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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533468/vacuolation-activity-and-intracellular-trafficking-of-artb-the-binding-subunit-of-an-ab5-toxin-produced-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#1
Brock P Herdman, James C Paton, Hui Wang, Travis Beddoe, Adrienne W Paton
Various Salmonella enterica serovars, including S Typhi, encode an AB5 toxin (ArtAB), the A subunit of which is an ADP-ribosyltransferase related to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin. However, although the A subunit is able to catalyse ADP-ribosylation of host G proteins, a cytotoxic phenotype has yet to be identified for the holotoxin. Here we show that its B subunit pentamer (ArtB) binds to receptors on the surface of Vero (African green monkey kidney), CHO (Chinese hamster ovary), U937 (human monocyte) and HBMEC (human brain microvascular endothelial) cell lines...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526816/delineation-of-b-cell-epitopes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-hemolysin-e-potential-antibody-therapeutic-target
#2
Chai Fung Chin, Jing Yi Lai, Yee Siew Choong, Amy Amilda Anthony, Asma Ismail, Theam Soon Lim
Hemolysin E (HlyE) is an immunogenic novel pore-forming toxin involved in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Thus, mapping of B-cell epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is critical to identify key immunogenic regions of HlyE. A random 20-mer peptide library was used for biopanning with enriched anti-HlyE polyclonal antibodies from typhoid patient sera. Bioinformatic tools were used to refine, analyze and map the enriched peptide sequences against the protein to identify the epitopes. The analysis identified both linear and conformational epitopes on the HlyE protein...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522600/frontline-science-nasal-epithelial-gm-csf-contributes-to-tlr5-mediated-modulation-of-airway-dendritic-cells-and-subsequent-iga-response
#3
Yuan Cao, Ejuan Zhang, Jingyi Yang, Yi Yang, Jie Yu, Yang Xiao, Wei Li, Dihan Zhou, Yaoming Li, Bali Zhao, Hu Yan, Mengji Lu, Maohua Zhong, Huimin Yan
Flagellin, as a TLR5 agonist, is an established mucosal adjuvant for enhancing mucosal IgA responses by i.n. immunization. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are the first sentinel cells to be exposed to antigen and adjuvant in i.n. immunization, and it is suggested that they play an important role in the mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin. However, the molecular mechanism leading to modulation and the response by flagellin-activated NECs remain unknown. We aimed to identify the soluble mediator(s) from flagellin-activated NECs that modulate the functions of airway dendritic cells (DCs) and enhance subsequent IgA response...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#4
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510135/immune-response-to-vi-antigen-of-salmonella-typhi-is-dependent-on-introduction-of-positive-charge-and-shape-of-charged-group-into-polysaccharide
#5
A V Kolesnikov, A V Kozyr, A K Ryabko, I G Shemyakin, I A Dyatlov
A model of a controlled conversion of polysaccharide Vi-antigen of S. typhi into zwitterionic antigen is proposed. The immunological properties of modifications of this antigen conjugated to a protein support were studied.
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507347/performance-of-tubex%C3%A2-tf-in-the-diagnosis-of-enteric-fever-in-private-tertiary-care-hospital-peshawar-pakistan
#6
Kamran Khan, Luma Khalid, Khatira Wahid, Iftikhar Ali
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of TUBEX® TF in diagnosing enteric fever. METHODS: The retrospective study was performed at the Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised data of all patients who had blood cultures and TUBEX®TF performed as part of their evaluation from April 2011 to November 2015. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 970 patients, salmonella typhi was isolated in 43(4...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500797/fatal-flea-borne-typhus-in-texas-a-retrospective-case-series-1985-2015
#7
Emily G Pieracci, Nicole Evert, Naomi A Drexler, Bonny Mayes, Inger Vilcins, Philip Huang, Jill Campbell, Casey Barton Behravesh, Christopher D Paddock
AbstractFlea-borne (murine) typhus is a global rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi. Although flea-borne typhus is no longer nationally notifiable, cases are reported for surveillance purposes in a few U.S. states. The infection is typically self-limiting, but may be severe or life-threatening in some patients. We performed a retrospective review of confirmed or probable cases of fatal flea-borne typhus reported to the Texas Department of State Health Services during 1985-2015. When available, medical charts were also examined...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499947/effect-of-chemical-denaturants-on-the-conformational-stability-of-gyrb-subunit-of-dna-gyrase-from-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#8
Deepali Gupta, Ekta Sachdeva, Md Anzarul Haque, Safikur Rahman, Rohit Bansal, Abdul S Ethayathulla, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Punit Kaur
DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase maintains the topology of DNA by introducing negative supercoils using energy generated by ATP hydrolysis. It is composed of two subunits, GyrA and GyrB (GyrA2GyrB2 hetero-tetramer). GyrB comprises two domains, a 43kDa amino N-terminus (GBNTD) and 47kDa carboxyl C- terminus (GBCTD). Till now no study has been reported in terms of stability of Gyrase B and its domains using chemical denaturants related to its function. To understand the role of each domain in GyrB subunit, we estimated the thermodynamic stability of GBF and its individual domains using urea and GdmCl...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495314/a-novel-approach-for-construction-of-an-inactivated-typhoid-vaccine-candidate-that-effectively-augments-both-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#9
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ghost was constructed as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. An asd(+) plasmid pJHL187 harboring a ghost cassette comprised of PhiX 174 E lysis gene stringently controlled under the convergent promotor components and was transformed into the asd gene-deleted mutant S. Typhi Ty21a strain (STG). Twenty female BALB/c mice randomly assigned into two groups were subcutaneously vaccinated at 5weeks of age to assess immunogenic characteristics of the constructed STG. The level of serum IgG in the immunized mice was significantly increased during the observational period (P<0...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490424/waning-immunity-and-microbial-vaccines-workshop-of-the-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases
#10
Xin-Xing Gu, Stanley A Plotkin, Kathryn M Edwards, Alessandro Sette, Kingston H G Mills, Ofer Levy, Andrea J Sant, Annie Mo, William Alexander, Kristina T Lu, Christopher E Taylor
Since the middle of the 20th century, vaccines have made a significant public health impact controlling infectious diseases globally. Although long-term protection has been achieved with some vaccines, immunity wanes over time with others, resulting in outbreaks or epidemics of infectious diseases. Long-term protection against infectious agents with complex life cycles and antigenic variation remains a key challenge. Novel strategies to characterize the short and long-term immune responses to vaccines, and to induce immune responses that mimic natural infection have recently emerged...
May 10, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484685/vi-capsular-polysaccharide-produced-by-recombinant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-paratyphi-a-confers-immunoprotection-against-infection-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#11
Kun Xiong, Chunyue Zhu, Zhijin Chen, Chunping Zheng, Yong Tan, Xiancai Rao, Yanguang Cong
Enteric fever is predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and accounts for an annual global incidence of 26.9 millions. In recent years, the rate of S. Paratyphi A infection has progressively increased. Currently licensed vaccines for typhoid fever, live Ty21a vaccine, Vi subunit vaccine, and Vi-conjugate vaccine, confer inadequate cross immunoprotection against enteric fever caused by S. Paratyphi A. Therefore, development of bivalent vaccines against enteric fever is urgently required...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484494/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-and-paratyphi-isolates-from-a-general-hospital-in-karawaci-tangerang-indonesia-a-five-year-review
#12
Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito, Cucunawangsih
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. This study aim was to provide data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi bloodstream isolates in a general hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, during the period of January 2011 to December 2015. Susceptibility against antimicrobials was detected according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483042/reproducible-diagnostic-metabolites-in-plasma-from-typhoid-fever-patients-in-asia-and-africa
#13
Elin Näsström, Christopher M Parry, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Rapeephan R Maude, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Olena Rzhepishevska, Florian Marks, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Hyonjin Jeon, Seeun Park, Zabeen Chaudhury, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Tan Trinh Van, Anders Johansson, Arjen M Dondorp, Guy E Thwaites, Abul Faiz, Henrik Antti, Stephen Baker
Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid. Typhoid is diagnosed by blood culture, a method that lacks sensitivity, portability and speed. We have previously shown that specific metabolomic profiles can be detected in the blood of typhoid patients from Nepal (Näsström et al., 2014). Here, we performed mass spectrometry on plasma from Bangladeshi and Senegalese patients with culture confirmed typhoid fever, clinically suspected typhoid, and other febrile diseases including malaria. After applying supervised pattern recognition modelling, we could significantly distinguish metabolite profiles in plasma from the culture confirmed typhoid patients...
May 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479723/biosynthesis-characterization-and-biological-activities-of-iron-nanoparticles-using-sesamum-indicum-seeds-extract
#14
Farah Bano, Muhammad Baber, Amjad Ali, Ziaullah Shah, Syed Aun Muhammad
BACKGROUND: Iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) have got many biomedical and health applications because of biocompatible and nontoxic nature to humans. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the FeNPs using natural sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, simple and economical procedure was adopted for FeNPs synthesis. Sesame seeds were processed to obtain seed extract as a biological material for FeNPs production. FeNPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477003/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-from-grape-and-tomato-juices-and-evaluation-of-biological-activities
#15
Muhammad Zia, Shadab Gul, Javed Akhtar, Ihsan Ul Haq, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Ahsan Hussain, Sania Naz, Muhammad Fayyaz Chaudhary
The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is substantial for its application in lots of fields. Tomato and grape fruit juices were used as a reducing and capping agents for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis offered peaks in the range of 396‒420 nm that indicate the production of AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed attachment of different functional groups with Ag ion in both tomato and grape fruit extracts NPs. The X‒ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesised AgNPs have a face centred cubic confirmation...
March 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475605/the-impact-of-migration-and-antimicrobial-resistance-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-typhoid-fever-in-kathmandu-nepal-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#16
Neil J Saad, Cayley C Bowles, Bryan T Grenfell, Buddha Basnyat, Amit Arjyal, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Stephen Baker, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of the global burden of typhoid fever occurs in South Asia. Kathmandu, Nepal experienced a substantial increase in the number of typhoid fever cases (caused by Salmonella Typhi) between 2000 and 2003, which subsequently declined but to a higher endemic level than in 2000. This epidemic of S. Typhi coincided with an increase in organisms with reduced susceptibility against fluoroquinolones, the emergence of S. Typhi H58, and an increase in the migratory population in Kathmandu...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470497/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-myristica-fragrans-seed-nutmeg-extract-and-its-antibacterial-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-mdr-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates
#17
Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Ilakkia Sivaji, Selvam Kandasamy, Senbagam Duraisamy, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due its effective mode of action, eco-friendly preparation methodology, and less cytotoxicity. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous seed extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were characterized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of bioactive components acts as effective in reducing and capping agents for converting AgNO3 to AgNPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 420 nm, which is the characteristic peak of AgNPs...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465062/self-assembled-snowball-like-hybrid-nanostructures-comprising-viburnum-opulus-l-extract-and-metal-ions-for-antimicrobial-and-catalytic-applications
#18
Nilay Ildiz, Ayse Baldemir, Cevahir Altinkaynak, Nalan Özdemir, Vedat Yilmaz, Ismail Ocsoy
Herein, we report the production of novel organic-inorganic nanobio-catalytic and antimicrobial agents called "nanosnowball" (NSBs) with a rational design and elucidate the increase in the catalytic and antimicrobial activities. The NSBs resemble to guelder rose were formed of the extract of Viburnum opulus (VO) as the organic component and copper (II) ions (Cu(2+)) as the inorganic component. The effects of the VO extract and Cu(2+) concentrations on the morphology of NSBs were systematically examined and characterized with several techniques such as SEM, FT-IR, EDX and XRD...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453408/salmonella-typhi-associated-endogenous-endophthalmitis-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-literature
#19
Suchit D Dadia, Rohit Ramesh Modi, Shruti Shirwadkar, Nayana A Potdar, Chhaya A Shinde, Akshay Gopinathan Nair
AIM: To report a rare case of Salmonella typhi associated endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent male and to review the available literature. METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: A 28-year-old immunocompetent male presented with a 3-day-old history of pain, redness and diminished vision in his left eye. Conjunctival chemosis, corneal haze, and hypopyon were noted and yellowish exudates filled the vitreous cavity. A detailed elicitation of history revealed that patient had been treated for enteric fever that presented with diarrhea and fever, two weeks prior to current presentation...
April 28, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452944/green-synthesis-of-ag-ag%C3%A2-o-nanoparticles-using-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-eupatorium-odoratum-and-its-antimicrobial-and-mosquito-larvicidal-activities
#20
Elias E Elemike, Damian C Onwudiwe, Anthony C Ekennia, Christopher U Sonde, Richard C Ehiri
The health challenges associated with pathogens and ectoparasites highlight the need for effective control approaches. Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards combatting different microbial organisms and parasites. The present work reports the antimicrobial and larvicidal potential of biosynthesized Ag/Ag₂O nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Eupatorium odoratum (EO). The constituents of the leaf extract act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. The UV-VIS spectra of the nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance...
April 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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