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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922626/the-typhi-colonization-factor-tcf-is-encoded-by-multiple-non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-but-exhibits-a-varying-expression-profile-and-interchanging-contribution-to-intestinal-colonization
#1
Shalhevet Azriel, Alina Goren, Inna Shomer, Gili Aviv, Galia Rahav, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human-restricted pathogens and the leading causative agents of enteric fever. The Typhi colonization factor (Tcf) is a chaperone-usher fimbria, thought to play a role in the host-specificity of typhoidal serovars. Here we show that the tcf cluster (tcfABCD tinR tioA) is present in at least 25 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars and demonstrate its native expression in clinically-important serovars including Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Choleraesuis, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Virchow and Infantis...
September 18, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919688/vaccination-with-salmonella-typhi-recombinant-outer-membrane-protein-28-induces-humoral-but-non-protective-immune-response-in-rabbit
#2
Anjani Saxena, Rajesh Kumar, Mumtesh Kumar Saxena
AIM: Typhoid is one of the most important food and water borne disease causing millions of deaths over the world. Presently, there is no cost effective vaccine available in India. The outer-membrane proteins (Omps) of Salmonella have been exhibited as a potential candidate for development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of recombinant Omp 28 protein for immunization of rabbit to elucidate its protection against virulent Salmonella Typhi...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917915/synergistic-effect-of-chitosan-zinc-oxide-hybrid-nanoparticles-on-antibiofouling-and-water-disinfection-of-mixed-matrix-polyethersulfone-nanocomposite-membranes
#3
Iqra Munnawar, Sadia S Iqbal, Muhammad N Anwar, Mehwish Batool, Sheraz Tariq, Nosheen Faitma, Asim L Khan, Asad U Khan, Umair Nazar, Tahir Jamil, Nasir M Ahmad
Antifouling polyethersulfone (PES) membranes for water disinfection were fabricated by incorporating varying concentrations of carbohydrate polymer chitosan and Zinc oxide hybrid nanoparticles (CS-ZnO HNPS). The CS-ZnO HNPS were prepared using chemical precipitation method and were characterized using SEM, XRD and FTIR. The membranes were then fabricated by incorporating nanoparticles of CS-ZnO HNPS with three different concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% w/w in the casting solution of PES through phase inversion method...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914098/the-antimicrobial-effects-of-three-phenolic-extracts-from-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-vitis-vinifera-l-and-polygonum-cuspidatum-l-on-food-pathogens
#4
Francesca Santomauro, Cristiana Sacco, Rosa Donato, Maria Bellumori, Marzia Innocenti, Nadia Mulinacci
In this study three phenolic extracts were examined, without volatile fraction, against common food pathogens. The samples, all suitable for food application, were from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Vitis vinifera L., and the root of Polygonum cuspidatum L. The microorganisms tested were Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes, well-known as important food pathogens. The results demonstrated a microbicidal activity of all the tested compounds at different concentrations; the rosemary extract showed greater efficacy than the other compounds against the tested microorganisms...
September 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913784/managing-wastes-as-green-resources-cigarette-butt-synthesized-pesticides-are-highly-toxic-to-malaria-vectors-with-little-impact-on-predatory-copepods
#5
Kadarkarai Murugan, Udaiyan Suresh, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Mathath Roni, Al Thabiani Aziz, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli
The development of novel mosquito control tools is a key prerequisite to build effective and reliable Integrated Vector Management strategies. Here, we proposed a novel method using cigarette butts for the synthesis of Ag nanostructures toxic to young instars of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and microbial pathogens. The non-target impact of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment was evaluated testing them at sub-lethal doses on the predatory copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901372/multivalent-gold-nanoparticle-peptide-conjugates-for-targeting-intracellular-bacterial-infections
#6
Rimi Chowdhury, Humaira Ilyas, Anirban Ghosh, Haydar Ali, Arup Ghorai, Anupam Midya, Nikhil R Jana, Santasabuj Das, Anirban Bhunia
Although nanoparticle-tagged antimicrobal peptides have gained considerable importance in recent years, their structure-function correlation has not yet been explored. Here, we have studied the mechanism of action of a designed antimicrobial peptide, VG16KRKP (VARGWKRKCPLFGKGG), delivered via gold nanoparticle tagging against Salmonella infection by combining biological experiments with high- and low-resolution spectroscopic techniques. In comparison with the free VG16KRKP peptide or gold nanoparticle alone, the conjugated variant, Au-VG16KRKP, is non-cytotoxic to eukaryotic cells, but exhibits strong bacteriolytic activity in culture...
September 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893183/antimicrobial-resistance-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#7
Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Elizabeth A Ashley, Stefano Ongarello, Joshua Havumaki, Miranga Wijegoonewardena, Iveth J González, Sabine Dittrich
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely acknowledged as a global problem, yet in many parts of the world its magnitude is still not well understood. This review, using a public health focused approach, aimed to understand and describe the current status of AMR in Africa in relation to common causes of infections and drugs recommended in WHO treatment guidelines. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and other relevant databases were searched for recent articles (2013-2016) in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882783/ramr-is-not-involved-in-the-regulation-of-rama-associated-antibiotic-resistance-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#8
Minhui Miao, Wei Cao, Hongxia Wang, Jieting Yan, Min Wang, Yi Zheng, Xiaofang Xie, Xia Zhang, Haifang Zhang, Hong Du
RamA, a global transcriptional activator, belongs to the AraC/XylS family of regulatory proteins and can regulate multidrug resistance through activating the expression of AcrAB. In Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes, RamR represses the transcription of gene ramA through binding to the upstream sequences of ramA. In this study, we found that the locus and transcription directions of ramA-ramR in S. Typhi GIFU10007 are different from that in S. Typhimurium (SL1344)...
September 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873442/use-of-a-novel-antigen-expressing-system-to-study-the-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-protein-recognition-by-t-cells
#9
Rosângela Salerno-Gonçalves, Hervé Tettelin, David Lou, Stephanie Steiner, Tasmia Rezwanul, Qin Guo, William D Picking, Vishvanath Nene, Marcelo B Sztein
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever, is a pathogen of great public health importance. Typhoid vaccines have the potential to be cost-effective measures towards combating this disease, yet the antigens triggering host protective immune responses are largely unknown. Given the key role of cellular-mediated immunity in S. Typhi protection, it is crucial to identify S. Typhi proteins involved in T-cell responses. Here, cells from individuals immunized with Ty21a typhoid vaccine were collected before and after immunization and used as effectors...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859315/salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-siderophore-production-is-elevated-and-fur-inactivation-causes-cell-filamentation-and-attenuation-in-macrophages
#10
Jean-Mathieu Leclerc, Charles M Dozois, France Daigle
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium are two closely related bacteria causing different types of infection in humans. Iron acquisition is considered essential for virulence. Siderophores are important iron chelators and production of enterobactin and salmochelins by these serovars was quantified. Overall, Salmonella Typhi produced higher levels of siderophores than Salmonella Typhimurium. The role of the global regulator Fur, involved in iron homeostasis, present and conserved in both these serovars, was then investigated...
August 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858232/biofilm-producing-salmonella-typhi-chronic-colonization-and-development-of-gallbladder-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Martina Pontone, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Nonetheless, these asymptomatic carriers provide a reservoir for further spreading of the disease. Epidemiological studies performed in regions where S. Typhi is endemic, revealed that the majority of chronically infected carriers also harbour gallstones, which in turn, have been indicated as a primary predisposing factor for the onset of gallbladder cancer (GC)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851288/evaluation-of-microplate-immunocapture-method-for-detection-of-vibrio-cholerae-salmonella-typhi-and-shigella-flexneri-from-food
#12
Md Fakruddin, Md Nur Hossain, Monzur Morshed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Improved methods with better separation and concentration ability for detection of foodborne pathogens are in constant need. The aim of this study was to evaluate microplate immunocapture (IC) method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae from food samples to provide a better alternative to conventional culture based methods. RESULTS: The IC method was optimized for incubation time, bacterial concentration, and capture efficiency...
August 29, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843417/evaluation-of-primitive-ground-water-supplies-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-major-waterborne-zoonosis-in-egyptian-children-living-in-rural-areas
#13
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838447/case-report-of-salmonella-gallinarum-urinary-tract-infection-in-a-renal-allograft-recipient
#14
I Ahamed, S Nellikode, V M Annapandian
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella in a renal allograft recipient are a rare occurrence. Although there is some existing literature on Salmonella typhi bacteriuria and non-typhoidal bacteriuria, none of the cases has been reported in a renal transplant patient. This case report describes a rare instance in which group D Salmonella was isolated from a renal allograft recipient's urine culture and the patient was successfully treated with antibiotics.
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827431/tubo-ovarian-abscess-infected-by-salmonella-typhi
#15
Paban Sharma, Abhusani Bhuju, Ruhee Tuladhar, Christopher M Parry, Buddha Basnyat
We report a case of a tubo-ovarian abscess infected with Salmonella enterica serotype typhi A 19-year-old Nepalese woman presented to a hospital in Kathmandu with lower abdominal pain, constipation, fever and a non-healing, suppurative surgical wound from an emergency caesarian section performed 2 months previously at 37 weeks of pregnancy. She also had an exploratory laparotomy for an appendix perforation with peritonitis at 25 weeks of gestation. Her wound infection did not respond to cloxacillin and she had an exploratory laparotomy, and a tubo-ovarian abscess was found from which S...
August 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827342/human-genetic-variation-in-vac14-regulates-salmonella-invasion-and-typhoid-fever-through-modulation-of-cholesterol
#16
Monica I Alvarez, Luke C Glover, Peter Luo, Liuyang Wang, Elizabeth Theusch, Stefan H Oehlers, Eric M Walton, Trinh Thi Bich Tram, Yu-Lin Kuang, Jerome I Rotter, Colleen M McClean, Nguyen Tran Chinh, Marisa W Medina, David M Tobin, Sarah J Dunstan, Dennis C Ko
Risk, severity, and outcome of infection depend on the interplay of pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Systematic identification of genetic susceptibility to infection is being undertaken through genome-wide association studies, but how to expeditiously move from genetic differences to functional mechanisms is unclear. Here, we use genetic association of molecular, cellular, and human disease traits and experimental validation to demonstrate that genetic variation affects expression of VAC14, a phosphoinositide-regulating protein, to influence susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) infection...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827093/in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-stress-and-virulence-associated-repeats-in-salmonella
#17
Gourab Das, Surojit Das, Shanta Dutta, Indira Ghosh
So much genomic similarities yet causing different diseases, is like a paradox in Salmonella biology. Repeat is one of the probes that can explain such differences. Here, a comparative genomics approach is followed to identify and characterize repeats that might play role in adaptation and pathogenesis. Repeats are non-randomly distributed in the genomes except few typhoid causing strains. Perfect long repeats are rare compare to polymorphic ones and both are statistically consistent. Significant differences in repeat densities in stress related genes manifest its probable participation in survival and virulence...
August 4, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818557/dna-aptamer-identification-and-characterization-for-e-%C3%A2-coli-o157-detection-using-cell-based-selex-method
#18
Masoum Amraee, Mana Oloomi, Afsaneh Yavari, Saeid Bouzari
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes symptoms in humans. Its rapid identification should be considered to avoid toxic effects of the pathogen. In this study, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment using whole cells (Cell-SELEX) method was used for recognizing E. coli strain, O157 by single-stranded DNA library of aptamer. Nine rounds of cell-selex procedure were applied using O157, as a whole-cell target, with O42, K12, Top10, DH5α E. coli cells, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi as counterparts...
August 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792376/construction-of-an-inactivated-typhoid-vaccine-candidate-expressing-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-enterotoxin-b-subunit-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-a-murine-model
#19
Boram Kim, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
PURPOSE: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has contributed to the global public health burden, particularly in developing countries. In this study, an S. Typhi ghost was developed and its capacity as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever was assessed. METHODOLOGY: An asd+ plasmid pJHL187 harbouring a ghost cassette comprising the PhiX 174 Elysis gene tightly controlled under the convergent promotor system was transformed into an asd gene-deleted mutant S...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780413/thermo-and-ph-sensitive-hydrogel-membranes-composed-of-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-hyaluronan-for-biomedical-applications-influence-of-hyaluronan-incorporation-on-the-membrane-properties
#20
Elbadawy A Kamoun, Alaa Fahmy, Tarek H Taha, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Mohamed Makram, Hesham M A Soliman, Hassan Shehata
Interpenetrating hydrogel membranes consisting of pH-sensitive hyaluronan (HA) and thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) were synthesized using redox polymerization, followed by N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) and epichlorohydrin (EPI) were added as chemical crosslinkers. The interaction between membrane compositions has been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and discussed intensively. The result indicates that HA incorporation in membranes increase the gel fraction, swelling uptake, and the flexibility/elasticity of crosslinked membranes, however it reduced oppositely the mechanical elongation of membranes...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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