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Epigenetics diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815391/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-type-1-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Samuel T Jerram, Mary N Dang, R David Leslie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetics is defined as mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that do not directly alter the DNA sequence. By implication, such epigenetic changes are non-genetically determined, although they can be affected by inherited genetic variation. Extensive evidence indicates that autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes are determined by the interaction of genetic and non-genetic factors. Much is known of the genetic causes of these diseases, but the non-genetic effects are less clear-cut...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815013/diabetic-retinopathy-reversibility-of-epigenetic-modifications-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#2
REVIEW
Xinyuan Zhang, Lin Zhao, Brett Hambly, Shisan Bao, Kaiyue Wang
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the molecular mechanisms of epigenetics in disease development and progression, the reversible characteristics of epigenetic modification provide new insights for the treatment of such diseases. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has not yet been fully understood, treatment of refractory and recurrent diabetic macular edema remains a big change in clinical practice. This review emphasizes that reversibility of epigenetic modification could provide a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800814/phthalates-impact-human-health-epidemiological-evidences-and-plausible-mechanism-of-action
#3
REVIEW
Sailas Benjamin, Eiji Masai, Naofumi Kamimura, Kenji Takahashi, Robin C Anderson, Panichikkal Abdul Faisal
Disregarding the rising alarm on the hazardous nature of various phthalates and their metabolites, ruthless usage of phthalates as plasticizer in plastics and as additives in innumerable consumer products continues due low their cost, attractive properties, and lack of suitable alternatives. Globally, in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, in vivo preclinical and limited clinical or epidemiological human studies showed that over a dozen phthalates and their metabolites ingested passively by man from the general environment, foods, drinks, breathing air, and routine household products cause various dysfunctions...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792007/shared-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-premature-ageing-and-ageing-associated-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Nard Kubben, Tom Misteli
Ageing is the predominant risk factor for many common diseases. Human premature ageing diseases are powerful model systems to identify and characterize cellular mechanisms that underpin physiological ageing. Their study also leads to a better understanding of the causes, drivers and potential therapeutic strategies of common diseases associated with ageing, including neurological disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Using the rare premature ageing disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome as a paradigm, we discuss here the shared mechanisms between premature ageing and ageing-associated diseases, including defects in genetic, epigenetic and metabolic pathways; mitochondrial and protein homeostasis; cell cycle; and stem cell-regenerative capacity...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783527/circulating-early-and-mid-pregnancy-micrornas-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes
#5
Pandora L Wander, Edward J Boyko, Karin Hevner, Viraj J Parikh, Mahlet G Tadesse, Tanya K Sorensen, Michelle A Williams, Daniel A Enquobahrie
AIMS: Epigenetic regulators, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are implicated in type 2 diabetes, but evidence linking circulating miRNAs in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) is sparse. Potential modifiers, including pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring sex, are unexamined. We hypothesized that circulating levels of early-mid-pregnancy (range 7-23weeks of gestation) candidate miRNAs are related to subsequent development of GDM. We also hypothesized that miRNA-GDM associations might vary by pre-pregnancy body-mass index (ppBMI) or offspring sex...
July 25, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780716/epigenetics-a-potential-key-mechanism-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiorenal-syndromes
#6
REVIEW
Grazia Maria Virzì, Anna Clementi, Alessandra Brocca, Massimo de Cal, Claudio Ronco
Epigenetics is defined as the heritable changes in gene expression patterns which are not directly encoded by modifications in the nucleotide DNA sequence of the genome, including higher order chromatin organization, DNA methylation, cytosine modifications, covalent histone tail modifications, and short non-coding RNA molecules. Recently, much attention has been paid to the role and the function of epigenetics and epimutations in the cellular and subcellular pathways and in the regulation of genes in the setting of both kidney and cardiovascular disease...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770179/risk-factors-for-breast-cancer-in-gaza-strip-palestine-a-case-control-study
#7
Mueen Kariri, Marwan O Jalambo, Basil Kanou, Saleh Deqes, Samaher Younis, Baker Zabut, Usama Balawi
Breast cancer (BC) is the main common cause of cancer mortality among women in the world. This study aims at investigating BC epidemiology and identifying the different risk factors associated and the most affecting ones among women in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. This study was a hospital-based case-control (1:2), as the study was carried out over the period of October 2014 to February 2015. A total of 105 BC patients, chosen from Al-Shifa Hospital in Gaza City and European hospital for the south governorate, were the case and compared to 209 women as a control group who matched the cases in age, residence, and with no history of breast problems...
July 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765836/muscle-stem-cell-and-physical-activity-what-point-is-the-debate-at
#8
Gabriele Ceccarelli, Laura Benedetti, Maria Luisa Arcari, Cecilia Carubbi, Daniela Galli
In the last 15 years, it emerged that the practice of regular physical activity reduces the risks of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.) and it is fundamental in weight control and energy consuming to contrast obesity. Different groups proposed many molecular mechanisms as responsible for the positive effects of physical activity in healthy life. However, many points remain to be clarified. In this mini-review we reported the latest observations on the effects of physical exercise on healthy skeletal and cardiac muscle focusing on muscle stem cells...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761107/regulatory-t-cells-from-pancreatic-lymphnodes-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-express-increased-levels-of-microrna-mir-125a-5p-that-limits-ccr2-expression
#9
Guido Sebastiani, Giuliana Ventriglia, Angela Stabilini, Carlo Socci, Cristina Morsiani, Andrea Laurenzi, Laura Nigi, Caterina Formichi, Bechara Mfarrej, Alessandra Petrelli, Georgia Fousteri, Todd M Brusko, Francesco Dotta, Manuela Battaglia
Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) is thought to be caused by a defective immune regulation with regulatory T (Treg) cells playing a fundamental role in this process. Tolerance mechanisms depend on tunable responses that are sensitive to minor perturbations in the expression of molecules that can be carried out by multiple epigenetic mechanisms, including regulation by microRNAs. In this study, microRNA expression profile was investigated in Treg cells isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and from pancreatic draining lymph nodes (PLN) of T1D patients and non-diabetic subjects...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751803/cape-increases-the-expression-of-sod3-through-epigenetics-in-human-retinal-endothelial-cells
#10
Atsuko Ohashi, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Tetsuro Kamiya, Hirokazu Hara, Tetsuo Adachi
Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD or SOD3), which catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anions into hydrogen peroxide, plays a key role in vascular protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS). The excess generation of ROS is closely involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR); therefore, the maintenance of SOD3 expression at high levels is important for the prevention of DR. In the present study, we showed that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) increased the expression of SOD3 through the acetylation of histone within the SOD3 promoter region in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs)...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747541/obesity-a-serious-etiologic-factor-for-male-subfertility-in-modern-society
#11
Yue Liu, Zhide Ding
Obesity, defined as excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, is a metabolic disorder resulting from behavioral, environmental and heritable causes. Such malfunction increases the risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis and cancer. Meanwhile, the negative impact of obesity on male reproduction is gradually being recognized. According to clinical investigations and animal experiments, obesity is correlated with reductions in sperm concentration and motility, increases in sperm DNA damage and changes in reproductive hormonal levels...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747257/cells-with-treg-specific-foxp3-demethylation-but-low-cd25-are-prevalent-in-autoimmunity
#12
Ricardo C Ferreira, Henry Z Simons, Whitney S Thompson, Daniel B Rainbow, Xin Yang, Antony J Cutler, Joao Oliveira, Xaquin Castro Dopico, Deborah J Smyth, Natalia Savinykh, Meghavi Mashar, Tim J Vyse, David B Dunger, Helen Baxendale, Anita Chandra, Chris Wallace, John A Todd, Linda S Wicker, Marcin L Pekalski
Identification of alterations in the cellular composition of the human immune system is key to understanding the autoimmune process. Recently, a subset of FOXP3(+) cells with low CD25 expression was found to be increased in peripheral blood from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, although its functional significance remains controversial. Here we find in comparisons with healthy donors that the frequency of FOXP3(+) cells within CD127(low)CD25(low) CD4(+) T cells (here defined as CD25(low)FOXP3(+) T cells) is increased in patients affected by autoimmune disease of varying severity, from combined immunodeficiency with active autoimmunity, SLE to type 1 diabetes...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744818/epigenetic-modification-of-tle1-induce-abnormal-differentiation-in-diabetic-mice-intestinal-epithelium
#13
Ji-Hao Xu, Guang-Cheng Chen, Can-Ze Huang, Di Cheng, Ting-Feng Wu, Si-Yi Wang, Jie-Yao Li, Tao Yu, Qi-Kui Chen
The intestinal epithelium cells (IECs) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have been proven to be abnormally differentiated. During the differentiation of IECs, epigenetic modification acts as an important regulator. In this study, we aimed to examine the epigenetic alteration of Transducin-like Enhancer of Split 1 (TLE1), a multitask transcriptional co-repressor, contributing to the differentiation homeostasis in IECs of DM mice. The IECs of type 2 diabetic mice model were isolated and collected. Methylation states of whole genomic DNA promoter regions were investigated by microarray...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740412/prevalence-of-diabetes-and-obesity-in-association-with-prematurity-and-growth-restriction
#14
REVIEW
Gretchen Kopec, Prem S Shekhawat, Maroun J Mhanna
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is when fetuses and newborn infants have not reached their true growth potential as genetically defined. Fetuses with IUGR develop in a less than ideal environment that leads to epigenetic changes and marks infants' metabolism for the rest of their lives. Epigenetic changes affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and lead to insulin resistance and ultimately to a metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of illnesses that raise one's risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and ischemic heart disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728079/probucol-ameliorates-renal-injury-in-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-the-redox-enzyme-p66shc
#15
Shikun Yang, Li Zhao, Yachun Han, Yu Liu, Chao Chen, Ming Zhan, Xiaofen Xiong, Xuejing Zhu, Li Xiao, Chun Hu, Fuyou Liu, Zhiguang Zhou, Yashpal S Kanwar, Lin Sun
AIMS: Probucol is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent and a potent antioxidant drug that can delay progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and reverses renal oxidative stress in diabetic animal models; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. p66Shc is a newly recognized mediator of mitochondrial ROS production in renal cells under high-glucose (HG) ambience. We previously showed that p66Shc can serve as a biomarker for renal oxidative injury in DN patients and that p66Shc up-regulation is correlated with renal damage in vivo and in vitro...
July 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726153/immunological-issues-after-stem-cell-based-%C3%AE-cell-replacement
#16
REVIEW
Valeria Sordi, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Islet and pancreas transplantation prove that β cell replacement can cure the glycemic derangements in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells, able to restore normoglycemia in diabetic animal models. iPSCs in particular can be derived from the somatic cells of a person with T1D. This review aims to clarify if it is possible to transplant autologous iPSC-derived β cells without immunosuppression or which are the alternative approaches...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725914/vascular-complications-in-diabetes-old-messages-new-thoughts
#17
REVIEW
Josephine M Forbes, Amelia K Fotheringham
In parallel with the growing diabetes pandemic, there is an increasing burden of micro- and macrovascular complications, occurring in the majority of patients. The identification of a number of synergistic accelerators of disease, providing therapeutic pathways, has stabilised the incidence of complications in most western nations. However, the primary instigators of diabetic complications and, thus, prevention strategies, remain elusive. This has necessitated a refocus on natural history studies, where tissue and plasma samples are sequentially taken to determine when and how disease initiates...
July 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723729/wnt-signaling-in-cardiovascular-disease-opportunities-and-challenges
#18
Austin Gay, Dwight A Towler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiometabolic diseases increasingly afflict our aging, dysmetabolic population. Complex signals regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and frizzled protein family members - the plasma membrane receptors for the cadre of Wnt polypeptide morphogens - contribute to the control of cardiovascular homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Both canonical (β-catenin-dependent) and noncanonical (β-catenin-independent) Wnt signaling programs control vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell phenotypic modulation in cardiometabolic disease...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709971/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-the-toxic-effects-associated-with-arsenic-exposure-and-the-development-of-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Fazlullah Khan, Saeideh Momtaz, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a major threat to the human health worldwide. The consumption of arsenic in drinking water and other food products is associated with the risk of development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The available experimental evidence indicates that epigenetic alterations may play an important role in the development of diseases that are linked with exposure to environmental toxicants. iAs seems to be associated with the epigenetic modifications such as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro RNA (miRNA) abundance...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706189/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-reverses-diet-induced-gene-regulatory-changes-impacting-lipid-metabolism
#20
Juan Du, Jingyan Tian, Lili Ding, Candi Trac, Brian Xia, Siming Sun, Dustin E Schones, Wendong Huang
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces sustainable weight loss, remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic benefits of VSG have remained elusive. According to our previous results, diet-induced obesity induces epigenetic modifications to chromatin in mouse liver. We demonstrate here that VSG in C57BL/6J wild-type male mice can reverse these chromatin modifications and thereby impact the expression of key metabolic genes...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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