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Epigenetics diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345003/expansion-of-human-tregs-from-cryopreserved-umbilical-cord-blood-for-gmp-compliant-autologous-adoptive-cell-transfer-therapy
#1
Howard R Seay, Amy L Putnam, Judit Cserny, Amanda L Posgai, Emma H Rosenau, John R Wingard, Kate F Girard, Morey Kraus, Angela P Lares, Heather L Brown, Katherine S Brown, Kristi T Balavage, Leeana D Peters, Ashley N Bushdorf, Mark A Atkinson, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Michael J Haller, Todd M Brusko
Umbilical cord blood is a traditional and convenient source of cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thymic regulatory T cells (Tregs) are also present in cord blood, and there is growing interest in the use of autologous Tregs to provide a low-risk, fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched cell product for treating autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. Here, we describe a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible Treg expansion protocol using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in a mean 2,092-fold expansion of Tregs over a 16-day culture for a median yield of 1...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341729/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Berridge
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to the onset of diabetes. This review summarizes the role of Vitamin D in maintaining the normal release of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells (β-cells). Diabetes is initiated by the onset of insulin resistance. The β-cells can overcome this resistance by releasing more insulin, thus preventing hyperglycaemia. However, as this hyperactivity increases, the β-cells experience excessive Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling that results in cell death and the onset of diabetes...
March 24, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333387/pathophysiological-fundamentals-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#3
Xinyue Hu, Tao Bai, Zheng Xu, Qiuju Liu, Yang Zheng, Lu Cai
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was first recognized more than four decades ago and occurred independent of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The exact mechanisms underlying this disease remain incompletely understood. Several pathophysiological bases responsible for DCM have been proposed, including the presence of hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycosylation of large molecules (e.g., proteins), energy metabolic disturbance, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, impaired calcium handling, reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation, cardiac cell death, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to impairment of cardiac contractile functions...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321416/oxidative-stress-epigenetics-environment-and-epidemiology-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
EDITORIAL
Goran Petrovski, Kai Kaarniranta, Daniel Petrovič
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319137/the-h3k27-demethylase-utx-regulates-adipogenesis-in-a-differentiation-stage-dependent-manner
#5
Kazushige Ota, Kit I Tong, Kouichiro Goto, Shuta Tomida, Akiyoshi Komuro, Zhong Wang, Kazuto Nishio, Hitoshi Okada
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx), in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315733/wt1-ameliorates-podocyte-injury-via-repression-of-ezh2-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
Jiao Wan, Xiaoyan Hou, Zhanmei Zhou, Jian Geng, Jianwei Tian, Jing Nie, Xiaoyan Bai
Epigenetic modulation of podocyte injury plays a pivotal role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Wilm's tumor 1 (WT1) has been found to have opposing roles with β-catenin in podocyte biology. Herein, we asked whether the histone methyltransferase enzyme enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) promotes WT1-induced podocyte injury via β-catenin activation and the underlying mechanisms. We found that WT1 antagonized EZH2 and ameliorated β-catenin-mediated podocyte injury as demonstrated by attenuated podocyte mesenchymal transition, maintenance of podocyte architectural integrity, decreased podocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress...
March 15, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289478/cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-and-acceleration-of-epigenetic-aging-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#7
Abhay Raina, Xiaoping Zhao, Megan L Grove, Jan Bressler, Rebecca F Gottesman, Weihua Guan, James S Pankow, Eric Boerwinkle, Thomas H Mosley, Myriam Fornage
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are part of the spectrum of brain vascular injury accompanying aging and are associated with a substantial risk of stroke and dementia. We investigated the association of cerebral WMH burden on MRI with a DNA methylation-based biomarker of aging, termed DNA methylation age acceleration, which represents the deviation of the DNA methylation-predicted age from the chronologic age. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional observational study of 713 African-American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, aged 51-73 years, estimates of predicted age were obtained based on two algorithms (Hannum et al...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286899/epigenetics-of-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Nicola Wanner, Wibke Bechtel-Walz
DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease...
March 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286748/the-importance-of-rest-for-development-and-function-of-beta-cells
#9
REVIEW
David Martin, Anne Grapin-Botton
Beta cells are defined by the genes they express, many of which are specific to this cell type, and ensure a specific set of functions. Beta cells are also defined by a set of genes they should not express (in order to function properly), and these genes have been called forbidden genes. Among these, the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is expressed in most cells of the body, excluding most populations of neurons, as well as pancreatic beta and alpha cells. In the cell types where it is expressed, REST represses the expression of hundreds of genes that are crucial for both neuronal and pancreatic endocrine function, through the recruitment of multiple transcriptional and epigenetic co-regulators...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283910/hyperglycemia-impedes-definitive-endoderm-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-modulating-histone-methylation-patterns
#10
A C H Chen, Y L Lee, S W Fong, C C Y Wong, E H Y Ng, W S B Yeung
Exposure to maternal diabetes during fetal growth is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes (T2D) in later life. Discovery of the mechanisms involved in this association should provide valuable background for therapeutic treatments. Early embryogenesis involves epigenetic changes including histone modifications. The bivalent histone methylation marks H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 are important for regulating key developmental genes during early fetal pancreas specification. We hypothesized that maternal hyperglycemia disrupted early pancreas development through changes in histone bivalency...
March 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277977/human-liver-epigenetic-alterations-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-are-related-to-insulin-action
#11
Vanessa D de Mello, Ashok Matte, Alexander Perfilyev, Ville Männistö, Tina Rönn, Emma Nilsson, Pirjo Käkelä, Charlotte Ling, Jussi Pihlajamäki
Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to the risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Additionally, epigenetic modifications may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of NASH. We therefore investigated liver DNA methylation, as a marker for epigenetic alterations, in individuals with simple steatosis and NASH, and further tested if these alterations were associated with clinical phenotypes. Liver biopsies obtained from 95 obese individuals (age: 49.5±7.7 years, BMI: 43±5.7 kg/m(2), type 2 diabetes [T2D]: 35) as a wedge biopsy during a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation were investigated...
February 23, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273874/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-type-2-diabetes-experimental-and-quasi-experimental-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies ('natural experiments'). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world...
March 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270438/menin-and-prmt5-suppress-glp1-receptor-transcript-and-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-foxo1-and-creb
#13
Abdul Bari Muhammad, Bowen Xing, Chengyang Liu, Ali Naji, Xiaosong Ma, Rebecca A Simmons, Xianxin Hua
Menin is a scaffold protein that interacts with several epigenetic mediators to regulate gene transcription, and suppresses pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Tamoxifen inducible deletion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, which encodes the protein menin, increases beta cell mass in multiple murine models of diabetes and ameliorates diabetes. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP1) is another key physiological modulator of beta cell mass and glucose homeostasis. However, it is not clearly understood whether menin crosstalks with GLP1 signaling...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268202/adverse-effects-of-parental-zinc-deficiency-on-metal-homeostasis-and-embryonic-development-in-a-zebrafish-model
#14
Laura M Beaver, Yasmeen M Nkrumah-Elie, Lisa Truong, Carrie L Barton, Andrea L Knecht, Greg D Gonnerman, Carmen P Wong, Robert L Tanguay, Emily Ho
The high prevalence of zinc deficiency is a global public health concern, and suboptimal maternal zinc consumption has been associated with adverse effects ranging from impaired glucose tolerance to low birthweights. The mechanisms that contribute to altered development and poor health in zinc deficient offspring are not completely understood. To address this gap, we utilized the Danio rerio model and investigated the impact of dietary zinc deficiency on adults and their developing progeny. Zinc deficient adult fish were significantly smaller in size, and had decreases in learning and fitness...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266632/specific-cpg-hyper-methylation-leads-to-ankrd26-gene-down-regulation-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#15
Gregory A Raciti, Rosa Spinelli, Antonella Desiderio, Michele Longo, Luca Parrillo, Cecilia Nigro, Vittoria D'Esposito, Paola Mirra, Francesca Fiory, Vincenzo Pilone, Pietro Forestieri, Pietro Formisano, Ira Pastan, Claudia Miele, Francesco Beguinot
Epigenetic modifications alter transcriptional activity and contribute to the effects of environment on the individual risk of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Here, we have estimated the in vivo effect of a fat-enriched diet (HFD) on the expression and the epigenetic regulation of the Ankyrin repeat domain 26 (Ankrd26) gene, which is associated with the onset of these disorders. In visceral adipose tissue (VAT), HFD exposure determined a specific hyper-methylation of Ankrd26 promoter at the -436 and -431 bp CpG sites (CpGs) and impaired its expression...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256005/regulatory-role-of-n-6-methyladenosine-m-6-a-methylation-in-rna-processing-and-human-diseases
#16
Wenqiang Wei, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo, Shaoping Ji
N(6) -methyladenosine (m(6) A) modification is an abundant and conservative RNA modification in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. m(6) A modification mainly occurs in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and near the stop codons of mRNA. Diverse strategies have been developed for identifying m(6) A sites in single nucleotide resolution. Dynamic regulation of m(6) A is found in metabolism, embryogenesis and developmental processes, indicating a possible epigenetic regulation role along RNA processing and exerting biological functions...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250848/tissue-specific-methylation-profile-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-before-and-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#17
REVIEW
Priscila Sala, Raquel Susana Matos de Miranda Torrinhas, Danielle Cristina Fonseca, Graziela Rosa Ravacci, Dan Linetzky Waitzberg, Daniel Giannella-Neto
Eating habits, lifestyles, and exposure to specific environmental factors can greatly impact the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), influence the genome epigenetically, and affect the expression of genes, including genes related to glycemic control, at any stage of life. The epigenetic mechanism underlying obesity and T2D pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Conventional strategies for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities often have poor long-term adherence, and pharmacological interventions are limited...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246894/erratum-to-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-epigenetic-modification-of-mmp-9-promoter-in-the-development-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#18
Renu A Kowluru, Yang Shan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216432/epigenetic-modification-by-dietary-factors-implications-in-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Jae-Ho Park, Soon-Hee Kim, Myeong Soo Lee, Myung-Sunny Kim
Dietary factors play a role in normal biological processes and are involved in the regulation of pathological progression over a lifetime. Evidence has emerged indicating that dietary factor-dependent epigenetic modifications can significantly affect genome stability and the expression of mRNA and proteins, which are involved in metabolic dysfunction. Since metabolic syndrome is a progressive phenotype characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes, gene-diet interactions are important processes involved in the initiation of particular symptoms of metabolic syndrome and their progression...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#20
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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