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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351594/sero-efficacy-of-vi-polysaccharide-tetanus-toxoid-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-typbar-tcv
#1
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard
Background: Salmonella Typhi is the major cause of enteric fever in lower income countries. New conjugate vaccines show promise as public health interventions, however there are no efficacy data available from endemic areas. Methods: Data were obtained from a previously published phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-TT) with Vi-polysaccharide (Typbar; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-PS) in participants aged 2- 45 years...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350150/role-of-environmental-factors-in-shaping-spatial-distribution-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-fiji
#2
Ruklanthi de Alwis, Conall Watson, Birgit Nikolay, John H Lowry, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Colleen L Lau, Eric J Nilles, W John Edmunds, Mike Kama, Stephen Baker, Jorge Cano
Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348094/in-vitro-salmonella-typhi-biofilm-formation-on-gallstones-and-its-disruption-by-manuka-honey
#3
Abdul Hannan, Asma Ejaz Bajwa, Saira Riaz, Usman Arshad, Sidrah Saleem, Usama Ijaz Bajwa
Biofilm is a complex community of single or different types of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) attached to a surface and stick to each other through production of extracellular matrix. Salmonella typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones resulting in carrier state. Once formed, biofilm is difficult to treat. To date cholecystectomy is the only cure for this condition. Manuka honey is known to have tremendous antibiofilm activity against various organisms. S. typhi biofilm was grown in vitro on clinical samples of human cholesterol gallstones by Gallstone tube assay method for 12 days...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331369/equisetum-telmateia-extracts-chemical-compositions-antioxidant-activity-and-antimicrobial-effect-on-the-growth-of-some-pathogenic-strain-causing-poisoning-and-infection
#4
Marzie Yeganegi, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Ali Mortazavi, Javad Asili, Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Adel Beig Babaei
The aerial parts of Equisetum telmateia have been used as a source of biologically active compounds to treat inflammatory, diarrhea, stomach-ache, eczema and mouth infections in traditional medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate the extraction yield, chemical compositions, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of E. telmateia extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Chemical compositions E. telmateia was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C18 column...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327530/splenic-abscess-caused-by-salmonella-typhi-and-co-infection-with-leptospira
#5
Monalisa Sahu, Arvind Kumar, Neeraj Nischal, B G Bharath, Smita Manchanda, Naveet Wig
Splenic abscesses caused by Salmonella typhi are a very rare complication of typhoid fever in this era of use of specific antibiotics. Co-infection with Leptospira in such a patient is even rarer. Clinical diagnosis of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella is difficult owing to its rarity, being insidious in onset and having nonspecific clinical presentation. Splenic abscesses are potentially fatal complication of typhoid fever. In most of these patients, hemoglobinopathies or some other underlying immunocompromised state is usually present...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327210/paired-blood-cultures-increase-the-sensitivity-for-detecting-pathogens-in-both-inpatients-and-outpatients
#6
Bansidhar Tarai, Dinesh Jain, Poonam Das, Sandeeep Budhiraja
The objective of this study was to show the differences between paired blood cultures (PBC) versus single blood cultures (SBC) in the microbiologic yield, the sensitivity to detect pathogens and the time to positivity (TTP). We performed a retrospective study examining 112,570 blood culture samples over a 5-year period from July 2011 to May 2016 in the BacT/ALERT® 3D automated blood culture system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Bacteria and yeasts were identified using the VITEK® 2 Compact system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France)...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324337/amino-acid-conjugated-antimicrobial-drugs-synthesis-lipophilicity-activity-relationship-antibacterial-and-urease-inhibition-activity
#7
Atta Ullah, Fatima Iftikhar, Muhammad Arfan, Syeda Tayyaba Batool Kazmi, Muhammad Naveed Anjum, Ihsan-Ul Haq, Muhammad Ayaz, Sadia Farooq, Umer Rashid
Present work describes the in vitro antibacterial evaluation of some new amino acid conjugated antimicrobial drugs. Structural modification was attempted on the three existing antimicrobial pharmaceuticals namely trimethoprim, metronidazole, isoniazid. Twenty one compounds from seven series of conjugates of these drugs were synthesized by coupling with some selected Boc-protected amino acids. The effect of structural features and lipophilicity on the antibacterial activity was investigated. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against five standard American type culture collection (ATCC) i...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324231/decoding-a-salmonella-typhi-regulatory-network-that-controls-typhoid-toxin-expression-within-human-cells
#8
Casey C Fowler, Jorge E Galán
Salmonella Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever, a major global health concern. An essential virulence factor of this pathogen is typhoid toxin. In contrast to most AB-type toxins, typhoid toxin is exclusively expressed by intracellular bacteria. The regulatory networks that ensure this unique gene expression pattern are unknown. Here, we developed FAST-INSeq, a genome-wide screening approach to identify S. Typhi genes required for typhoid toxin expression within infected cells. We find that typhoid toxin expression is controlled by a silencing and counter-silencing mechanism through the opposing actions of the PhoP/PhoQ two-component regulatory system and the histone-like protein H-NS...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321997/ascertainment-of-pharmacological-activities-of-allamanda-neriifolia-hook-and-aegialitis-rotundifolia-roxb-used-in-bangladesh-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#9
Imam Hasan, Md Saddam Hussain, Md Shalahuddin Millat, Niloy Sen, Md Abdur Rahman, Md Atikur Rahman, Safiqul Islam, Md Mizanur Rahman Moghal
The present study was cherished to investigate in vitro thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing and antibacterial activities of Allamanda neriifolia and Aegialitis rotundifolia. Different types methanolic extracts of these two medicinal plants were tested for determining membrane stabilizing activity at a hypotonic solution and heat induce condition by comparing with reference standard acetyl salicylic acid (0.10 mg/mL), where thrombolytic activity assessment was done by employing Streptokinase as standard drug...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321996/comparative-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-potential-of-ethanolic-extract-and-its-fractions-of-bark-and-leaves-of-terminalia-arjuna-from-north-western-himalayas-india
#10
Vikas Kumar, Nitin Sharma, Anuradha Sourirajan, Prem Kumar Khosla, Kamal Dev
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and its different solvent fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction) of bark and leaves of Terminalia arjuna. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against six bacterial stains. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using DPPH, FRAP and Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay. The total phenolics and flavonoid content were found to be higher in n-butanolic fraction of bark (294...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320233/antibacterial-activities-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-and-chemical-sanitizers-directly-on-green-leaves-contaminated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#11
Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Ma Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Alberto J Gordillo-Martínez, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Javier Castro-Rosas
Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317704/biofilm-formation-protects-salmonella-from-the-antibiotic-ciprofloxacin-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-the-mouse-model-of-chronic-carriage
#12
Juan F González, Halley Alberts, Joel Lee, Lauren Doolittle, John S Gunn
Typhoid fever is caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica sv. Typhi. Approximately 5% of people that resolve the disease become chronic carriers, with the gallbladder as the main reservoir of the bacteria. Of these, about 90% present with gallstones, on which Salmonella form biofilms. Because S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen, these carriers are the main source of dissemination of the disease; unfortunately, antibiotic treatment has shown to be an ineffective therapy. This is believed to be caused by the inherent antibiotic resistance conferred by Salmonella biofilms growing on gallstones...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306008/the-mals-5-utr-weakens-the-ability-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-to-survive-in-macrophages-by-increasing-intracellular-atp-levels
#13
Fang Dong, Lin Xia, Renfei Lu, Xin Zhao, Yiquan Zhang, Ying Zhang, Xinxiang Huang
Bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), as important regulatory factors, are involved in many cellular processes, including virulence and protection against environmental stress. The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of malS (named malS-5'UTR), a regulatory ncRNA, increases the invasive capacity and influences histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In this study, we found that overexpression of the malS-5'UTR decreased S. Typhi survival within macrophages. A microarray analysis of a strain overexpressing the malS-5'UTR revealed a significant increase in the mRNA levels of the atp operon...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302648/incidence-of-malaria-typhoid-co-infection-among-adult-population-in-unwana-community-afikpo-north-local-government-area-ebonyi-state-southeastern-nigeria
#14
O O Odikamnoro, I M Ikeh, F N Okoh, S C Ebiriekwe, I A Nnadozie, J O Nkwuda, G C Asobie
Background: Malaria and typhoid fever are two leading infections of poverty with serious health and socioeconomic impacts, and due to their geographical overlap, co-infections are very common. Their mimicking symptomatology often present with gross misdiagnosis and mistreatment. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of malaria and typhoid co-infections among adult population in Unwana Community, Afikpo-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifty (350) individuals were examined, their blood samples subjected to microscopic examination and widal agglutination tests, for identification of Plasmodium parasites and antibodies to Salmonella enterica serovar typhi respectively...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298099/propidium-monoazide-quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-enumeration-of-some-viable-but-nonculturable-foodborne-bacteria-in-meat-and-meat-products
#15
Norhan Khairy Abd El-Aziz, Yasmine Hasanine Tartor, Ahlam Abd El-Aziz Gharib, Ahmed Mohamed Ammar
Foodborne infections due to bacterial pathogens are increasing worldwide. Given the surreptitious nature of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria, they largely remain a threat to public health and food safety due to their non-detectability through conventional plate count techniques. Hence, species-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) was used along with the plate count method to quantify VBNC Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Enterobacteriaceae in fresh and processed meat samples...
January 3, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296686/disinfection-of-water-with-new-chitosan-modified-hybrid-clay-composite-adsorbent
#16
Emmanuel I Unuabonah, Adewale Adewuyi, Matthew O Kolawole, Martins O Omorogie, Olalekan C Olatunde, Scott O Fayemi, Christina Günter, Chukwunonso P Okoli, Foluso O Agunbiade, Andreas Taubert
Hybrid clay composites were prepared from Kaolinite clay and Carica papaya seeds via modification with chitosan, Alum, NaOH, and ZnCl2 in different ratios, using solvothermal and surface modification techniques. Several composite adsorbents were prepared, and the most efficient of them for the removal of gram negative enteric bacteria was the hybrid clay composite that was surface-modified with chitosan, Ch-nHYCA 1:5 (Chitosan: nHYCA = 1:5). This composite adsorbent had a maximum adsorption removal value of 4...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287062/the-influence-of-conjugation-variables-on-the-design-and-immunogenicity-of-a-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-salmonella-typhi
#17
M Arcuri, R Di Benedetto, A F Cunningham, A Saul, C A MacLennan, F Micoli
In recent years there have been major efforts to develop glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi polysaccharide that will protect against Salmonella enterica Typhi infections, particularly typhoid fever, which remains a major public health concern in low-income countries. The design of glycoconjugate vaccines influences the immune responses they elicit. Here we systematically test the response in mice to Vi glycoconjugates that differ in Vi chain length (full-length and fragmented), carrier protein, conjugation chemistry, saccharide to protein ratio and size...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282143/azithromycin-versus-placebo-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-breathe-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276661/microencapsulation-of-reuterin-to-enhance-long-term-efficacy-against-food-borne-pathogen-listeria-monocytogenes
#19
Santosh Kumar Mishra, R K Malik, Harsh Panwar, Amit Kumar Barui
The aim of this study was to microencapsulate the reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri BPL-36 strain for its long-term efficacy against food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Lactobacillus reuteri BPL-36 strain previously isolated from a human infant fecal sample in lab was selected for the present study based on its ability to produce reuterin. The organism displayed a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Reuterin concentration of 89.63 mM was obtained in the MRS-glycerol medium after 16 h incubation at 37 °C...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276051/discovery-research-and-development-of-new-antibiotics-the-who-priority-list-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-tuberculosis
#20
Evelina Tacconelli, Elena Carrara, Alessia Savoldi, Stephan Harbarth, Marc Mendelson, Dominique L Monnet, Céline Pulcini, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Jan Kluytmans, Yehuda Carmeli, Marc Ouellette, Kevin Outterson, Jean Patel, Marco Cavaleri, Edward M Cox, Chris R Houchens, M Lindsay Grayson, Paul Hansen, Nalini Singh, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Nicola Magrini
BACKGROUND: The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a substantial threat to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to its large public health and societal implications, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has been long regarded by WHO as a global priority for investment in new drugs. In 2016, WHO was requested by member states to create a priority list of other antibiotic-resistant bacteria to support research and development of effective drugs. METHODS: We used a multicriteria decision analysis method to prioritise antibiotic-resistant bacteria; this method involved the identification of relevant criteria to assess priority against which each antibiotic-resistant bacterium was rated...
December 21, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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