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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785477/significance-of-vi-negative-isolates-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#1
Abdul Haque
Typhoid is a major global disease. The causative agent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) has a capsular antigen called Vi antigen which is traditionally considered to be the main cause of virulence. All the current vaccines are based on Vi antigen. However, the realization of the fact that there are S. Typhi strains which lack Vi antigen but still exist naturally and can cause disease has stirred great scientific interest. It is also interesting to note that their relative prevalence is affected by climatic conditions...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768238/one-pot-green-fabrication-of-metallic-silver-nanoscale-materials-using-crescentia-cujete-l-and-assessment-of-their-bactericidal-activity
#2
Seetharaman Prabukumar, Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan, Gnanasekar Sathishkumar, Mani Illaiyaraja, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan
In this study, the leaf extract of an important medicinal plant Crescentia cujete L. (CC) was employed as a green reducing agent to synthesise highly-stable C. cujete silver nanoparticles (CCAgNPs). The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanoparticles was initially observed by a colour change which generates an intense surface plasmon resonance peak at 417 nm using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various optimisation factors such as temperature, pH, time and the stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture were performed, which influence the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of CCAgNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751065/a-3-utr-derived-non-coding-rna-ribs-increases-expression-of-cfa-and-promotes-biofilm-formation-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#3
Xin Zhao, Rui Liu, Hao Tang, George Osei-Adjei, Shungao Xu, Ying Zhang, Xinxiang Huang
Bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are widely studied and found to play important roles in regulating various cellular processes. Recently, many ncRNAs have been discovered to be transcribed or processed from 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). Here we reported a novel 3' UTR-derived ncRNA, RibS, which could influence biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). RibS was confirmed to be a ∼700 nt processed product produced by RNase III-catalyzed cleavage from the 3' UTR of riboflavin synthase subunit alpha mRNA, RibE...
May 8, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748704/subdural-empyema-due-to-salmonella-paratyphi-b-in-an-infant-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Vijai Williams, Keshavamurthy Mysore Lakshmikantha, Karthi Nallasamy, K C Sudeep, Arun Kumar Baranwal, Muralidharan Jayashree
Intracranial infection due to Salmonella is uncommon in children. Subdural empyema (SDE) is described with Salmonella typhi as a complication of meningitis. We report a 6-month-old infant with SDE secondary to Salmonella paratyphi B who had presented with prolonged fever and enlarging head. A literature review of Salmonella SDE in infants with respect to clinical course and outcome is presented.
May 10, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746945/activation-of-coagulation-and-endothelium-with-concurrent-impairment-of-anticoagulant-mechanisms-in-patients-with-typhoid-fever
#5
Hanna K de Jong, Chris M Parry, Thomas W van der Vaart, Liesbeth M Kager, Stannie J van den Ende, Rapeephan R Maude, Lalith Wijedoru, Aniruddha Ghose, Mohammed U Hasan, Mohammed A Hossain, Arjan M Dondorp, Steve Baker, M Abul Faiz, Joost C M Meijers, W Joost Wiersinga
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi remains a major burden worldwide. Gastrointestinal bleeding can be seen in up to 10 percent of patients and may be fatal. The coagulopathy, which may be the driver of this severe complication in patients with typhoid fever, however is ill defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis in patients with acute typhoid fever. METHODS: . Parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis were measured in 28 hospitalized patients with culture-confirmed or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever and compared to 38 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746615/what-is-the-best-immunization-strategy-for-protecting-african-children-against-invasive-salmonella-disease
#6
Hyon Jin Jeon, Gi Deok Pak, Justin Im, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Amy Gassama Sow, Abdramane Soura Bassiahi, Nagla Gasmelseed, Karen H Keddy, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Frank Konings, Abraham Aseffa, John A Crump, Yun Chon, Robert F Breiman, Se Eun Park, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Hye Jin Seo, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Jason R Andrews, Ursula Panzner, Vera von Kalckreuth, Thomas F Wierzba, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Gordon Dougan, Myron M Levine, Joachim Hombach, Jerome H Kim, John D Clemens, Stephen Baker, Florian Marks
Background: The WHO recently prequalified a typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), recommending its use in persons aged ≥6 months to 45 years residing in typhoid fever (TF)-endemic areas. We now need to consider how TCVs can have the greatest impact in the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Methods: The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) in 10 sub-Saharan African countries included blood culture-based surveillance in febrile people presenting at healthcare-facilities originating from defined catchment areas...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743315/an-unmutated-igm-response-to-the-vi-polysaccharide-of-salmonella-typhi-contributes-to-protective-immunity-in-a-murine-model-of-typhoid
#7
Kalgi D Pandya, Isabel Palomo-Caturla, Justin A Walker, Vijay K Sandilya, Zhijiu Zhong, Kishore R Alugupalli
T cell-dependent B cell responses typically develop in germinal centers. Abs generated during such responses are isotype switched and have a high affinity to the Ag because of somatic hypermutation of Ab genes. B cell responses to purified polysaccharides are T cell independent and do not result in the formation of bona fide germinal centers, and the dominant Ab isotype produced during such responses is IgM with very few or no somatic mutations. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for both somatic hypermutation and Ig isotype switching in humans and mice...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742460/low-grade-inflammation-decreases-emotion-recognition-evidence-from-the-vaccination-model-of-inflammation
#8
Leonie Jt Balter, Sasha Hulsken, Sarah Aldred, Mark T Drayson, Suzanne Higgs, Jet Jcs Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jane E Raymond, Jos A Bosch
The ability to adequately interpret the mental state of another person is key to complex human social interaction. Recent evidence suggests that this ability, considered a hallmark of 'theory of mind' (ToM), becomes impaired by inflammation. However, extant supportive empirical evidence is based on experiments that induce not only inflammation but also induce discomfort and sickness, factors that could also account for temporary social impairment. Hence, an experimental inflammation manipulation was applied that avoided this confound, isolating effects of inflammation and social interaction...
May 6, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739901/compositional-and-functional-differences-in-the-human-gut-microbiome-correlate-with-clinical-outcome-following-infection-with-wild-type-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#9
Yan Zhang, Arthur Brady, Cheron Jones, Yang Song, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Christoph J Blohmke, Andrew J Pollard, Laurence S Magder, Alessio Fasano, Marcelo B Sztein, Claire M Fraser
Insights into disease susceptibility as well as the efficacy of vaccines against typhoid and other enteric pathogens may be informed by better understanding the relationship between the effector immune response and the gut microbiota. In the present study, we characterized the composition (16S rRNA gene profiling) and function (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) of the gut microbiota following immunization and subsequent exposure to wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a human challenge model to further investigate the central hypothesis that clinical outcomes may be linked to the gut microbiota...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735830/changing-trends-of-culture-positive-typhoid-fever-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-a-tertiary-care-north-indian-hospital-over-the-last-decade
#10
Priyanka Sharma, Sushila Dahiya, Neelam Manral, Bhavana Kumari, Sambuddha Kumar, Sangeeta Pandey, Seema Sood, Bimal Kumar Das, Arti Kapil
Purpose: The present study was undertaken to analyse the trend in prevalence of culture-positive typhoid fever during the last decade and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated from patients of enteric fever presenting to our hospital. Methods: All the culture-positive enteric fever cases during 2005-2016 presenting to our Hospital were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done against chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone and azithromycin as per corresponding CLSI guidelines for each year...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735649/periplasmic-depolymerase-provides-insight-into-abc-transporter-dependent-secretion-of-bacterial-capsular-polysaccharides
#11
Sean D Liston, Stephen A McMahon, Audrey Le Bas, Michael D L Suits, James H Naismith, Chris Whitfield
Capsules are surface layers of hydrated capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) produced by many bacteria. The human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces "Vi antigen" CPS, which contributes to virulence. In a conserved strategy used by bacteria with diverse CPS structures, translocation of Vi antigen to the cell surface is driven by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. These transporters are engaged in heterooligomeric complexes proposed to form an enclosed translocation conduit to the cell surface, allowing the transporter to power the entire process...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735417/salmonella-typhi-colonization-provokes-extensive-transcriptional-changes-aimed-at-evading-host-mucosal-immune-defense-during-early-infection-of-human-intestinal-tissue
#12
K P Nickerson, S Senger, Y Zhang, R Lima, S Patel, L Ingano, W A Flavahan, D K V Kumar, C M Fraser, C S Faherty, M B Sztein, M Fiorentino, A Fasano
Commensal microorganisms influence a variety of host functions in the gut, including immune response, glucose homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, among others. This study describes how Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen responsible for typhoid fever, uses similar strategies to escape immune defense responses and survive within its human host. To elucidate the early mechanisms of typhoid fever, we performed studies using healthy human intestinal tissue samples and "mini-guts," organoids grown from intestinal tissue taken from biopsy specimens...
April 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724223/estimating-the-incidence-of-enteric-fever-in-children-in-india-a-multi-site-active-fever-surveillance-of-pediatric-cohorts
#13
Jacob John, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Shanta Dutta, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi is responsible for about 20 million episodes of illness and over 140,000 deaths annually globally. South Asia has the highest documented burden of typhoid and is home to the multi-drug resistant H58 strain that makes treatment more challenging. The WHO recommends the use of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in typhoid endemic countries. Decisions on the preferred immunization strategy should be based on an analysis of disease burden, availability, affordability, and operational feasibility...
May 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709977/report-of-relapse-typhoid-fever-cases-from-kolkata-india-recrudescence-or-reinfection
#14
Sriparna Samajpati, Surojit Das, Ujjwayini Ray, Shanta Dutta
Three relapse cases out of 107 hospital attending typhoid cases within a period of 2 years (2014-2016) from Apollo Geneagles hospital, Kolkata, India were reported. Of three cases, two were treated with ceftriaxone for 7 days and one was for 14 days in the first episode of typhoid fever. Six Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, obtained from three patients in both the episodes, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST), detection of QRDR mutation and molecular subtyping by PFGE, MLVA, MLST, CRISPR and H58 haplotyping...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708083/phenotypical-resistance-correlation-networks-for-10-non-typhoidal-salmonella-subpopulations-in-an-active-antimicrobial-surveillance-programme
#15
W J Love, K A Zawack, J G Booth, Y T Gröhn, C Lanzas
Antimicrobials play a critical role in treating cases of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis (iNTS) and other diseases, but efficacy is hindered by resistant pathogens. Selection for phenotypical resistance may occur via several mechanisms. The current study aims to identify correlations that would allow indirect selection of increased resistance to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin to improve antimicrobial stewardship. These are medically important antibiotics for treating iNTS, but these resistances persist in non-Typhi Salmonella serotypes even though they are not licensed for use in US food animals...
April 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704985/effects-of-the-probiotics-lactococcus-lacttis-mtcc-440-on-salmonella-enteric-serovar-typhi-in-co-culture-study
#16
Anand Kumar, Subir Kundu, Mira Debnath
Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis)a probiotics microorganism having wide range of benefits on human health, and also protects the body from pathogenic microorganism. This study was conducted to determine the co-culture effect with the probiotic strain L. lactis (MTCC440) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S.Typhi). The existing problem was to determine the individual growth of both strains during co-culture. Growth kinetics study was performed and observed for 28 h and used to determine specific growth rate of S...
April 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693356/metagenomics-of-microbial-communities-in-gallbladder-bile-from-patients-with-gallbladder-cancer-or-cholelithiasis
#17
Yasuo Tsuchiya, Ernest Loza, Guido Villa-Gomez, Carlos C Trujillo, Sergio Baez, Takao Asai, Toshikazu Ikoma, Kazuo Endoh, Kazutoshi Nakamura
Salmonella typhi and Helicobacter infections have been shown to increase risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC), but findings have been inconsistent. Other bacterial infections may also be associated with GBC. However, information on microbial pathogens in gallbladder bile of GBC patients is scarce. We aimed to investigate the microbial communities in gallbladder bile of patients with GBC and cholelithiasis (CL). Seven GBC patients and 30 CL patients were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from bile and the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified...
April 25, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684021/laboratory-and-molecular-surveillance-of-paediatric-typhoidal-salmonella-in-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-implications-for-vaccine-policy
#18
Carl D Britto, Zoe A Dyson, Sebastian Duchene, Michael J Carter, Meeru Gurung, Dominic F Kelly, David R Murdoch, Imran Ansari, Stephen Thorson, Shrijana Shrestha, Neelam Adhikari, Gordon Dougan, Kathryn E Holt, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Children are substantially affected by enteric fever in most settings with a high burden of the disease, including Nepal. However pathogen population structure and transmission dynamics are poorly delineated in young children, the proposed target group for immunization programs. Here we present whole genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility data on 198 S. Typhi and 66 S. Paratyphi A isolated from children aged 2 months to 15 years of age during blood culture surveillance at Patan Hospital, Nepal, 2008-2016...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681410/development-of-a-bivalent-conjugate-vaccine-candidate-against-malaria-transmission-and-typhoid-fever
#19
So Jung An, Puthupparampil V Scaria, Beth Chen, Emma Barnafo, Olga Muratova, Charles Anderson, Lynn Lambert, Myung Hwa Chae, Jae Seung Yang, Patrick E Duffy
Immune responses to poorly immunogenic antigens, such as polysaccharides, can be enhanced by conjugation to carriers. Our previous studies indicate that conjugation to Vi polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi may also enhance immunogenicity of some protein carriers. We therefore explored the possibility of generating a bivalent vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and typhoid fever, which are co-endemic in many parts of the world, by conjugating Vi polysaccharide, an approved antigen in typhoid vaccine, to Pfs25, a malaria transmission blocking vaccine antigen in clinical trials...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679892/electric-field-driven-assembly-of-live-bacterial-cell-microarrays-for-rapid-phenotypic-assessment-and-cell-viability-testing
#20
Meenal Goel, Abhishek Verma, Shalini Gupta
Microarray technology to isolate living cells using external fields is a facile way to do phenotypic analysis at the cellular level. We have used alternating current dielectrophoresis (AC-DEP) to drive the assembly of live pathogenic Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria into miniaturized single cell microarrays. The effects of voltage and frequency were optimized to identify the conditions for maximum cell capture which gave an entrapment efficiency of 90% in 60 min. The chip was used for calibration-free estimation of cellular loads in binary mixtures and further applied for rapid and enhanced testing of cell viability in the presence of drug via impedance spectroscopy...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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