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Salmonella typhi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640809/development-of-elisas-for-diagnosis-of-acute-typhoid-fever-in-nigerian-children
#1
Jiin Felgner, Aarti Jain, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Algis Jasinskas, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Joseph M Vinetz, Fabio Miyajima, Munir Pirmohamed, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Dominic Umoru, Binta Wudil Jibir, Safiya Gambo, Kudirat Olateju, Philip L Felgner, Stephen Obaro, D Huw Davies
Improved serodiagnostic tests for typhoid fever (TF) are needed for surveillance, to facilitate patient management, curb antibiotic resistance, and inform public health programs. To address this need, IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hemolysin E (t1477) protein were conducted on 86 Nigerian pediatric TF and 29 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cases, 178 culture-negative febrile cases, 28 "other" (i.e., non-Salmonella) pediatric infections, and 48 healthy Nigerian children...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637001/a-novel-method-to-generate-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-ghosts-exploiting-the-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-system
#2
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630688/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-from-blood-cultures-results-from-a-laboratory-based-nationwide-surveillance-in-ghana
#3
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630073/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-lpf-and-stg-fimbriae-in-salmonella-interactions-with-enterocytes-and-m-cells
#4
Amanda M Gonzales, Shyra Wilde, Kenneth L Roland
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes the systemic disease typhoid fever. After ingestion, it adheres to and invades the host epithelium while evading the host innate immune response, causing little if any inflammation. Conversely, S Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans and thrives in the inflamed gut. Upon entering the host, S Typhimurium preferentially colonizes Peyer's patches, a lymphoid organ in which microfold cells (M cells) overlay an arrangement of B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629407/antibacterial-activity-of-crude-extracts-of-some-south-african-medicinal-plants-against-multidrug-resistant-etiological-agents-of-diarrhoea
#5
Mary A Bisi-Johnson, Chikwelu L Obi, Babatunde B Samuel, Jacobus N Eloff, Anthony I Okoh
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622429/synthesis-and-antigenic-evaluation-of-oligosaccharide-mimics-of-vi-antigen-from-salmonella-typhi
#6
Xinshan Ye, Gao-Lan Zhang, Lin Yang, Jingjing Zhu
Salmonella typhi is responsible for typhoid fever, which is a serious health threat in developing countries. As a virulent factor of Salmonella typhi, the purified Vi polysaccharide (Vi PS) has become an effective vaccine to combat typhoid fever. The chemical synthesis can provide homogeneous and well-defined molecules for the development of Vi-based vaccines. However, the synthesis of Vi oligosaccharides in high yields and with exclusive α-stereoselectivities remains very challenging. In this paper, a series of Vi pseudooligosaccharides, including pseudo tetra-, hexa-, and octa-saccharides were efficiently synthesized...
June 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621711/indigenous-probiotic-lactobacillus-isolates-presenting-antibiotic-like-activity-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria
#7
Debashis Halder, Manisha Mandal, Shiv Sekhar Chatterjee, Nishith Kumar Pal, Shyamapada Mandal
BACKGROUND: Indigenous lactic acid bacteria are well known probiotics having antibacterial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to characterize the curd lactobacilli for their probiotic potentiality and antagonistic activity against clinical bacteria. METHODS: Four curd samples were processed microbiologically for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB strains obtained were identified by conventional methods: cultural aspect, gram-staining, biochemical and sugar fermentation tests...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617661/molecular-dynamics-approach-to-probe-the-antigenicity-of-pagn-an-outer-membrane-protein-of-salmonella-typhi
#8
Nabajyoti Goswami, Md Iftikar Hussain, Probodh Borah
PagN is a highly immunogenic 27-kDa outer membrane adhesin present in Salmonella Typhi. It plays a major role in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever and has emerged as a strong vaccine candidate. In this report, we predict the three dimensional structure of PagN and describe the conformational dynamics associated with its 4 extracellular loops based on two 100-ns molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K and 310 K. The formation and deformation of the secondary structures on these loops were also investigated during the simulations which revealed loops L1 and L2 to be highly flexible, whereas the relative flexibility of loops L3 and L4 was minimal...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611744/rnaseq-reveals-complex-response-of-campylobacter-jejuni-to-ovine-bile-and-in-vivo-gallbladder-environment
#9
Amanda J Kreuder, Jennifer A Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J Plummer
Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606647/multiplex-quantification-of-escherichia-coli-salmonella-typhi-and-vibrio-cholera-with-three-dna-targets-in-single-reaction-assay
#10
Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi, Jagadish R Naidu, Bhaskar Matcha
Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholera harmful pathogens, which causes various diseases in humans. Rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection is important for patient management and appropriate therapy during the early phase of the bacteria-induced disease. Among the existing techniques for identifying pathogens were less sensitive and time-consuming processes. In the present study total, 48 clinical 31 blood and 17 urine samples of patients suspected with the infections were collected from SVRR Hospital and used to detect the pathogens...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602988/characterization-of-hypericum-perforatum-polysaccharides-with-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-optimization-based-statistical-modeling
#11
Marzieh Heydarian, Hossein Jooyandeh, Behzad Nasehi, Mohammad Noshad
In this study, the extracting parameters of crude polysaccharides (CPSs) from the Hypericum perforatum (HP) including extraction time (ETi, 60-180min), extraction temperature (ETe, 60-90°C), and the water/solid ratio (W/S, 10-30 was optimized by using three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM) based on the single-factor experiments. The optimal extraction conditions were as follow: ETi 117.5min, ETe 74.28°C, and W/S 20.3:1. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 6...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602673/typhoid-spondylodiscitis-mimicking-tuberculosis-in-a-teenage-girl
#12
Barnini Banerjee, Mridula Madiyal, Pai K Madhava, Manali Agarwal, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
Salmonella Typhi cause a broad spectrum of human illnesses like gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and bacteremia. It has also been recognized as a causative organism of osteomyelitis for more than a century but the incidence appears to be uncommon. Microbiological workup plays important role in the diagnosis of Typhoid spondylodiscitis as most of the time it mimics tuberculosis and misguide the clinician, especially in the developing world. Here, we reported an uncommon case of lumbar spondylodiscitis by Salmonella Typhi in an immunocompetent teenager, with the help of clinical, microbiological and radiological evidence...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600113/non-typhi-salmonella-enterica-urinary-tract-infections
#13
G Mellon, C Delanoe, A L Roux, B Heym, O Dubourg, P Hardy, B Chevallier, C Perronne, E Rouveix, J Salomon
OBJECTIVE: Non-typhi Salmonella enterica urinary tract infections (UTIs) are not frequent and rarely reported in the literature. We aimed to characterize clinical presentations and risk factors for the infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of non-typhi Salmonella enterica strains isolated from urine cytobacteriological examinations (UCBE) collected between January 1, 1996 and October 30, 2014 and analyzed by the microbiology laboratories of the university hospitals of the western part of Île-de-France and of Paris, France...
June 6, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590238/what-were-the-risk-factors-and-trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-for-enteric-fever-in-london-2005-2012
#14
Jayshree Dave, Fiona Warburton, Joanne Freedman, Elizabeth de Pinna, Kathie Grant, Armine Sefton, Emma Crawley-Boevey, Gauri Godbole, Richard Holliman, Sooria Balasegaram
PURPOSE: A study was undertaken to determine the risk factors and trends in antimicrobial resistance for enteric fever. METHODOLOGY: Demographic, antimicrobial susceptibility, typing and epidemiological data were examined for 2005-2012 in patients with enteric fever in London. Single and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: 453 cases with Salmonella enterica subsp...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587762/two-novel-roles-of-buffalo-milk-lactoperoxidase-antibiofilm-agent-and-immunomodulator-against-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-and-listeria-monocytogenes
#15
Likaa Mahdi, Hadeel Musafer, Luma Zwain, Istabreq Salman, Ikbal Al-Joofy, Khetam Rasool, Amal Mussa, Sana'a Al-Kakei, Rasha Al-Oqaili, Shaymaa Al-Alak, Amal Chaloob, Afrah Abdulkareem, Bydaa Hussein, Nada Mahdi, Nehad Taher
The increasing occurrence of multidrug resistant bacteria causing bacteremia infection, constitutes a major health problem, difficult-to-treat bacteremia due to its ability to form biofilm. Buffalo milk lactoperoxidase (BMLpo) is effective and safe to use as bacteriostatic agent. The MIC of BMLpo and amikacin were used to evaluate the antibiofilm activity against resistant L. monocytogenes and S. typhi. Prophylactic effects of BMLpo against L. monocytogenes and S. typhi bacteremia in vivo have been tested and ELISA test used to evaluate serum cytokines...
June 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587199/impact-of-sweet-potato-starch-based-nanocomposite-films-activated-with-thyme-essential-oil-on-the-shelf-life-of-baby-spinach-leaves
#16
Aseel Issa, Salam A Ibrahim, Reza Tahergorabi
Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks linked to fresh produce, such as baby spinach leaves, in the last two decades. More recently, antimicrobial biodegradable packaging systems have been attracting much attention in the food packaging industry as eco-friendly alternatives to conventional plastic packaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibacterial nanocomposite films on inoculated spinach leaves and on the sensory properties of these leaves during eight days of refrigerated storage...
June 3, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577141/detection-of-typhoid-fever-by-diatom-based-optical-biosensor
#17
Viji Selvaraj, Anbazhagi Muthukumar, Ponpandian Nagamony, Viswanathan Chinnuswamy
Surface-modified diatom substrates are employed for the development of immunocomplex-based optical biosensor for diagnosis of typhoid. Biosensor has been prepared by covalent immobilization of Salmonella typhi antibody onto the crosslinked diatom substrates via glutaraldehyde. Photoluminescent (PL) studies revealed good specificity and ability of conjugated diatom substrates to distinguish complementary (S. typhi) and non-complementary (Escherichia coli) antigens. The immunocomplexed biosensor showed detection limit of 10 pg...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574025/patterns-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-salmonellae-isolated-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-india
#18
Preeti Behl, Varsha Gupta, Atul Sachdev, Vishal Guglani, Jagdish Chander
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant Salmonellae have emerged worldwide as also in India. The aim of this study was to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated at a tertiary care hospital in northern India. METHODS: A total of 106 S. enterica serovars isolated from various clinical samples from January 2011 to June 2012 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone was determined both by agar dilution method and E-test for all the isolates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573239/therapeutic-potentials-of-ethanolic-extract-of-leaves-of-holarrhena-floribunda-g-don-dur-and-schinz-apocynaceae
#19
Yao Patrick Hoekou, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Rakiswende Serge Yerbanga, Elom Achoribo, Ollo Da, Wouyo Atakpama, Komlan Batawila
BACKGROUND: Holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the Togolese folk medicine. A previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the Maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. Therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases. METHODS: The antimicrobial test was performed using the agar well-diffusion and the NCCLS broth microdilution methods, while the in vivo antimalarial activity was evaluated following the four-day suppressive test of Peters...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573217/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-potential-of-stem-bark-extract-of-bombax-ceiba-collected-locally-from-south-punjab-area-of-pakistan
#20
Masood-Ur-Rehman, Naveed Akhtar, Rehan Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Ethnic medication systems have been used extensively by humans since their origin. Now a day, in the developing countries these systems are being used due to their effectiveness and affordability. Especially inhabitants of rural areas still rely on these systems as first line of treatment against diseased conditions. Till now, majority of medicines is derived from the natural origin particularly plants owing to their little side effects and cost effectiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present work, we evaluated antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Bombax ceiba stem bark...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
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