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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344124/comparative-genomics-of-transport-proteins-in-probiotic-and-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-strains
#1
Jimmy Do, Hassan Zafar, Milton H Saier
Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species that can be pathogenic, probiotic, commensal, or a harmless laboratory strain. Pathogenic strains of E. coli cause urinary tract infections, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and pyelonephritis, while the two known probiotic E. coli strains combat inflammatory bowel disease and play a role in immunomodulation. Salmonella enterica, a close relative of E. coli, includes two important pathogenic serovars, Typhi and Typhimurium, causing typhoid fever and enterocolitis in humans, respectively, with the latter strain also causing a lethal typhoid fever-like disease in mice...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337196/salmonella-typhi-porins-ompc-and-ompf-are-potent-adjuvants-for-t-dependent-and-t-independent-antigens
#2
Marisol Pérez-Toledo, Nuriban Valero-Pacheco, Rodolfo Pastelin-Palacios, Cristina Gil-Cruz, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Mario A Moreno-Eutimio, Ingeborg Becker, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Adam F Cunningham, Armando Isibasi, Laura C Bonifaz, Constantino López-Macías
Several microbial components, such as bacterial DNA and flagellin, have been used as experimental vaccine adjuvants because of their inherent capacity to efficiently activate innate immune responses. Likewise, our previous work has shown that the major Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF (porins) are highly immunogenic protective antigens that efficiently stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants. Moreover, S. Typhi porins induce the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells through toll-like receptor canonical signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#3
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#4
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319869/biofilm-inhibition-formation-of-clinical-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutans-photocatalytic-activity-of-azo-dye-and-gc-ms-analysis-of-leaves-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa
#5
V Sai Saraswathi, Neethu Kamarudheen, K V Bhaskara Rao, K Santhakumar
The investigation was conducted to analyse the bioactive compounds from the leaf extracts of L. speciosa by GC-MS. The extracts were screened for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against potential clinical strains. The bioactive compounds from the leaves of L. speciosa were extracted by soxhlet continuous extraction method and their chemical composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical strain like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303985/pattern-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-of-salmonella-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-islamabad
#6
Azmat Ali, Hafiz Awais Ali, Fazal Hussain Shah, Arslan Zahid, Hina Aslam, Benazir Javed
OBJECTIVE: To see the pattern of antimicrobial drug resistance among Salmonella serovars. METHODS: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted at Khan Research Laboratories Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May 2012 to December 2014. All patients presenting with typhoid fever with positive blood culture were included. Age, gender, salmonella serovar and sensitivity to 9 antimicrobial drugs were taken into account. The tested antimicrobial drugs were ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefixime...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303820/characterisation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonellae-during-2014-2015-from-four-centres-across-india-an-icmr-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-network-report
#7
Sushila Dahiya, Priyanka Sharma, Bhavana Kumari, Sangeeta Pandey, Rooma Malik, Neelam Manral, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Pallab Ray, Vikas Gautam, Sujata Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Kamini Walia, Vinod Ohri, Bimal Kumar Das, Seema Sood, Arti Kapil
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to establish 'Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network' in India and to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical isolates to establish a national network across the country for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, nodal centre with clinical isolates of Salmonellae collected from four centres across India, which included Christian Medical College, Vellore; Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303138/importance-of-salmonella-typhi-responsive-cd8-t-cell-immunity-in-a-human-typhoid-fever-challenge-model
#8
Stephanie Fresnay, Monica A McArthur, Laurence S Magder, Thomas C Darton, Claire Jones, Claire S Waddington, Christoph J Blohmke, Brian Angus, Myron M Levine, Andrew J Pollard, Marcelo B Sztein
Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we report that high levels of S. Typhi-responsive CD8+ T cells at baseline significantly correlate with an increased risk of disease in humans challenged with a high dose (~10(4) CFU) wild-type S. Typhi. Typhoid fever development was associated with higher multifunctional S...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289147/gfpuv-expressing-recombinant-rickettsia-typhi-a-useful-tool-for-the-study-of-pathogenesis-and-cd8-t-cell-immunology-in-rickettsia-typhi-infection
#9
Matthias Hauptmann, Nicole Burkhardt, Ulrike Munderloh, Svenja Kuehl, Ulricke Richardt, Susanne Krasemann, Kristin Hartmann, Till Krech, Bernhard Fleischer, Christian Keller, Anke Osterloh
Rickettsia (R) typhi is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease that occurs wordwide with increasing incidence and can be fatal. Because of its obligate intracellular life style, genetic manipulation of this pathogen is difficult. Nonetheless, in recent years genetic manipulation tools have been successfully applied to rickettsiae. We describe here for the first time the transformation of R. typhi with the pRAM18dRGA plasmid that originally derives from R. amblyommatis and encodes for the expression of GFP(uv) Transformed R...
March 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285586/serological-evidence-of-exposure-to-rickettsia-felis-and-rickettsia-typhi-in-australian-veterinarians
#10
Yen Thon Teoh, Sze Fui Hii, Mark A Stevenson, Stephen Graves, Robert Rees, John Stenos, Rebecca J Traub
BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi are emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses causing fever and flu-like symptoms. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure to these organisms was explored in Australian veterinarians. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one veterinarians from across Australia were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Veterinarians provided a single blood sample and answered a questionnaire on potential risk factors influencing their exposure to R...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282600/determination-of-free-polysaccharide-in-vi-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-typhoid-fever
#11
C Giannelli, E Cappelletti, R Di Benedetto, F Pippi, M Arcuri, V Di Cioccio, L B Martin, A Saul, F Micoli
Glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi capsular polysaccharide directed against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are licensed or in development against typhoid fever, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Quantification of free polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines is an important quality control for release, to monitor vaccine stability and to ensure appropriate immune response. However, we found that existing separation methods based on size are not appropriate as free Vi non-specifically binds to unconjugated and conjugated protein...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280021/whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing-of-cephalosporin-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#12
Camilla Rodrigues, Arti Kapil, Anita Sharma, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Gagandeep Kang
Typhoid is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing countries. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains isolated from bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital. The sequence data indicate genomes of ~4.5 Mb for all isolates, with one plasmid in each.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270274/crispr-cas-system-presents-multiple-transcriptional-units-including-antisense-rnas-that-are-expressed-in-minimal-medium-and-upregulated-by-ph-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#13
Liliana Medina-Aparicio, Javier E Rebollar-Flores, América A Beltrán-Luviano, Alejandra Vázquez, Rosa M Gutiérrez-Ríos, Leticia Olvera, Edmundo Calva, Ismael Hernández-Lucas
The CRISPR-Cas system is involved in bacterial immunity, virulence, gene regulation, biofilm formation and sporulation. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, this system consists of five transcriptional units including antisense RNAs. It was determined that these genetic elements are expressed in minimal medium and are up-regulated by pH. In addition, a transcriptional characterization of cas3 and ascse2-1 is included herein.
February 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268075/vaccination-of-active-component-us-military-personnel-against-salmonella-typhi
#14
Chad K Porter, Tia Sorrell, Indrani Mitra, Mark S Riddle
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Typhi. We describe the use of S. Typhi vaccination in this population and the acute reactogenicity profile of these vaccines. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and vaccination identified between 1998 and 2011 from vaccination codes...
March 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264003/significance-of-major-international-seaports-in-the-distribution-of-murine-typhus-in-taiwan
#15
Chi-Chien Kuo, Nicola Wardrop, Chung-Te Chang, Hsi-Chieh Wang, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: International seaports are hotspots for disease invasion and pathogens can persist in seaports even after ports are abandoned. Transmitted by fleas infected by Rickettsia typhi, murine typhus, a largely neglected and easily misdiagnosed disease, is known to occur primarily in large seaports. However, the significance of seaports in the occurrence of murine typhus has never been validated quantitatively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the spatial distribution of murine typhus, a notifiable disease, in Taiwan...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261270/cooccurrence-of-metastatic-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-and-salmonella-induced-neck-abscess-in-a-cervical-lymph-node
#16
Jae-Myung Kim, Ju-Yeon Kim, Eun Jung Jung, Eun Jin Song, Dong Chul Kim, Chi-Young Jeong, Young-Tae Ju, Young-Joon Lee, Soon-Chan Hong, Sang-Kyung Choi, Woo-Song Ha
Cervical lymph node metastasis is common in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Salmonella species are rarely reported as causative agents in focal infections of the head and neck. The cooccurrence of lymph node metastasis from PTC and a bacterial infection is rare. This report describes a 76-year-old woman with a cervical lymph node metastasis from PTC and Salmonella infection of the same lymph node. The patient presented with painful swelling in her left lateral neck region for 15 days, and neck ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a cystic mass along left levels II-IV...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260765/comparison-of-molecular-detection-method-nested-polymerase-chain-reaction-with-blood-culture-and-paired-widal-test-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-typhoid-fever
#17
S Khan, R A Miah, S Pal, S Khatun, N Fatema, R R Roy, C R Naheen
Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Blood culture & serological tests (specially Widal test) which are invariably done in Bangladesh for typhoid fever diagnosis give unacceptable levels of false negative & false positive results respectively. This cross sectional study was done at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from March 2013 to February 2014. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-based technique (which has 100% specificity for Salmonella Typhi) was compared with blood culture and widal test among 80 clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259176/molecular-and-serological-evidence-of-flea-associated-typhus-group-and-spotted-fever-group-rickettsial-infections-in-madagascar
#18
Rado J L Rakotonanahary, Alan Harrison, Alice N Maina, Ju Jiang, Allen L Richards, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer
BACKGROUND: Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for many febrile syndromes around the world, including in sub-Saharan Africa. Vectors of these pathogens include ticks, lice, mites and fleas. In order to assess exposure to flea-associated Rickettsia species in Madagascar, human and small mammal samples from an urban and a rural area, and their associated fleas were tested. RESULTS: Anti-typhus group (TGR)- and anti-spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR)-specific IgG were detected in 24 (39%) and 21 (34%) of 62 human serum samples, respectively, using indirect ELISAs, with six individuals seropositive for both...
March 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256469/epidemiological-investigation-of-an-outbreak-of-typhoid-fever-in-jorhat-town-of-assam-india
#19
Jashbeer Singh Roy, Lahari Saikia, Mithu Medhi, Dipak Tassa
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a global health problem and is also endemic in India. An outbreak of fever occurred in January 2014 in Jorhat Town in Assam, India. Here we report the results of an investigation done to find out the aetiology and source of the outbreak. METHODS: The affected areas were visited on January 23, 2014 by a team of Jorhat district Integrated Disease Surveillance Project personnel. A total of 13 blood samples from patients with fever as first symptom and six water samples were collected from the affected areas...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254988/draft-genome-sequence-of-salmonellaenterica-serovar-typhi-imr_tp298-15-a-strain-with-intermediate-susceptibility-to-ciprofloxacin-isolated-from-a-typhoid-outbreak
#20
Norazah Ahmad, Shirley Yi Fen Hii, Rohaidah Hashim, Rahizan Issa
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin is increasingly being reported globally. An outbreak caused by Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility has not been reported before in Malaysia. We present here the annotated draft genome of a Salmonella Typhi strain involved in a typhoid outbreak.
March 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
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