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Epigenetics diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444216/dietary-metabolites-derived-from-gut-microbiota-critical-modulators-of-epigenetic-changes-in-mammals
#1
Mohd Iqbal Bhat, Rajeev Kapila
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The microbiota is a critical source of environmental stimuli and, thus, has a tremendous impact on the health of the host. The microbes within the microbiota regulate homeostasis within the gut, and any alteration in their composition can lead to disorders that include inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental disorders, and cancer. Hence, restoration of the gut flora following changes or imbalance is imperative for the host...
April 22, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441146/epigenetic-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#2
Sapna Sharma, Jennifer Kriebel, Harald Grallert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose metabolism is a central process in mammalian energy homeostasis. Its deregulation is a key factor in development of metabolic disease like diabetes and cancer. In recent decades, our understanding of gene regulation at the signaling, chromatin and posttranscriptional levels has seen dramatic developments. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epigenetic mechanisms that do not affect the genetic code can be assessed with new technologies. However, increasing complexity becomes a major challenge for translation into clinical application...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440755/dysfunctional-immunometabolic-effects-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-increased-cardiometabolic-risk-potential-epidemiological-alert-in-america
#3
Martin Rosas-Peralta, Michael F Holick, Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez, Alejandra Madrid-Miller, Erick Ramírez-Árias, Efrain Arizmendi-Uribe
Vitamin D deficiency is a serious public health problem worldwide that affects not only skeletal health, but also a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, there is still skepticism because of the lack of randomized, controlled trials to support association studies on the benefits of vitamin D for non-skeletal health. This review was based on articles published during the 1980-2015 obtained from the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE and PubMed, and focuses on recent challenges with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and how to achieve optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from dietary sources, supplements, and sun exposure...
March 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436605/digeorge-like-syndrome-in-a-child-with-a-3p12-3-deletion-involving-mir4273-gene-born-to-a-mother-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Emilia Cirillo, Giuliana Giardino, Vera Gallo, Giovanni Galasso, Roberta Romano, Roberta D'Assante, Giulia Scalia, Luigi Del Vecchio, Lucio Nitsch, Rita Genesio, Claudio Pignata
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is the most common chromosomal alteration associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), even though this is not the only underlying cause of DGS. In rare patients, mutations in a single gene, TBX1, have been described resulting in a DGS phenotype. Recently, it has been reported that at least part of the TBX1 mutant phenotype is due to excessive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Evidence suggests that miRNA may modulate the expression of critical T-box transcriptional regulators during midface development and Bmp-signaling...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434937/defining-a-research-agenda-to-address-the-converging-epidemics-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-part-2-underlying-biological-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Katharina Ronacher, Reinout van Crevel, Julia Critchley, Andrew A Bremer, Larry S Schlesinger, Anil Kapur, Randall Basaraba, Hardy Kornfeld, Blanca I Restrepo
There is growing interest in the re-emerging interaction between type 2 diabetes (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), but the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood despite their possible implications in clinical management. Experts in epidemiological, public health, basic science and clinical studies recently convened and identified research priorities for elucidating the underlying mechanisms for the co-ocurrence of TB and DM. We identified gaps in current knowlege of altered immunity in DM patients during TB, where most studies suggest an under-performing innate immunity, but exaggerated adaptive immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
April 19, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#6
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428964/micrornas-mediated-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-glut4-expression-and-translocation-in-insulin-resistance
#7
REVIEW
João Victor Esteves, Francisco Javier Enguita, Ubiratan Fabres Machado
The solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in the insulin-induced glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissues. In prediabetes and diabetes, GLUT4 expression/translocation has been detected as reduced, participating in mechanisms that impair glycemic control. Recently, a class of short endogenous noncoding RNAs named microRNAs (miRNAs) has been increasingly described as involved in the posttranscriptional epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The present review focuses on miRNAs potentially involved in the expression of GLUT4 expression, and proteins related to GLUT4 and translocation in skeletal muscle, seeking to correlate them with insulin resistance and diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427059/the-burden-of-diabetes-emerging-data
#8
Paola Maffi, Antonio Secchi
In recent times, the global prevalence of diabetes has increased substantially, reaching 8.3% in 2014, which corresponds to 387 million patients. Studies in Europe and USA have shown increased incidence of type 1 Diabetes (T1D) over time at a rate of 3-5% per year. Another most worrying feature of the rapid increase of diabetes is the emergence of type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in children, adolescents, and young adults. The well-known behavioral risks factors and epigenetic mechanisms recently observed require an integrated approach to prevent T2D...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425976/prenatal-exposure-to-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-affects-histone-modification-of-cardiometabolic-genes-in-newborn-rats
#9
Bijaya Upadhyaya, Tricia Larsen, Shivon Barwari, Eli J Louwagie, Michelle L Baack, Moul Dey
Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424732/evidence-for-loss-in-identity-de-differentiation-and-trans-differentiation-of-islet-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-2-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Chad S Hunter, Roland W Stein
The two main types of diabetes mellitus have distinct etiologies, yet a similar outcome: loss of islet β-cell function that is solely responsible for the secretion of the insulin hormone to reduce elevated plasma glucose toward euglycemic levels. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has traditionally been characterized by autoimmune-mediated β-cell death leading to insulin-dependence, whereas type 2 diabetes (T2D) has hallmarks of peripheral insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and cell death. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, especially during T2D, key components of β-cell failure involves: (1) loss of cell identity, specifically proteins associated with mature cell function (e...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423509/histone-lysine-methyltransferase-g9a-is-a-novel-epigenetic-target-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Masayuki Yokoyama, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Yoh Zen, Motohiko Oshima, Yuko Kusakabe, Yoshiko Noguchi, Kaori Yuki, Shuhei Koide, Shiro Tara, Atsunori Saraya, Kazumasa Aoyama, Naoya Mimura, Satoru Miyagi, Masanori Inoue, Toru Wakamatsu, Tomoko Saito, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Eiichiro Suzuki, Yoshihiko Ooka, Akinobu Tawada, Masayuki Otsuka, Masaru Miyazaki, Osamu Yokosuka, Atsushi Iwama
Histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) is mainly regulated by the histone lysine methyltransferase G9a and is associated with the repression of transcription. However, both the role of G9a and the significance of H3K9me2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells remain unclear. In this study, we conducted loss-of-function assay of G9a using short-hairpin RNA and pharmacological interference. Knockdown of G9a reduced H3K9me2 levels and impaired both HCC cell growth and sphere formation. However, transforming growth factor β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) was not suppressed by G9a knockdown...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416029/the-health-outcomes-of-human-offspring-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies-art
#12
M Chen, L K Heilbronn
Concerns have been raised about the health and development of children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) since 1978. Controversially, ART has been linked with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes, an increased risk of birth defects, cancers, and growth and development disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that ART treatment may also predispose individuals to an increased risk of chronic ageing related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review will summarize the available evidence on the short-term and long-term health outcomes of ART singletons, as multiple pregnancies after multiple embryos transfer, are associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery, which can separately increase risk of adverse postnatal outcomes, and impact long-term health...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413926/dusp-1-gene-expression-is-not-regulated-by-promoter-methylation-in-diabetes-associated-cardiac-hypertrophy
#13
Gurinder Bir Singh, Sanskriti Khanna, Satish K Raut, Saurabh Sharma, Rajni Sharma, Madhu Khullar
BACKGROUND: The exact mechanism causing decreased expression of the dual specific phosphatase-1 ( DUSP-1) gene in diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy is not known. DNA promoter methylation is often associated with decreased gene expression in many diseases including cardiovascular diseases. So, we investigated whether epigenetic silencing via promoter methylation is involved in the decreased expression of DUSP-1 in diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the down regulation of the DUSP-1 gene at transcriptional and translational levels...
April 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413567/differential-adipokine-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-from-adult-offspring-of-women-with-diabetes-in-pregnancy
#14
Azadeh Houshmand-Oeregaard, Ninna S Hansen, Line Hjort, Louise Kelstrup, Christa Broholm, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Tine D Clausen, Peter Damm, Allan Vaag
BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothesized that offspring exposed to maternal diabetes exhibit alterations in epigenetic regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipokine transcription. We studied adipokine plasma levels, SAT gene expression, and DNA methylation of LEP, ADIPOQ, and RETN in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM, N = 82) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, N = 67) in pregnancy, compared to offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, N = 57)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412046/the-epigenetic-mechanism-for-discordance-of-autoimmunity-in-monozygotic-twins
#15
REVIEW
Zhongyuan Xiang, Yuanqing Yang, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu
Monozygotic twins share an identical DNA sequence but are not truly "identical". In fact, when it comes to health and disease, they may often display some level of phenotypic discordance. The cause of this discordance is often unknown. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs-mediated regulation regulate gene expression and are sensitive to external stimuli. These modifications may be seen to bridge the gap between genetics and the environment. Over the years, the importance of epigenetics as a primary mechanism for the role that the environment plays in defining phenotype has been increasingly appreciated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408391/lmna-associated-partial-lipodystrophy-anticipation-of-metabolic-complications
#16
Isabelle Jeru, Camille Vatier, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Olivier Lascols, Corinne Vigouroux
BACKGROUND: Type-2 familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD2) is a rare autosomal dominant lipodystrophic disorder due to mutations in LMNA encoding lamin A/C, a key epigenetic regulator. FPLD2 severity is determined by the occurrence of metabolic complications, especially diabetes and hypertriglyceridaemia. We evaluated the disease history and severity over generations. METHODS: This retrospective study of the largest cohort of patients with FPLD2 reported to date investigates 85 patients from 24 families comprising three generations (G1: n=39; G2: n=41; G3: n=5)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401680/dna-methylation-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Amita Bansal, Sara E Pinney
Although the factors responsible for the recent increase in the prevalence of diabetes worldwide are not entirely known, the morbidity associated with this disease results in substantial health and economic burden on society. Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation have been identified as one mechanism by which the environment interacts with the genome and there is evidence that alterations in DNA methylation may contribute to the increased prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review provides a summary of DNA methylation and its role in gene regulation, and includes descriptions of various techniques to measure site-specific and genome-wide DNA methylation changes...
May 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401169/epigenetic-regulations-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
REVIEW
Zeyuan Lu, Na Liu, Feng Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic complication of diabetes and the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease. It has been reported that multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of DN, while the molecular mechanisms that lead to DN are still not fully understood. Numerous risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy have been proposed, including ethnicity and inherited genetic differences. Recently, with the development of high-throughput technologies, there is emerging evidence that suggests the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DN...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398573/skeletal-muscle-pgc1%C3%AE-1-nucleosome-position-and-260nt-dna-methylation-determine-exercise-response-and-prevent-ectopic-lipid-accumulation-in-men
#19
Sudip Bajpeyi, Jeffrey D Covington, Erin M Taylor, Laura K Stewart, Jose E Galgani, Tara M Henagan
Endurance exercise has been shown to improve lipid oxidation and increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle: two features that have shown dependence on increased expression of the PPAR gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC1α). It is also hypothesized that exercise related alterations in PGC1α expression occur through epigenetic regulation of nucleosome positioning in association with differential DNA methylation status within the PCG1α promoter. Here we show that when primary human myotubes from obese, type 2 diabetics are exposed to lipolytic stimulus (PFI) in vitro, nucleosome occupancy surrounding the -260 nucleotide (nt) region, a known regulatory DNA methylation site, is reduced...
April 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396702/interaction-between-prenatal-pesticide-exposure-and-a-common-polymorphism-in-the-pon1-gene-on-dna-methylation-in-genes-associated-with-cardio-metabolic-disease-risk-an-exploratory%C3%A2-study
#20
Ken Declerck, Sylvie Remy, Christine Wohlfahrt-Veje, Katharina M Main, Guy Van Camp, Greet Schoeters, Wim Vanden Berghe, Helle R Andersen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental conditions may influence disease risk in later life. We previously found a gene-environment interaction between the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R genotype and prenatal pesticide exposure leading to an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile at school age. However, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. It was hypothesized that epigenetics might be involved. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in blood cells were related to prenatal pesticide exposure level, PON1 Q192R genotype, and associated metabolic effects observed in the children...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
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