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Epigenetics diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709971/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-the-toxic-effects-associated-with-arsenic-exposure-and-the-development-of-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Fazlullah Khan, Saeideh Momtaz, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a major threat to the human health worldwide. The consumption of arsenic in drinking water and other food products is associated with the risk of development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The available experimental evidence indicates that epigenetic alterations may play an important role in the development of diseases that are linked with exposure to environmental toxicants. iAs seems to be associated with the epigenetic modifications such as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro RNA (miRNA) abundance...
July 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706189/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-reverses-diet-induced-gene-regulatory-changes-impacting-lipid-metabolism
#2
Juan Du, Jingyan Tian, Lili Ding, Candi Trac, Brian Xia, Siming Sun, Dustin E Schones, Wendong Huang
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces sustainable weight loss, remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic benefits of VSG have remained elusive. According to our previous results, diet-induced obesity induces epigenetic modifications to chromatin in mouse liver. We demonstrate here that VSG in C57BL/6J wild-type male mice can reverse these chromatin modifications and thereby impact the expression of key metabolic genes...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702255/diabetes-and-its-drivers-the-largest-epidemic-in-human-history
#3
EDITORIAL
Paul Z Zimmet
The "Diabesity" epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore "the rise and rise" of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700951/diabetic-retinopathy-metabolic-memory-and-epigenetic-modifications
#4
Renu A Kowluru
Retinopathy, a sight-threatening disease, remains one of the most feared complications of diabetes. Although hyperglycemia is the main initiator progression of diabetic retinopathy continues even after re-institution of normal glycemic control in diabetic patients, and the deleterious effects of prior hyperglycemic insult depend on the duration and the severity of this insult, suggesting a 'metabolic memory' phenomenon. Metabolic memory phenomenon is successfully duplicated in the experimental models of diabetic retinopathy...
July 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695747/novel-strategies-for-anti-aging-drug-discovery
#5
Komal Saraswat, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Scientific achievements in the last few decades, leading to effective therapeutic interventions, have dramatically improved human life expectancy. Consequently, aging has become a significant problem and represents the major risk factor for most human pathologies including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. Scientific discoveries over the past two decades have been instrumental in dissecting molecular mechanism(s) which play important roles in determining longevity. The same understanding has also led to the acknowledgement of the plurality of 'causes' which act either alone or in combination to create the condition which can be defined as 'aging'...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694462/transgenerational-inheritance-of-susceptibility-to-diabetes-induced-male-subfertility
#6
Gabriela Pavlinkova, Hasmik Margaryan, Eva Zatecka, Eliska Valaskova, Fatima Elzeinova, Alena Kubatova, Romana Bohuslavova, Jana Peknicova
Male infertility is a worldwide problem associated with genetic background, environmental factors, and diseases. One of the suspected contributing factors to male infertility is diabetes mellitus. We investigated the molecular and morphological changes in sperms and testicular tissue of diabetic males. The study was performed in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model. Diabetes decreased sperm concentration and viability and increased sperm apoptosis. Changes in protamine 1/protamine 2 ratio indicated reduced sperm quality...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693373/prenatal-growth-patterns-and-birthweight-are-associated-with-differential-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-of-cardiometabolic-risk-genes-in-human-placentas-a-discovery-based-approach
#7
Pao-Yang Chen, Alison Chu, Wen-Wei Liao, Liudmilla Rubbi, Carla Janzen, Fei-Man Hsu, Shanthie Thamotharan, Amit Ganguly, Larry Lam, Dennis Montoya, Matteo Pellegrini, Sherin U Devaskar
Inherent genetic programming and environmental factors affect fetal growth in utero. Epidemiologic data in growth-altered fetuses, either intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) or large for gestational age (LGA), demonstrate that these newborns are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. There is growing evidence that the in utero environment leads to epigenetic modification, contributing to eventual risk of developing heart disease or diabetes. In this study, we used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to examine genome-wide DNA methylation variation in placental samples from offspring born IUGR, LGA, and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and to identify differential methylation of genes important for conferring risk of cardiometabolic disease...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684632/immunodeficiency-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-with-diabetes-revealed-by-comparative-genomics
#8
Yuanqing Yan, Ruli Gao, Thao L P Trinh, Maria Bartolomeo Grant
Purpose: Pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PAAD) often are not diagnosed until their late stages leaving no effective treatments. Currently immunotherapy provides a promising treatment option against this malignancy. However, a set of immunotherapy agents benefit patients with many types of cancer, but not PAAD. Sharing the origin in the same organ, diabetes and PAAD tend to occur concurrently. We aimed to identify the impact of diabetes on immunotherapy of PAAD by conducting a comparative genomics analysis.    <p>Experimental Design: We analyzed levels 3 PAAD genomics data (RNAseq, miRNAseq, DNA methylation, somatic copy number and somatic mutation) from TCGA and Firehose...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683826/identification-and-characterization-of-a-foxa2-regulated-transcriptional-enhancer-at-a-type-2-diabetes-intronic-locus-that-controls-gckr-expression-in-liver-cells
#9
Maykel López Rodríguez, Dorota Kaminska, Kati Lappalainen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Minna U Kaikkonen, Markku Laakso
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the underlying biological mechanisms for many of these associations remain unknown. GWAS signals close to the glucokinase regulatory protein gene (GCKR) have been reported for lipid and glucose metabolism traits and the risk of T2D. We investigated the regulatory function of an intronic locus at GCKR represented by the lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs780094...
July 6, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674684/effect-of-fetal-sex-on-maternal-and-obstetric-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Mohammed Al-Qaraghouli, Yu Ming Victor Fang
Fetal sex plays an important role in modifying the course and complications related to pregnancy and may also have an impact on maternal health and well-being both during and after pregnancy. The goal of this article is to review and summarize the findings from published research on physiologic and pathologic changes that may be affected by fetal sex and the effect of these changes on the maternal and obstetrical outcomes. This will help create awareness that fetal sex is not just a random chance event but an interactive process between the mother, the placenta, and the fetus...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673078/nutritional-and-metabolic-programming-during-the-first-thousand-days-of-life
#11
Massimo Agosti, Francesco Tandoi, Laura Morlacchi, Angela Bossi
The latest scientific acquisitions are demonstrating what has already been hypothesized for more than twenty years about the development of the state of health/illness of individuals. Indeed, certain stimuli, if applied to a sensible phase of development, are able to modify, through epigenetic mechanisms, gene expression of DNA, resulting in adaptive modifications of phenotype to the environment, which may reflect negatively on the health of every individual. This concept, applied to nutrition, has opened up important prospects for research in this area...
June 28, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667906/the-sglt2-inhibitor-empagliflozin-improves-the-primary-diabetic-complications-in-zdf-rats
#12
Sebastian Steven, Matthias Oelze, Alina Hanf, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Fatemeh Kashani, Siyer Roohani, Philipp Welschof, Maximilian Kopp, Ute Gödtel-Armbrust, Ning Xia, Huige Li, Eberhard Schulz, Karl J Lackner, Leszek Wojnowski, Serge P Bottari, Philip Wenzel, Eric Mayoux, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Hyperglycemia associated with inflammation and oxidative stress is a major cause of vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Recent data reports that a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), empagliflozin (Jardiance(®)), ameliorates glucotoxicity via excretion of excess glucose in urine (glucosuria) and significantly improves cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The overarching hypothesis is that hyperglycemia and glucotoxicity are upstream of all other complications seen in diabetes...
June 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662829/regulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
Renu A Kowluru, Manish Mishra
Diabetic retinopathy, a progressive disease, is the major cause of acquired blindness in the developed countries. Despite cutting-edge research in the field, the exact mechanism of this multifactorial disease remains elusive. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix and play significant role in regulating intracellular homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, activation of gelatinase MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in the retina is an early event, and activated MMPs damage the mitochondria and augment retinal capillary cell apoptosis, a phenomenon which is observed before histopathology characteristic of diabetic retinopathy can be seen...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661724/sirt1-and-sirt6-signaling-pathways-in-cardiovascular-disease-protection
#14
Nunzia D'Onofrio, Luigi Servillo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress represents the common hallmark of pathological conditions associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, aging, diabetes, and other vascular system-related diseases. The sirtuin (SIRT) family, comprising seven proteins (SIRT1-SIRT7) sharing a highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-binding catalytic domain, attracted a great attention for the past few years as stress adaptor and epigenetic enzymes involved in the cellular events controlling aging-related disorder, cancer, and CVD...
June 29, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650965/epigenetic-adaptation-of-the-placental-serotonin-transporter-gene-slc6a4-to-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Sofia Blazevic, Marina Horvaticek, Maja Kesic, Peter Zill, Dubravka Hranilovic, Marina Ivanisevic, Gernot Desoye, Jasminka Stefulj
We tested the hypothesis that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) alters the DNA methylation pattern of the fetal serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), and examined the functional relevance of DNA methylation for regulation of the SLC6A4 expression in the human placenta. The study included 50 mother-infant pairs. Eighteen mothers were diagnosed with GDM and 32 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). All neonates were of normal birth weight and born at term by planned Cesarean section. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650731/combination-treatments-with-luteolin-and-fisetin-enhance-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-high-glucose-treated-thp-1-cells-through-histone-acetyltransferase-histone-deacetylase-regulation
#16
Arang Kim, Jung-Mi Yun
Hyperglycemia leads to diabetes and its diabetic complications. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of luteolin and fisetin on proinflammatory cytokine secretion and its underlying epigenetic regulation in human monocytes exposed to hyperglycemic (HG) concentrations. Human monocytic cells (THP-1) were cultured under controlled (14.5 mM mannitol), normoglycemic (5.5 mM glucose), or HG (20 mM glucose) conditions in the absence or presence of the two phytochemicals for 48 h. Whereas HG conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α release from THP-1 cells; combination treatments with the two phytochemicals (500 nM fisetin, and l μM and 500 nM luteolin) suppressed NF-κB activity and inflammatory cytokine release...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640453/corrigendum
#17
(no author information available yet)
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was first recognized more than four decades ago and occurred independent of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The exact mechanisms underlying this disease remain incompletely understood. Several pathophysiological bases responsible for DCM have been proposed, including the presence of hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycosylation of large molecules (e.g., proteins), energy metabolic disturbance, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, impaired calcium handling, reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation, cardiac cell death, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to impairment of cardiac contractile functions...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634176/impact-of-glycemic-variability-on-chromatin-remodeling-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-target-hba1c-levels
#18
Sarah Costantino, Francesco Paneni, Rodolfo Battista, Lorenzo Castello, Giuliana Capretti, Sergio Chiandotto, Luigi Tanese, Giulio Russo, Dario Pitocco, Gaetano A Lanza, Massimo Volpe, Thomas F Lüscher, Francesco Cosentino
Intensive glycemic control (IGC) targeting HbA1c fails to show an unequivocal reduction of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), however the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic changes are emerging as important mediators of cardiovascular damage and may play a role in this setting. This study investigates whether epigenetic regulation of the adaptor protein p66(Shc), a key driver of mitochondrial oxidative stress, contributes to persistent vascular dysfunction in T2D patients despite IGC...
June 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#19
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630109/macrophage-mediated-inflammation-in-normal-and-diabetic-wound-healing
#20
REVIEW
Anna E Boniakowski, Andrew S Kimball, Benjamin N Jacobs, Steven L Kunkel, Katherine A Gallagher
The healing of cutaneous wounds is dependent on the progression through distinct, yet overlapping phases of wound healing, including hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and resolution/remodeling. The failure of these phases to occur in a timely, progressive fashion promotes pathologic wound healing. The macrophage (MΦ) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the inflammatory phase of tissue repair, where its dynamic plasticity allows this cell to mediate both tissue-destructive and -reparative functions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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