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Epigenetics diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917077/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-type-2-diabetes-development
#1
Miranda-Perez Maria Elizabeth, Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J, Ortega-Camarillo Clara, Escobar-Villanueva, Maria Del Carmen
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents one of the main causes of death in the world, and those suffering from it have a lower quality of life. Although there are multiple hypotheses about the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the development of T2D, the effects of this pathology on pancreatic β-cells are often ignored. We now know that in addition to genetic defects, β-cell organellar dysfunction participates in the earliest stages of the disease; other factors also contribute to this dysfunction, such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in cellular volume and mass...
2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891325/epigenetics-and-immunometabolism-in-diabetes-and-aging
#2
Tomasz J Guzik, Francesco Cosentino
SIGNIFICANCE: A strong relationship between hyperglycemia, impaired insulin pathway and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Immunometabolic pathways link these pathogenic processes and pose important potential therapeutic targets. Recent Advances: The link between immunity and metabolism is bi-directional and includes the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as T2D, obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertension as well as the role of metabolic factors in regulation of immune cell functions...
September 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889823/epigenetics-and-dohad-from-basics-to-birth-and-beyond
#3
T Bianco-Miotto, J M Craig, Y P Gasser, S J van Dijk, S E Ozanne
Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is the study of how the early life environment can impact the risk of chronic diseases from childhood to adulthood and the mechanisms involved. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs are involved in mediating how early life environment impacts later health. This review is a summary of the Epigenetics and DOHaD workshop held at the 2016 DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand Conference. Our extensive knowledge of how the early life environment impacts later risk for chronic disease would not have been possible without animal models...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886131/histone-deacetylase-regulates-insulin-signaling-via-two-pathways-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#4
Yukina Kawada, Shun-Ichiro Asahara, Yumiko Sugiura, Ayaka Sato, Ayuko Furubayashi, Mao Kawamura, Alberto Bartolome, Emi Terashi-Suzuki, Tomoko Takai, Ayumi Kanno, Maki Koyanagi-Kimura, Tomokazu Matsuda, Naoko Hashimoto, Yoshiaki Kido
Recent studies demonstrated that insulin signaling plays important roles in the regulation of pancreatic β cell mass, the reduction of which is known to be involved in the development of diabetes. However, the mechanism underlying the alteration of insulin signaling in pancreatic β cells remains unclear. The involvement of epigenetic control in the onset of diabetes has also been reported. Thus, we analyzed the epigenetic control of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) expression in the MIN6 mouse insulinoma cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885036/postnatal-diet-remodels-hepatic-dna-methylation-in-metabolic-pathways-established-by-a-maternal-high-fat-diet
#5
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
AIM: We investigate how postweaning diet may modify the epigenetic landscape to meet metabolic demands later in life. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were placed either on an HF diet (HF/HF) or a control diet (HF/C). Methylation-dependent immunoprecipitation sequencing and methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme sequencing were used to quantify hepatic DNA methylation. RESULTS: Out of the 3966 identified differentially methylated regions, 37% were mapped to gene bodies while 6% fell within promoter or downstream regions...
September 8, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871454/non-genetic-mechanisms-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
REVIEW
Qiuxia Han, Hanyu Zhu, Xiangmei Chen, Zhangsuo Liu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common microvascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients and is characterized by thickened glomerular basement membrane, increased extracellular matrix formation, and podocyte loss. These phenomena lead to proteinuria and altered glomerular filtration rate, that is, the rate initially increases but progressively decreases. DN has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Its prevalence shows a rapid growth trend and causes heavy social and economic burden in many countries...
September 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871079/sirt6-deficiency-exacerbates-podocyte-injury-and-proteinuria-through-targeting-notch-signaling
#7
Min Liu, Kaili Liang, Junhui Zhen, Meng Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Ziying Wang, Xinbing Wei, Yan Zhang, Yu Sun, Zhuanli Zhou, Hua Su, Chun Zhang, Ningjun Li, Chengjiang Gao, Jun Peng, Fan Yi
Podocyte injury is a major determinant of proteinuric kidney disease and the identification of potential therapeutic targets for preventing podocyte injury has clinical importance. Here, we show that histone deacetylase Sirt6 protects against podocyte injury through epigenetic regulation of Notch signaling. Sirt6 is downregulated in renal biopsies from patients with podocytopathies and its expression correlates with glomerular filtration rate. Podocyte-specific deletion of Sirt6 exacerbates podocyte injury and proteinuria in two independent mouse models, diabetic nephropathy, and adriamycin-induced nephropathy...
September 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869506/critical-role-of-the-human-atp-binding-cassette-g1-transporter-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Lise M Hardy, Eric Frisdal, Wilfried Le Goff
ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a member of the large family of ABC transporters which are involved in the active transport of many amphiphilic and lipophilic molecules including lipids, drugs or endogenous metabolites. It is now well established that ABCG1 promotes the export of lipids, including cholesterol, phospholipids, sphingomyelin and oxysterols, and plays a key role in the maintenance of tissue lipid homeostasis. Although ABCG1 was initially proposed to mediate cholesterol efflux from macrophages and then to protect against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), it becomes now clear that ABCG1 exerts a larger spectrum of actions which are of major importance in cardiometabolic diseases (CMD)...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867213/transgenerational-pancreatic-impairment-with-igf2-h19-epigenetic-alteration-induced-by-p-p-dde-exposure-in-early-life
#9
Yang Song, Lei Yang
The hypothesis of fetal origins indicates that exposures in early development could induce epigenetic modifications in the male germ-line, affecting the susceptibility of adult-onset disease for generations. p,p'-DDE, the primary metabolite of persistent organochlorine pesticide DDT, is highly correlated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and a strong contributing factor to type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational impaired male fertility with sperm Igf2 hypomethylation...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864989/the-long-term-effects-of-the-periconceptional-period-on-embryo-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-paternal-role-and-his-contribution-and-how-males-can-affect-offspring-s-phenotype-epigenetic-profile
#10
Emma S Lucas, Adam J Watkins
The number of adults afflicted with heart disease, obesity and diabetes, central components of metabolic disorder, has grown rapidly in recent decades, affecting up to one quarter of the world's population. Typically, these diseases are attributed to lifestyle factors such as poor diet, lack of exercise and smoking. However, studies have now identified strong associations between patterns of growth during foetal and neonatal life and an increase predisposition towards developing heart disease, obesity and diabetes in adult life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864987/the-long-term-effect-of-the-periconception-period-on-the-embryo-s-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-role-of-maternal-disease-such-as-diabetes-and-how-the-effect-is-mediated-example-from-a-rabbit-model
#11
Bernd Fischer, Maria Schindler, S Mareike Pendzialek, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, René Thieme, Anne Navarrete Santos
Maternal metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus with diabetogenic hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia change periconceptional developmental conditions in utero. In preimplantation rabbit embryos, all major metabolic pathways are affected. Alterations in protein, lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are described in this review. The embryonic metabolism is characterized by a high plasticity which enables survival of most preimplantation embryos under the non-physiological developmental conditions in diabetic mothers...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864287/age-related-cataracts-role-of-unfolded-protein-response-ca-2-mobilization-epigenetic-dna-modifications-and-loss-of-nrf2-keap1-dependent-cytoprotection
#12
REVIEW
Palsamy Periyasamy, Toshimichi Shinohara
Age-related cataracts are closely associated with lens chronological aging, oxidation, calcium imbalance, hydration and crystallin modifications. Accumulating evidence indicates that misfolded proteins are generated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by most cataractogenic stresses. To eliminate misfolded proteins from cells before they can induce senescence, the cells activate a clean-up machinery called the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR also activates the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central transcriptional factor for cytoprotection against stress...
September 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852907/functional-role-of-suv39h1-in-human-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-under-high-glucose-ambiance
#13
Jiayi Wang, Wenzhe Yan, Xiaofei Peng, Yafeng Jiang, Liyu He, Youming Peng, Xian Chen, Muyao Ye, Hui Zhuo
SUV39H1, the histone methyltransferase (HMTase) of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3), is a known transcriptional repressor of inflammatory genes. The effect of SUV39H1 on inflammatory gene promoters under high-glucose stimulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), macrophages, and cardiomyocytes has been studied, but how SUV39H1 functions in renal tubules under diabetic conditions is unclear. Renal biopsy specimens of ten diabetic nephropathy (DN) subjects and seven non-DN minimal change diseases (MCD) subjects were collected...
August 29, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845468/evolutionary-nephrology
#14
Robert L Chevalier
Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844405/genetic-and-epigenetic-risks-of-assisted-reproduction
#15
REVIEW
Ziru Jiang, Yinyu Wang, Jing Lin, Jingjing Xu, Guolian Ding, Hefeng Huang
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used primarily for infertility treatments to achieve pregnancy and involves procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and cryopreservation. Moreover, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of ART is used in couples for genetic reasons. In ART treatments, gametes and zygotes are exposed to a series of non-physiological processes and culture media. Although the majority of children born with this treatment are healthy, some concerns remain regarding the safety of this technology...
August 3, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843433/hdac-inhibitors-a-new-promising-drug-class-in-anti-aging-research
#16
REVIEW
Elena G Pasyukova, Alexander M Vaiserman
In the last years, epigenetic regulation of gene expression is regarded as an important factor involved in a broad spectrum of aging-associated processes including loss of physical activity, frailty and genomic instability, and in development of various pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, cancer, immune deficits and neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, inhibitors of the members of superfamilies of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been proposed, among other drugs targeting epigenetic pathways, as a promising type of therapeutics that is able to combat aging and its manifestations...
August 24, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842957/understanding-epigenetic-effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-from-mechanisms-to-novel-test-methods
#17
Ali Alavian-Ghavanini, Joëlle Rüegg
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made chemicals that interfere with hormonal signalling pathways. They are used in, e.g., production of common household materials, in resin-based medical supplies, pesticides. Thus, they are environmentally ubiquitous and humans and wildlife are exposed to them on a daily basis. Early life exposure to EDCs has been associated with later life adversities such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Mechanisms underlying such associations are unknown but are likely to be mediated by epigenetic changes induced by EDCs...
August 26, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840938/loss-of-hdac3-in-osteoprogenitors-increases-bone-expression-of-osteoprotegerin-improving-systemic-insulin-sensitivity
#18
Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Jessica L Pierce, Kanglun Yu, Natasha R Culpepper, Elizabeth W Bradley, Jennifer J Westendorf
Type 2 diabetes is an emerging global health epidemic. Foundations for new therapies are arising from understanding interactions between body systems. Bone-derived factors that reduce RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand) signaling in the liver may prevent insulin resistance and the onset of type 2 diabetes. Here we demonstrate that deletion of the epigenetic regulator, Hdac3, in Osx1-expressing osteoprogenitors prevents insulin resistance induced by high fat diet by increasing serum and skeletal gene expression levels of osteoprotegerin (Opg), a natural inhibitor of RANKL signaling...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834773/genome-wide-dna-methylation-variation-in-maternal-and-cord-blood-of-gestational-diabetes-population
#19
Jessica Kang, Chien-Nan Lee, Hung-Yuan Li, Kai-Han Hsu, Shin-Yu Lin
AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has always been a concerning issue for pregnant women. In recent studies, GDM was found to be related to epigenetic modifications, which would alter gene expressions, thus affecting the patients' and their offspring's health, leading to a higher probability of developing metabolic syndromes and diabetes later in life. METHODS: In this study, we collected both maternal and cord blood samples from 16 pregnant women and their newborns, including eight exposed to GDM...
August 9, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826789/environmental-endocrine-disruptors-new-diabetogens
#20
Patrick Fénichel, Nicolas Chevalier
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects...
August 18, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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