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Salmonella typhi

Pramod Gavel, Dharm Dev, Hamendra Singh Parmar, Sheetal Bhasin, Apurba K Das
Here, we report the self-assembly of Amoc (9-anthracenemethoxycarbonyl)-capped dipeptides, which self-assemble to form injectable, self-healable and shape-memory hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties. Amoc-capped dipeptides self-assemble to form nanofibrillar networks, which are established by several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The inherent antibacterial properties of hydrogels are evaluated using two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi bacteria...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Parmiss Mojir Shaibani, Hashem Rajab Etayash, Keren Jiang, Amirreza Sohrabi, Mahtab Hassanpourfard, Selvaraj Naicker, Mohtada Sadrzadeh, Thomas Thundat
The growing need to prevent pathogen outbreaks is irrefutable in the case of the food industry. Early detection in products, especially beverages, contaminated with bacterial strains is vital to avoid infected foods from reaching the consumer. If E. coli is pesent in such foods, it can cause infections. It can also be an indicator of the existence of other harmful coliforms. In this study, we have investigated the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in orange juice using a portable nanofiber-light addressable potentiometric sensor (NF-LAPS)...
March 13, 2018: ACS Sensors
Nafisatu Bello, Abubakar Tukur Dawakin Kudu, Azeezat Bolanle Adetokun, Dalha Wada Taura, Yusuf Dan'asabe Jobbi, Mustapha Umar, Ibrahim Yusuf
Background and Objectives: Bacterial infection in sickle cell anaemic patients is a major cause of mortality and requires proper treatment with appropriate antibiotics. However, continue defiant of these infections causing pathogens to many antibiotics and inadequate screening methods in overburden health care facilities such as our in Kano, Nigeria necessitates the conduct of this study. A research was therefore conducted to isolate, characterize and test for antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteraemia-causing pathogens from febrile children with and without sickle cell disease in Kano, Nigeria...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Ramanjeet Kaur, Santosh Kumar Tiwari
Bacteriocin LB44 was purified from cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Pediococcus pentosaceus LB44 using activity-guided chromatography techniques. It was stable up to 121 °C, pH 2.0-6.0, sensitive to proteinase K, papain and trypsin, and retained complete activity in the presence of organic solvents tested. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was ∼6 kDa and initial ten amino acid residues (GECGMCXECG) suggested a new compound. The loss in viable cell count and K+ ion efflux of target cells of Micrococcus luteus suggested bactericidal activity...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Swetha K Maddili, Ramesh Katla, Vijaya Kumar Kannekanti, Naveen Kumar Bejjanki, Balaraju Tuniki, Cheng-He Zhou, Himabindu Gandham
The binding behaviour between calf thymus DNA and synthesized benzothiazolyl triazolium derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents was explored by means of spectroscopic applications together with molecular docking study at the sub-domain IIA, binding site I of human serum albumin (HSA). Most of the synthesized derivatives presented significant antimicrobial inhibition when compared with the clinical Norfloxacin, Chloromycin, and Fluconazole. In particular, compound 5q presented efficient anti-Bacillus subtilis, anti-Escherichia coli, anti-Salmonella typhi, and anti-Psuedomonas aeruginosa activity with low MIC values of 2-8 μg/mL which were relatively superior to the reference drugs...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Qifa Song, Zhaojun Xu, Hong Gao, Danyang Zhang
Purpose: Several factors contribute to the complexity of quinolone resistance in Salmonella , including >2000 different Salmonella serotypes, a variety of hosts for Salmonella , and wide use of quinolones in human beings and animals. We thus aimed to obtain an overview of the development of quinolone resistance and relevant molecular mechanisms of such a resistance in Salmonella species. Materials and methods: A total of 1,776 Salmonella isolates were collected in Ningbo, China, between 2005 and 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Laura M F Kuijpers, Panha Chung, Marjan Peeters, Marie-France Phoba, Chun Kham, Barbara Barbé, Octavie Lunguya, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: In low resource settings, Salmonella serovars frequently cause bloodstream infections. This study investigated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect Salmonella antigens, when applied to stored grown blood culture broth. MATERIAL/METHODS: The SD Bioline One Step Salmonella Typhi Ag Rapid Detection Kit (Standard Diagnostics, Republic of Korea), marketed for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) in stool and the Salmonella Ag Rapid Test (Creative Diagnostics, USA), marketed for the detection of all Salmonella serotypes in stool, were selected for evaluation based on a pre-test evaluation of six RDT products...
2018: PloS One
Whittney N Burda, Karen E Brenneman, Amanda Gonzales, Roy Curtiss
The vast majority of live attenuated typhoid vaccines are constructed from the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2, which is devoid of a functioning alternative sigma factor, RpoS, due to the presence of a frameshift mutation. RpoS is a specialized sigma factor that plays an important role in the general stress response of a number of Gram-negative organisms, including Salmonella . Previous studies have demonstrated that this sigma factor is necessary for survival following exposure to acid, hydrogen peroxide, nutrient-limiting conditions, and starvation...
January 2018: MSphere
Rini Bandyopadhyay, Veeraghavan Balaji, Bijesh Yadav, Sudha Jasmine, Sowmya Sathyendra, Priscilla Rupali
The epidemiology of typhoid fever in South Asia has changed. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella typhi ( S. typhi) is now frequently resistant to nalidixic acid and thus labelled NARST. Treatment failure with the use of fluoroquinolones has been widely noted, forcing clinicians to adopt alternative treatment strategies. In this observational study, we looked at various treatment regimens and correlated clinical and microbiological outcomes. In 146 hospitalised adults, the median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin was 0...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Lara Ajamian, Luca Melnychuk, Patrick Jean-Pierre, Gerasimos J Zaharatos
Flagellin's potential as a vaccine adjuvant has been increasingly explored over the last three decades. Monomeric flagellin proteins are the only known agonists of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). This interaction evokes a pro-inflammatory state that impacts upon both innate and adaptive immunity. While pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) like flagellin have been used as stand-alone adjuvants that are co-delivered with antigen, some investigators have demonstrated a distinct advantage to incorporating antigen epitopes within the structure of flagellin itself...
February 27, 2018: Viruses
J Mushanyu, F Nyabadza, G Muchatibaya, P Mafuta, G Nhawu
Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi and occurs predominantly in association with poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. Despite recent progress in water and sanitation coverage, the disease remains a substantial public health problem in many developing countries. A mathematical model for the spread of typhoid has been formulated using non linear ordinary differential equations. The model includes a special treatment function to assess the effects of limited treatment resources on the spread of typhoid...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Yueli Bao, Shanrong Wang, Hongli Li, Yunjiao Wang, Haiyun Chen, Minglong Yuan
BF-30 is a single chain polypeptide of an N-segment with an α-helix from cathelicidin gene encoding, and it contains 30 amino acid residues, with a relative molecular mass and isoelectric point of 3637.54 and 11.79, respectively. Cathelicidin-BF-30 was entrapped in four-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol-b-dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) block copolymers (4-arm-PEG-PLGA) by a double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method. Three release phases of cathelicidin-BF-30loaded 4-arm-PEG-PLGA microspheres were observed, including an initial burst-release phase, followed by a lag phase with minimal drug release and finally a secondary zero-order release phase...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Karine Dufresne, Julie Saulnier-Bellemare, France Daigle
The human-specific pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid, a major public health issue in developing countries. Several aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood. S . Typhi possesses 14 fimbrial gene clusters including 12 chaperone-usher fimbriae ( stg, sth, bcf , fim, saf , sef , sta, stb, stc, std, ste , and tcf ). These fimbriae are weakly expressed in laboratory conditions and only a few are actually characterized. In this study, expression of all S . Typhi chaperone-usher fimbriae and their potential roles in pathogenesis such as interaction with host cells, motility, or biofilm formation were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ashraf A Mostafa, Abdulaziz A Al-Askar, Khalid S Almaary, Turki M Dawoud, Essam N Sholkamy, Marwah M Bakri
Prevention of food spoilage and food poisoning pathogens is usually achieved by use of chemical preservatives which have negative impacts including: human health hazards of the chemical applications, chemical residues in food & feed chains and acquisition of microbial resistance to the used chemicals. Because of such concerns, the necessity to find a potentially effective, healthy safer and natural alternative preservatives is increased. Within these texts, Plant extracts have been used to control food poisoning diseases and preserve foodstuff...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Gauri S Godbole, Martin R Day, Saraswathi Murthy, Marie A Chattaway, Satheesh Nair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Elizabeth J Klemm, Sadia Shakoor, Andrew J Page, Farah Naz Qamar, Kim Judge, Dania K Saeed, Vanessa K Wong, Timothy J Dallman, Satheesh Nair, Stephen Baker, Ghazala Shaheen, Shahida Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Muhammad Khalid Saleem, Zahra Hasan, Gordon Dougan, Rumina Hasan
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel S  Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Denise N Bronner, Franziska Faber, Erin E Olsan, Mariana X Byndloss, Nada A Sayed, Gege Xu, Woongjae Yoo, Dajeong Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Carlito B Lebrilla, Andreas J Bäumler
Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi is an extraintestinal pathogen that evolved from Salmonella serovars causing gastrointestinal disease. Compared with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, the genomes of typhoidal serovars contain various loss-of-function mutations. However, the contribution of these genetic differences to this shift in pathogen ecology remains unknown. We show that the ydiQRSTD operon, which is deleted in S. Typhi, enables S. Typhimurium to utilize microbiota-derived butyrate during gastrointestinal disease...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Tamding Wangdi, Gabriel Lock, Cheng Saechao, Manuela Raffatellu, Brian A Cobb, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi differs in its clinical presentation from gastroenteritis caused by S. Typhimurium and other non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. The different clinical presentations are attributed in part to the virulence-associated capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of S. Typhi, which prevents phagocytes from triggering a respiratory burst by preventing antibody-mediated complement activation. Paradoxically, the Vi antigen is absent from S. Paratyphi A, which causes a disease that is indistinguishable from typhoid fever...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Moisés Francisco, Sofia Santos Costa, Adriana Belas, Jorge Ramos, Isabel Couto, Constança Pomba, Miguel Viveiros
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a common infection in Africa and in spite of scarce surveillance reports, its incidence is commonly considered high by the Angolan Health system. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi has emerged, turning antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential to provide clinical guidance. This is the first report analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns and population structure of the few S. enterica ser. Typhi isolated from patients with Typhoid fever in Luanda, Angola...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Halima Khatun, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Syed Aminul Islam, Baitun Nahar, Md Nur Haque Alam, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January 2010 and December 2014...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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