains a serious problem in many developing countries. Due to resistance to multiple first line drugs, azithromycin has evolved as an important drug in the treatment of Typhoid. While therapy with azithromycin is highly effective, no clinically validated mean inhibitory concentration (MIC) break points or disc diffusion cutoff guidelines are available so far. We describe an Indian adult with clinical and microbiological failure to azithromycin despite low azithromycin MIC.
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894775/synthesis-characterization-and-biological-studies-of-schiff-bases-derived-from-heterocyclic-moiety
#8
Angamaly Antony Shanty, Jessica Elizabeth Philip, Eeettinilkunnathil Jose Sneha, Maliyeckal R Prathapachandra Kurup, Sreedharannair Balachandran, Puzhavoorparambil Velayudhan Mohanan
Some new Schiff bases (H1-H7) have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-methylphenol, 2-amino benzimidazole with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-VIS, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds has been tested against Salmonella typhi, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus pumills, Escherichia coli, Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas, Clostridium and Klebsilla pneumonia by disk diffusion method...
November 21, 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881119/antibacterial-and-antifungal-potentials-of-the-solvents-extracts-from-eryngium-caeruleum-notholirion-thomsonianum-and-allium-consanguineum
#9
Abdul Sadiq, Sadiq Ahmad, Rahmat Ali, Fawad Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad, Anwar Zeb, Muhammad Ayaz, Farhat Ullah, Abu Nasar Siddique
BACKGROUND: Herbal medicines have long been used for various ailments in various societies and natural bioactive compounds are gaining more and more importance due to various factors. In this context, three plant species i.e., Eryngium caeruleum, Notholirion thomsonianum and Allium consanguineum have been aimed for the scientific verification of their purported traditional uses against various infectious diseases. METHODS: In this study, three plants were assayed for antibacterial and antifungal potentials...
November 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869515/vi-capsular-polysaccharide-synthesis-virulence-and-application
#10
Xiaomei Hu, Zhijin Chen, Kun Xiong, Jing Wang, Xiancai Rao, Yanguang Cong
Vi capsular polysaccharide, a linear homopolymer of α-1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronate, is characteristically produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The Vi capsule covers the surface of the producing bacteria and serves as an virulence factor via inhibition of complement-mediated killing and promoting resistance against phagocytosis. Furthermore, Vi also represents a predominant protective antigen and plays a key role in the development of vaccines against typhoid fever. Herein, we reviewed the latest advances associated with the Vi polysaccharide, from its synthesis and transport within bacterial cells, mechanisms involved in virulence, immunological characteristics, and applications in vaccine, as well as its purification and detection methods...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832592/receptor-mediated-sorting-of-typhoid-toxin-during-its-export-from-salmonella-typhi-infected-cells
#11
Shu-Jung Chang, Jeongmin Song, Jorge E Galán
Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. Typhoid toxin is secreted into the lumen of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), after which it is packaged into vesicle carrier intermediates and released extracellularly through incompletely understood mechanisms. Following export, the toxin targets cells by interacting with human-specific Neu5Ac-terminated glycan receptors. We show that typhoid toxin is sorted from the SCV into vesicle carrier intermediates via interactions of its B subunit, PltB, with specific lumenal sialylated glycan packaging receptors...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817242/nanoparticle-fullerene-c60-demonstrated-stable-binding-with-antibacterial-potential-towards-probable-targets-of-drug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-a-computational-perspective-and-in-vitro-investigation
#12
Sinosh Skariyachan, Asma Parveen, Shruti Garka
Salmonella typhi, a Gram negative bacterium, has become multidrug resistant (MDR) to wide classes of antibacterials which necessitate an alarming precaution. This study focuses on the binding potential and therapeutic insight of Nano-Fullerene C60 towards virulent targets of Salmonella typhi by computational prediction and preliminary in vitro assays. The clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi were collected and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed. The drug targets of pathogen were selected by rigorous literature survey and gene network analysis by various metabolic network resources...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809955/live-attenuated-human-salmonella-vaccine-candidates-tracking-the-pathogen-in-natural-infection-and-stimulation-of-host-immunity
#13
James E Galen, Amanda D Buskirk, Sharon M Tennant, Marcela F Pasetti
Salmonellosis, caused by members of the genus Salmonella, is responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, focusing on human Salmonella infections. We will trace the path of Salmonella through the body, including host entry sites, tissues and organs affected, and mechanisms involved in both pathogenesis and stimulation of host immunity. Careful consideration of the natural progression of disease provides an important context in which attenuated live oral vaccines can be rationally designed and developed...
November 2016: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803169/development-of-a-live-attenuated-bivalent-oral-vaccine-against-shigella-sonnei-shigellosis-and-typhoid-fever
#14
Yun Wu, Sumana Chakravarty, Minglin Li, Tint T Wai, Stephen L Hoffman, B Kim Lee Sim
Shigella sonnei (Ss) and Salmonella Typhi cause significant morbidity and mortality. We exploited the safety record of the oral, attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (Ty21a) by utilizing it as a vector to develop a bivalent oral vaccine to protect against Ss shigellosis and typhoid fever. We recombineered the Ss form I O-antigen gene cluster into the Ty21a chromosome to create Ty21a-Ss, which stably expresses Ss form I O-antigen. To enhance survivability in the acid environment of the stomach, we created an acid resistant strain, Ty21a-AR-Ss, by inserting Shigella glutaminase-glutamate decarboxylase systems co-expressed with Ss form I O-antigen gene...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797841/cotrimoxazole-treats-fluoroquinolone-resistant-salmonella-typhi-h58-infection
#15
Manan Karki, Sarbagya Pandit, Stephen Baker, Buddha Basnyat
A woman aged 20 years presented with fever and no localising signs. She was treated with cotrimoxazole and the subsequent blood culture was positive for Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), which was resistant to fluoroquinolones but susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Genotyping identified an FQ-R subclade of H58 S. typhi Fever clearance time was 4 days after starting the antibiotics, and no relapses were noted on 2 months of follow-up. This inexpensive, well-known and easily available antimicrobial could be suitably redeployed for fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric fever in South Asia...
October 26, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797598/the-unrecognized-burden-of-typhoid-fever
#16
Stephen K Obaro, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Eric Daniel Mintz
Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions...
November 16, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780232/typhoid-fever-in-south-africa-in-an-endemic-hiv-setting
#17
Karen H Keddy, Arvinda Sooka, Anthony M Smith, Alfred Musekiwa, Nomsa P Tau, Keith P Klugman, Frederick J Angulo
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779154/salmonella-pyomyositis-with-concurrent-sacroiliac-osteomyelitis-presenting-as-piriformis-syndrome-a-rare-case
#18
P S Phadke, A R Gandhi, S A More, R P Joshirao
A-21-year old male admitted with fever and piriformis syndrome, typically associated with gluteal region pain radiating down the thigh, was evaluated and found to have pyomyositis involving piriformis and osteomyelitis with sacroiliac joint affection on radiological imaging. Salmonella serotype typhi was isolated from blood culture. He was treated with intravenous Ceftriaxone for 6 weeks with signs of recovery documented clinically as well as on imaging studies. Salmonella pyomyositis with osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient with no previous hematological or endocrine disorder makes this case an unusual presentation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766891/antimicrobial-metal-based-thiophene-derived-compounds
#19
Shakeela Yasmeen, Sajjad Hussain Sumrra, Muhammad Safwan Akram, Zahid H Chohan
A novel series of thiophene derived Schiff bases and their transition metal- [Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II)] based compounds are reported. The Schiff bases act as tridentate ligands toward metal ions via azomethine-N, deprotonated-N of ammine substituents and S-atom of thienyl moiety. The synthesized ligands along with their metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal pathogens (Trichophytonlongifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765980/assessment-of-total-polyphenols-antioxidants-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-aonla-varieties
#20
Parveen Kumari, B S Khatkar
Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and antimicrobial activities of methanolic, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of five different varieties of aonla (Emblica officinalis) fruits as well their powders were evaluated. Total polyphenolic content in fresh aonla fruit extracts varied from 70.6 to 159.4 mg GAE/g and their EC 50 (effective concentration) values for antioxidant activity ranged from 46.72 to 359.7 µg/ml. Significant varietal difference were observed in antioxidant activity of the extracts of fresh aonla fruit and powder...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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