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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150208/development-of-a-synthetic-vi-polysaccharide-vaccine-for-typhoid-fever
#1
Yawei Ni, Michael J Springer, Jianhua Guo, Isaac Finger-Baker, James P Wilson, Ronald R Cobb, Debra Turner, Ian Tizard
Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem with a high impact on toddlers and young children. Vaccines against the Vi capsular polysaccharide are efficacious against typhoid fever demonstrating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. The currently licensed Vi typhoid vaccines have however limited efficacy and are manufactured by a complex process from wild-type bacteria. Due to these inherent issues with the current vaccines, an alternative vaccine based on an O-acetylated high molecular weight (HMW) polygalacturonic acid (GelSite-OAc™) was generated...
November 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141925/unusual-salmonella-typhi-periprosthetic-joint-infection-involving-bilateral-knees-management-options-and-literature-review
#2
Ashok Rajgopal, Inayat Panda, Anu Gupta
A 70-year-old Indian woman, who had undergone primary bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for rheumatoid arthritis 10 months prior, presented with 10 days history of pain, swelling and erythema over both knees with pus discharging from the right knee. She had type 2 diabetes mellitus and was on long-term steroid, leflunomide and antitumour necrosis factor therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Her clinical and laboratory features were suggestive of a haematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The final diagnosis of bilateral Salmonella typhi PJI was made based on culture reports...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141347/-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-typhi-and-salmonella-paratyphoid-isolates-from-jiangsu-province-2012-2015
#3
X X Kong, C Dong, H Ji, Y Wang, C C Bao, X Huo, H M Qian
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotype and molecular typing characteristics of Salmonella (S.) typhi and S. paratyphi in Jiangsu province from 2012 to 2015. Methods: The samples were collected from typhoid and paratyphoid patients in Jiangsu province. The biochemical identification and serotyping were carried out after isolation and culture. Kirby-Bauer (K-B) testing was used to detect the drug susceptibility of the strains. The molecular typing characteristics of S. typhi and S...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137627/prevalence-of-current-patterns-and-predictive-trends-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-in-sudan
#4
Ayman A Elshayeb, Abdelazim A Ahmed, Marmar A El Siddig, Adil A El Hussien
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136916/magnetophoretic-separation-icp-ms-immunoassay-using-cs-doped-multicore-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-the-determination-of-salmonella-typhimurium
#5
Arong Jeong, H B Lim
In this work, a magnetophoretic separation ICP-MS immunoassay using newly synthesized multicore magnetic nanoparticles (MMNPs) was developed for the determination of salmonella typhimurium (typhi). The uniqueness of this method was the use of MMNPs doped with Cs for both separation and detection, which enable us to achieve fast analysis, high sensitivity, and good reliability. For demonstration, heat-killed typhi in a phosphate buffer solution was determined by ICP-MS after the MMNP-typhi reaction product was separated from unreacted MMNPs in a micropipette tip filled with 25% polyethylene glycol through magnetophoretic separation...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136410/salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-producing-ctx-m-15-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#6
Marie-France Phoba, Barbara Barbé, Octavie Lunguya, Lysette Masendu, Deo Lulengwa, Gordon Dougan, Vanessa K Wong, Sophie Bertrand, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Jan Jacobs, Sandra Van Puyvelde, Stijn Deborggraeve
We report a typhoid fever case with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolate showing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the strain carried a plasmid-mediated CTX-M-15 ESBL gene and did not belong to the dominant H58 Salmonella Typhi clade.
October 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116587/a-simplified-globally-affordable-experimental-setup-for-monitoring-dna-diagnosis-by-a-qd-based-technique
#7
Samira Rostam Gohari, Razieh Yazdanparast
The unavailability of simple, quick, and sensitive genetic-based molecular diagnostic techniques has become the main driving force for inventing new approaches in the era of quantum dots (QDs): a new class of fluorescent probes with fascinating optical electronic properties. Using the unique size-dependent light-emitting properties of QDs, we have developed a QD-based ultrasensitive technique which removes the necessity for the genetic amplification step required in almost all types of molecular-based diagnostic techniques...
November 8, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109704/assessment-and-translation-of-the-antibody-in-lymphocyte-supernatant-als-assay-to-improve-the-diagnosis-of-enteric-fever-in-two-controlled-human-infection-models-and-an-endemic-area-of-nepal
#8
Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Sabina Dongol, Merryn Voysey, Christoph J Blohmke, Rajendra Shrestha, Abhilasha Karkey, Mila Shakya, Amit Arjyal, Claire S Waddington, Malick Gibani, Michael J Carter, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker, Andrew J Pollard
New diagnostic tests for enteric fever are urgently needed to assist with timely antimicrobial treatment of patients and to measure the efficacy of prevention measures such as vaccination. In a novel translational approach, here we use two recently developed controlled human infection models (CHIM) of enteric fever to evaluate an antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) assay, which can detect recent IgA antibody production by circulating B cells in ex vivo mononuclear cell culture. We calculated the discriminative ability of the ALS assay to distinguish diagnosed cases in the two CHIM studies in Oxford, prior to evaluating blood culture-confirmed diagnoses of patients presenting with fever to hospital in an endemic areas of Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108108/antibacterial-aryl-crowned-polyketide-from-bacillus-subtilis-associated-with-seaweed-anthophycus-longifolius
#9
Kajal Chakraborty, Bini Thilakan, Vinaya Kizhakkepatt Kizhakkekalam
AIMS: Microbiological, biotechnological and chemical characterization of a previously undescribed aryl-crowned polyketide from Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 isolated from brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius with activity against opportunistic Gram-negative food-borne pathogenic bacterial strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: A culture-dependent method was used to isolate heterotrophic B. subtilis associated with A. longifolius, and assessed for its antimicrobial properties...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100518/antibacterial-antioxidant-and-immuno-modulatory-properties-in-extracts-of-barleria-lupulina-lindl
#10
Reshma Kumari, Sumit Kumar, Ashwani Kumar, Kapil Kumar Goel, Ramesh Chandra Dubey
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties of aerial parts of Barleria lupulina Lindl were investigated in the present communication. METHODS: The antibacterial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of B. lupulina (methanol soluble leaf and stem extracts) was analyzed by minimum inhibitory concentration, total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity, determination of toxicity, hemagglutination antibody titre, delayed type hypersensitivity and neutrophil adhesion test, respectively...
November 3, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099340/humoral-immunity-in-mice-transplanted-with-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-recapitulates-that-of-human-infants
#11
Justin A Walker, Raja Vuyyuru, Tim Manser, Kishore R Alugupalli
Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been referred to as "Human Immune System" (HIS) mice and are a translational platform for studying human immune responses in vivo. Human HSC sources used in generating HIS mice include fetal liver (FL), umbilical cord blood (CB), and adult bone marrow (BM). Since HSCs from FL, CB, and BM are produced at various stages of human development, we tested whether mice transplanted with these three HSCs differ in their immune responses...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092618/new-anti-bacterial-halogenated-tricyclic-sesquiterpenes-from-bornean-laurencia-majuscula-harvey-lucas
#12
Takashi Kamada, Chin-Soon Phan, Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan
Three new halogenated tricyclic sesquiterpenes, omphalaurediol (1), rhodolaurenones B (2) and C (3) were isolated together with nine known haloganated sesquiterpenes such as rhodolaurenone A (4), rhodolaureol (5), isorhodolaureol (6), (-)-laurencenone D (7), elatol (8), (+)-deschloroelatol (9), cartilagineol (10), (+)-laurencenone B (11) and 2-chloro-3-hydroxy-α-chamigren-9-one (12) from a population of Bornean red algae Laurencia majuscula. The structures of three new metabolites were determined based on their spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and MS)...
November 2, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089020/transcriptomic-study-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serovar-typhi-biofilm
#13
Khee Chian Jason Chin, Todd Duane Taylor, Maxime Hebrard, Kogaan Anbalagan, Marjan Ganjali Dashti, Kia Kien Phua
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection of humans caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In chronic carriers, the bacteria survive the harsh environment of the gallbladder by producing biofilm. The phenotype of S. Typhi biofilm cells is significantly different from the free-swimming planktonic cells, and studies have shown that they are associated with antibiotic resistance, immune system evasion, and bacterial persistence. However, the mechanism of this transition and the events leading to biofilm formation are unknown...
October 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081804/baseline-antibody-titre-against-salmonella-enterica-in-healthy-population-of-mumbai-maharashtra-india
#14
Rucha Patki, Sunil Lilani, Dhaneshwar Lanjewar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a baseline titre for the population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. METHOD: Four hundred healthy blood donors, attending blood donation camps, were screened using a survey questionnaire. Widal tube agglutination test was performed on the diluted sera (with 0.9% normal saline) of blood donors, with final dilution ranging from 1 : 40 to 1 : 320. RESULTS: Out of 400 individuals providing samples, 78 (19...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075261/induction-of-cell-cycle-and-nk-cell-responses-by-live-attenuated-oral-vaccines-against-typhoid-fever
#15
Christoph J Blohmke, Jennifer Hill, Thomas C Darton, Matheus Carvalho-Burger, Andrew Eustace, Claire Jones, Fernanda Schreiber, Martin R Goodier, Gordon Dougan, Helder I Nakaya, Andrew J Pollard
The mechanisms by which oral, live-attenuated vaccines protect against typhoid fever are poorly understood. Here, we analyze transcriptional responses after vaccination with Ty21a or vaccine candidate, M01ZH09. Alterations in response profiles were related to vaccine-induced immune responses and subsequent outcome after wild-type Salmonella Typhi challenge. Despite broad genetic similarity, we detected differences in transcriptional responses to each vaccine. Seven days after M01ZH09 vaccination, marked cell cycle activation was identified and associated with humoral immunogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073137/integration-of-enteric-fever-surveillance-into-the-who-coordinated-invasive-bacterial-vaccine-preventable-diseases-ib-vpd-platform-a-low-cost-approach-to-track-an-increasingly-important-disease
#16
Senjuti Saha, Maksuda Islam, Mohammad J Uddin, Shampa Saha, Rajib C Das, Abdullah H Baqui, Mathuram Santosham, Robert E Black, Stephen P Luby, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Lack of surveillance systems and accurate data impede evidence-based decisions on treatment and prevention of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi. The WHO coordinates a global Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) surveillance network but does not monitor enteric fever. We evaluated the feasibility and sustainability of integrating enteric fever surveillance into the ongoing IB-VPD platform. METHODOLOGIES: The IB-VPD surveillance system uses WHO definitions to enroll 2-59 month children hospitalized with possible pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067141/biomagnetic-pair-therapy-and-typhoid-fever-a-pilot-study
#17
Bryan L Frank
Objective: This pilot study examined the laboratory responses of patients with laboratory-documented typhoid fever who were treated with Biomagnetic Pair Therapy (BPT; medical biomagnetism), a specific application of pairs of magnets for various ailments that are infectious and otherwise. Materials and Methods: This study was an assessment of patients' response to treatment with only BPT for Salmonella typhi infections (typhoid fever) using standard conventional laboratory techniques. The research was conducted in an outpatient village clinic in Kenya...
October 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062877/location-matters-in-defining-t-cell-mediated-immunity-in-response-to-salmonella-typhi-vaccination
#18
EDITORIAL
Karen L Edelblum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059070/the-evolution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-typhi
#19
Abhilasha Karkey, Guy E Thwaites, Stephen Baker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhi is a serious public health concern, especially in industrializing countries. Here we review recent clinical and laboratory data concerning the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, with particular reference to the emergence resistance against fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins, and azithromycin. RECENT FINDINGS: The last 40 years have witnessed the sequential emergence of resistance to all first-line antimicrobials used in the treatment of S...
October 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051705/open-defaecation-and-its-effects-on-the-bacteriological-quality-of-drinking-water-sources-in-isiolo-county-kenya
#20
Joab Odhiambo Okullo, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, George Morara Ogendi
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals for sanitation call for universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation and an end to open defaecation by 2030. In Isiolo County, a semi-arid region lying in the northern part of Kenya, poor sanitation and water shortage remain a major problem facing the rural communities. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sanitation practices and the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
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