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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742135/salmonella-enterica-serovar-specific-transcriptional-reprogramming-of-infected-cells
#1
Sebastian Hannemann, Jorge E Galán
Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, different Salmonella enterica serovars are often associated with very different clinical presentations. In humans, for example, the typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. In contrast, the non-typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhimurium causes self-limiting gastroenteritis. The molecular bases for these different clinical presentations are incompletely understood. The ability to re-program gene expression in host cells is an essential virulence factor for typhoidal and non-typhoidal S...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739115/a-recombinant-protein-of-salmonella-typhi-induces-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-including-memory-responses
#2
Sayan Das, Rimi Chowdhury, Shubhamoy Ghosh, Santasabuj Das
Gram negative enteric bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. While a permanent solution to the problem would require improved sanitation, food and water hygiene, controlling the infection by vaccination is urgently required due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains in multiple countries. The currently licensed vaccines are moderately efficacious with limited applicability, and no recommended vaccines exist for younger children...
July 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735760/first-characterization-of-immunogenic-conjugates-of-vi-negative-salmonella-typhi-o-specific-polysaccharides-with-repa-protein-for-vaccine-development
#3
M Salman, F St Michael, A Ali, A Jabbar, C Cairns, A C Hayes, M Rahman, M Iqbal, A Haque, A D Cox
Efficacious typhoid vaccines for young children will significantly reduce the disease burden in developing world. The Vi polysaccharide based conjugate vaccines (Vi-rEPA) against Salmonella Typhi Vi positive strains has shown high efficacy but may be ineffective against Vi negative S. Typhi. In this study, for the first time, we report the synthesis and evaluation of polysaccharide-protein conjugates of Vi negative S. Typhi as potential vaccine candidates. Four different conjugates were synthesized using recombinant exoprotein A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (rEPA) and human serum albumin (HSA) as the carrier proteins, using either direct reductive amination or an intermediate linker molecule, adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727726/a-cross-sectional-seroepidemiological-survey-of-typhoid-fever-in-fiji
#4
Conall H Watson, Stephen Baker, Colleen L Lau, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Niel Hens, John Lowry, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Jorge Cano, Kylie Jenkins, E Kim Mulholland, Eric J Nilles, Mike Kama, W John Edmunds
Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724927/dual-functionality-nanobioconjugates-targeting-intracellular-bacteria-in-cancer-cells-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity
#5
Rohini Singh, Smita Patil, Neetu Singh, Shalini Gupta
Bacterial drug resistance has emerged as a serious global threat mandating the development of novel methodologies that allow facile modulation of antimicrobial action in a controlled fashion. Conjugating antibiotics to nanoparticles helps to meet this goal by increasing the drug's overall avidity, bioavailability and easier internalisation into mammalian cells, targeting bacteria that otherwise escape antibacterial action by host cell-localisation. We used polymyxin B sulfate (PMB) and sushi peptide as model drugs against Gram-negative bacteria and established their enhanced antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli (E...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721851/development-and-evaluation-of-a-multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeats-analysis-assay-for-subtyping-salmonella-typhi-strains-from-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Nomsa P Tau, Anthony M Smith, John R Wain, Andrew Tarupiwa, Kalpy J Coulibaly, Karen H Keddy, Germs-Sa
PURPOSE: Molecular epidemiological investigations of the highly clonal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are important in outbreak detection and in tracking disease transmission. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for characterization of S. Typhi isolates from sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY: Twelve previously reported VNTR loci were evaluated and an MLVA assay consisting of five polymorphic loci was adopted...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721392/the-response-to-typhi-vi-vaccination-is-compromised-in-individuals-with-primary-immunodeficiency
#7
Jeevani Kumarage, Suranjith L Seneviratne, Vijitha Senaratne, Amitha Fernando, Kirthi Gunasekera, Bandu Gunasena, Padmalal Gurugama, Sudath Peiris, Antony R Parker, Stephen Harding, Nilhan Rajiva de Silva
Measurement of an individuals ability to respond to polysaccharide antigens is a crucial test to determine adaptive immunity. Currently the response to Pneumovax(®) is utilized but with the success of Prevnar(®), measurement of the response to Pneumovax may be challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the response to Typhi Vi vaccination in both children and adult control groups and patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). In the control groups, >95% of the individuals had pre Typhi Vi vaccination concentrations <100 U/mL and there was significant increase in concentration post Typhi Vi vaccination (p<0...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692655/population-based-incidence-seasonality-and-serotype-distribution-of-invasive-salmonellosis-among-children-in-nanoro-rural-burkina-faso
#8
Issa Guiraud, Annelies Post, Seydou Nakanabo Diallo, Palpouguini Lompo, Jessica Maltha, Kamala Thriemer, Christian Marc Tahita, Benedikt Ley, Karim Derra, Emmanuel Bottieau, Adama Kazienga, Céline Schurmans, Raffaella Ravinetto, Eli Rouamba, Johan Van Griensven, Sophie Bertrand, Halidou Tinto, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by Salmonella Typhi and invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) frequently affect children living in rural sub-Saharan Africa but data about incidence and serotype distribution are rare. OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the population-based incidence of Salmonella BSI and severe malaria in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in a rural area with seasonal malaria transmission in Nanoro, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Children between 2 months-15 years old with severe febrile illness were enrolled during a one-year surveillance period (May 2013-May 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685705/chronic-active-parietal-osteomyelitis-due-to-salmonella-typhi-in-a-patient-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#9
Ahmad Antar, George Karam, Maurice Kfoury, Nadim El-Majzoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681830/isolation-of-salmonella-typhi-from-high-vaginal-swab-in-a-case-of-septic-abortion
#10
Pragnya Paramita Jena, Shalini Dewan Duggal, Avinash Kumar, Tanisha Bharara, Abha Sharma, Renu Gur
Salmonella Typhi can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant females with adverse outcomes. Risk of infections increases manifold during pregnancy due to hormonal changes and immunological phenomena. S. Typhi has the ability to cross placenta (vertical transmission) resulting in miscarriage, stillbirth or premature labour. We report a case of a pregnant female who was admitted to emergency department with fever, missed abortion and hypovolaemic shock. Subsequently, S. Typhi was isolated from her high vaginal swab and blood cultures...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674312/molecular-subtyping-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-by-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-and-multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-in-india-their-association-with-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles
#11
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Indranil Roy, Sathish Sankar, Rajni Gaind, Monorama Deb, Raghavendra Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar Paul, Shanta Dutta
Molecular subtyping, and recently DNA sequencing based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, leads to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We included S. Typhi blood isolates (n=66) from India during 2007-14 for molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in association with antibiotic resistance profiles...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674145/the-strataa-study-protocol-a-programme-to-assess-the-burden-of-enteric-fever-in-bangladesh-malawi-and-nepal-using-prospective-population-census-passive-surveillance-serological-studies-and-healthcare-utilisation-surveys
#12
Thomas C Darton, James E Meiring, Susan Tonks, Md Arifuzzaman Khan, Farhana Khanam, Mila Shakya, Deus Thindwa, Stephen Baker, Buddha Basnyat, John D Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Christiane Dolecek, Sarah J Dunstan, Melita A Gordon, Robert S Heyderman, Kathryn E Holt, Virginia E Pitzer, Firdausi Qadri, K Zaman, Andrew J Pollard
INTRODUCTION: Invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A are estimated to account for 12-27 million febrile illness episodes worldwide annually. Determining the true burden of typhoidal Salmonellae infections is hindered by lack of population-based studies and adequate laboratory diagnostics.The Strategic Typhoid alliance across Africa and Asia study takes a systematic approach to measuring the age-stratified burden of clinical and subclinical disease caused by typhoidal Salmonellae infections at three high-incidence urban sites in Africa and Asia...
July 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670637/serotyping-and-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-of-salmonella-isolated-from-lettuce-and-human-diarrhea-samples-in-burkina-faso
#13
Somda Namwin Siourimè, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste Isidore, Traoré Oumar, Bassolé Ismael Henri Nestor, Traoré Yves, Barro Nicolas, Savadogo Aly
BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods:Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 14 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion method...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658831/enteric-cholestatic-hepatitis-with-ascites-a-rare-entity
#14
Samarth Virmani, Rama Bhat, Raghavendra Rao, Savio Dsouza, Nitin Bhat
Typhoid fever is a very common illness in developing countries. Patients most often present with a history of fever, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, etc. Rarely there is hepatic involvement due to the disease process. This is a case report of a 26-year-old male who had presented with fever, jaundice and ascites. The widal titres were found to be within normal limits (1:80) however the patient was found to have Salmonella typhi on ascitic fluid culture. The patient was treated with the appropriate antibiotics and was later discharged...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656014/the-role-of-typhoid-toxin-in-salmonella-typhi-virulence%C3%A2
#15
REVIEW
Alexander Chong, Sohyoung Lee, Yi-An Yang, Jeongmin Song
Unlike many of the nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that cause restricted gastroenteritis, Salmonella Typhi is unique in that it causes life-threatening typhoid fever in humans. Despite the vast difference in disease outcomes that S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium cause in humans, there are few genomic regions that are unique to S. Typhi. Of these regions, the most notable is the small locus encoding typhoid toxin, an AB toxin that has several distinct characteristics that contribute to S. Typhi's pathogenicity...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653912/antimicrobial-antioxidant-potential-and-phytochemical-screening-of-fagonia-olivieri
#16
Anwar Ali Shad, - Zakirudin, Jehan Bakht, Saleem Jan
The present paper investigates antioxidant, antimicrobial and photochemical screening different extracts of Fagonia olivieri. Analysis of the data indicated that the subject plant contained a good amount of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. Maximum concentrations of phenolic compounds was found in methanol fraction (29.0±6.12 mg GAE/g) while minimum (22.10±6.31mg GAE/g) in methylated spirit fraction. Similarly, ethanol fraction contained higher concentration of flavonoid content (135...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652984/direct-evidence-of-rickettsia-typhi-infection-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-ticks-and-their-canine-hosts
#17
Karla Dzul-Rosado, Cesar Lugo-Caballero, Raul Tello-Martin, Karina López-Avila, Jorge Zavala-Castro
Murine typhus is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi, whose transmission is carried out by rat fleas in urban settlements as classically known, but it also has been related to cat fleas in a sub-urban alternative cycle that has been suggested by recent reports. These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals like cats, opossums and dogs could be implied in the transmission of Rickettsia typhi as infected fleas obtained from serologically positive animals have been detected in samples from endemic areas...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651578/characterization-of-phytoconstituents-and-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-activity-of-silver-extract-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-momordica-charantia-fruit-extract
#18
Md Mamun Or Rashid, Kazi Nahid Akhter, Jakir Ahmed Chowdhury, Foysal Hossen, Md Saddam Hussain, Md Tanvir Hossain
BACKGROUND: Our present study was conducted to characterize the phytoconstituents present in the aqueous extract of Momordica charantia and evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-extract nanoparticles (Ag-Extract-NPs). METHODS: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reducing AgNO3; and NaBH4 served as reducing agent. After screening of phytochemicals; AgNPs and aqueous extract were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. These NPs were characterized by using Visual inspection, UV spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM and TEM techniques...
June 26, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650129/in-vitro-efficacy-and-in-silico-analysis-of-cefixime-ofloxacin-combination-for-salmonella-typhi-from-bloodstream-infection
#19
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Thirumal Kumar D, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, Baby Abirami S, Priyanka Babu, Elakkiya Munusamy, Bhuvaneswari Thukkaram, Raji Ravi, George Priya Doss C, Balaji Veeraraghavan
AIMS: Recently, the cefixime-ofloxacin combination is approved by drug controller general of India (DCGI) to treat typhoid fever. We sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of cefixime-ofloxacin combination against S. Typhi. METHODS AND RESULTS: 283 non-duplicate S. Typhi isolates collected during 2012 to 2014 were included in this study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefixime and ofloxacin was determined by using broth microdilution method. Combinational testing was performed by using checkerboard assay...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649632/three-dimensional-organotypic-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-to-study-salmonella-enterica-colonization-patterns
#20
Jennifer Barrila, Jiseon Yang, Aurélie Crabbé, Shameema F Sarker, Yulong Liu, C Mark Ott, Mayra A Nelman-Gonzalez, Simon J Clemett, Seth D Nydam, Rebecca J Forsyth, Richard R Davis, Brian E Crucian, Heather Quiriarte, Kenneth L Roland, Karen Brenneman, Clarence Sams, Christine Loscher, Cheryl A Nickerson
Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments encountered by Salmonella, we developed and validated a novel three-dimensional co-culture infection model of colonic epithelial cells and macrophages using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
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