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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733944/the-gastric-and-intestinal-microbiome-role-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Artem Minalyan, Lilit Gabrielyan, David Scott, Jonathan Jacobs, Joseph R Pisegna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of Helicobacter pylori and other organisms colonizing the stomach and the intestines has shed some light on the importance of microbiome in maintaining overall health and developing pathological conditions when alterations in biodiversity are present. The gastric acidity plays a crucial role in filtering out bacteria and preventing development of enteric infections. In this article, we discuss the physiology of gastric acid secretion and bacterial contribution to the composition of gastric and intestinal barriers and review the current literature on the role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the microbial biodiversity of the gastrointestinal tract...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728310/the-effect-of-h2-receptor-antagonist-in-acid-inhibition-and-its-clinical-efficacy
#2
REVIEW
Young Kwang Shim, Nayoung Kim
The first histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) were developed in the early 1970s. They played a dominant role in treating peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). H2RAs block the production of acid by H(+), K(+)-ATPase at the parietal cells and produce gastric luminal anacidity for varying periods. H2RAs are highly selective, and they do not affect H1 receptors. Moreover, they are not anticholinergic agents. Sequential development of H2RAs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and discovery of Helicobacter pylori infection changed the paradigm of peptic ulcer disease with marked decrease of morbidity and mortality...
July 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625138/membrane-bound-atp-dependent-energy-systems-as-extra-and-intracellular-key-signals-for-gastrointestinal-functions-and-their-regulations-in-the-gastrointestinal-mucosa
#3
Gyula Mózsik, Imre László Szabó, József Czimmer
AIMS: Our research group has carried out various biochemical examinations in rat gastric ulcer models and in human gastrointestinal resecates obtained from patient who underwent gastric intervention due to peptic ulcer disease. Biochemical methods gave excellent possibility to approach the biochemical events taking place in tissues, cellular and subcellular regulatory levels during of ulcer development and of its prevetions. This paper gives a briefsummary of these biochemical examinations conducted during this study period started from the 1960's up till now...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574381/-measurement-of-histones-and-circulating-extracellular-nucleic-acids-in-patients-with-complicated-forms-of-peptic-ulcer
#4
G Yerznkyan, B Kultanov, K Shakeev, Ye Tatina
We studied 135 people (24 people, apparently healthy, 39 uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease, 42 people with complex forms peptic ulcer, 30 and after the treatment of complicated forms of peptic ulcer disease, both sexes (18-45 y.). In all patients, the diagnosis was confirmed fibrogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Determination of histones and acid soluble fraction (ASF), RNA, DNA, in blood was performed by the method of L. Markusheva. Studies have led to the conclusion that the change in the blood concentration of extracellular nucleic acids in patients with uncomplicated disease and complex shapes can be caused by oxidative stress products and can be a signal for elimination of nucleic acids from cells...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569554/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-related-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-types-of-drug-use-and-patient-profiles-in-real-clinical-practice
#5
Carlos Sostres, Patrica Carrera-Lasfuentes, Angel Lanas
BACKGROUND: The best available evidence regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-related gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding comes from randomized controlled trials including patients who use NSAIDs to manage chronic rheumatic diseases; however, patients with varying background profiles commonly take NSAIDs for many other reasons, often without prescription, and such usage has not been well studied. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To define the characteristics of patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding in clinical practice, we conducted a case-control study among patients with endoscopy-proven major upper GI bleeding due to gastroduodenal peptic lesions and control subjects...
July 5, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522905/strategies-used-by-helicobacter-pylori-to-establish-persistent-infection
#6
REVIEW
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host's entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460044/risk-factors-for-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-patients-taking-selective-cox-2-inhibitors-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Xi-Hsuan Lin, Shih-Hao Young, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Yen-Ling Peng, Ping-Hsien Chen, Chung-Chi Lin, Wei-Ming Chen, Ming-Chih Hou, Fa-Yauh Lee
Objective.:  Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs) are associated with less upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) than traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs). However, they also increase the risk of UGIB in high-risk patients. We aimed to identify the risk factors of UGIB in coxibs users. Design. : Retrospective cohort study. Setting. : 2000-2010 National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Subjects...
April 28, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433795/helicobacter-pylori-cagl-amino-acid-polymorphism-d58e59-pave-the-way-toward-peptic-ulcer-disease-while-n58e59-is-associated-with-gastric-cancer-in-north-of-iran
#8
Mina Rezaee Cherati, Javad Shokri-Shirvani, Ahmad Karkhah, Ramzan Rajabnia, Hamid Reza Nouri
The cagL protein of Helicobacter pylori involving in pathogenesis of gastroduodenal disorders. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the cagL amino acid polymorphisms in patients with gastric diseases. One hundred gastric biopsies were collected from gastritis, peptic ulcer (PUD) and gastric cancer (GC) patients and were screened for cagL using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, sequence variations of the cagL were assessed via sequence translation. The cagL geneopositivity was 71.6% in patients were infected with H...
April 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429247/a-review-of-the-novel-application-and-potential-adverse-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#9
REVIEW
Li-Yuan Yu, Lu-Ning Sun, Xue-Hui Zhang, Yue-Qi Li, Lei Yu, Zi-Qing-Yun Yuan, Ling Meng, Hong-Wen Zhang, Yong-Qing Wang
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are known as a class of pharmaceutical agents that target H(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which is located in gastric parietal cells. PPIs are widely used in the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases including peptic ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and so on. These drugs present an excellent safety profile and have become one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in primary and specialty care. Except for gastric acid-related diseases, PPIs can also be used in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, viral infections, respiratory system diseases, cancer and so on...
May 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426572/nonhealing-ulcers-in-patients-with-tophaceous-gout-a-systematic-review
#10
Gretl Lam, Frank L Ross, Ernest S Chiu
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information from a review of the literature about chronic ulcers associated with tophaceous gout. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify the pathophysiology of tophaceous gout, its presentation, phases, and common comorbidities...
May 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370768/ambulatory-reflux-monitoring-for-diagnosis-of-gastro-esophageal-reflux-disease-update-of-the-porto-consensus-and-recommendations-from-an-international-consensus-group
#11
REVIEW
S Roman, C P Gyawali, E Savarino, R Yadlapati, F Zerbib, J Wu, M Vela, R Tutuian, R Tatum, D Sifrim, J Keller, M Fox, J E Pandolfino, A J Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: An international group of experts evaluated and revised recommendations for ambulatory reflux monitoring for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Literature search was focused on indications and technical recommendations for GERD testing and phenotypes definitions. Statements were proposed and discussed during several structured meetings. KEY RESULTS: Reflux testing should be performed after cessation of acid suppressive medication in patients with a low likelihood of GERD...
March 31, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370240/a-chiral-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-enantioselective-determination-of-r-and-s-pantoprazole-in-human-plasma-and-its-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study-of-s-pantoprazole-sodium-injection
#12
Huiwen Jiao, Yueqi Li, Luning Sun, Hongwen Zhang, Liyuan Yu, Lei Yu, Ziqingyun Yuan, Lijun Xie, Juan Chen, Yongqing Wang
Pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, is clinically used for the treatment of peptic diseases. An enantioselective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pantoprazole enantiomers in human plasma. Pantoprazole enantiomers and the internal standard (IS) were extracted from plasma using acetonitrile. Chiral separation was carried on a Chiralpak IE column using the mobile phase consisted of 10 mM ammonium acetate solution containing 0.1% acetic acid-acetonitrile (28:72, v/v)...
March 29, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321021/potential-cardiovascular-risks-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-general-population
#13
REVIEW
Wengen Zhu, Kui Hong
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective gastric acid-suppressing agents and the mainstay medical therapy for a series of acid peptic diseases. In general, the safety profile of PPIs is excellent. However, with long-term drug administration, the safety and potency of PPIs has been questioned. In the cardiovascular field, drug-drug interactions related to PPIs have been identified with particular attention regarding the use of PPIs combined with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome...
April 6, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304002/influence-of-free-drug-samples-on-prescribing-by-physicians-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Samina Rafique, Waseem Sarwar, Asima Rashid, Fatima Sheerin
Free drug samples are distributed among doctors as a promotional tool. We investigated the effects of dispensing samples on prescriptions by the doctors and their opinion about samples through a cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire was distributed among the doctors in the Department of Medicine, Nishtar Hospital Multan. It contained drug choices for two hypothetical scenarios, options and reasons for using free samples and doctors' views about them. Response rate remained 83% (166/198). In scenario 1 (rheumatoid arthritis), 100 % and in scenario 2 (acid peptic disease), 13% of sample users dispensed against their preference while in both cases 78 % prescribed the same brand afterwards...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294690/stereoselective-and-nonstereoselective-pharmacokinetics-of-rabeprazole-an-overview
#16
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, Rana Rais, Nuggehally R Srinivas
1. Proton pump inhibitors have been extensively used for the treatment of ailments due to increased gastric acid secretion such as peptic ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease, etc. 2. There are several approved drugs in the proton pump inhibitor class with the latest entries representing single enantiomer drugs of the previously approved racemic drugs. 3. Despite having a high degree of structural resemblance, rabeprazole, was shown to possess some unique differentiation from other drugs in the class. One of the key distinguishing features of rabeprazole was related to the lesser involvement of polymorphic metabolism in its pharmacokinetic disposition...
April 6, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281509/-pathogenetic-bases-and-efficacy-of-slow-calcium-channel-blockers-in-the-therapy-of-recurrent-peptic-ulcer-disease-associated-with-hypertension
#17
L A Fomina, V V Chernin
AIM: To clarify blood calcium concentrations (BCCs) as an indicator of the functional state of the calcium-regulating system in the concomitant course of recurrent peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and hypertension, by comparing with the severity of a ulcerous process, with changes in regional microcirculation, and with the functions of the stomach. To elucidate the pathogenetic justification for and clinical efficacy of slow calcium channel blockers (SCCBs) in the treatment of this comorbidity...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257716/the-risks-and-benefits-of-long-term-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-expert-review-and-best-practice-advice-from-the-american-gastroenterological-association
#18
REVIEW
Daniel E Freedberg, Lawrence S Kim, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the risks associated with long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), focusing on long-term use of PPIs for three common indications: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus (BE), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) bleeding prophylaxis. METHODS: The recommendations outlined in this review are based on expert opinion and on relevant publications from PubMed, EMbase, and the Cochrane library (through July 2016)...
March 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144167/evaluation-of-anti-ulcer-activity-of-the-leaf-extract-of-osyris-quadripartita-decne-santalaceae-in-rats
#19
Mastewal Abebaw, Bharat Mishra, Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee
Osyris quadripartita (OQ) Salzm. ex Decne. has been used to treat peptic ulcer disease in Ethiopian folk medicine, but its efficacy has not been validated. The present study was therefore carried out to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of 80% methanol leaf extract of OQ in rats. The effect of OQ extract on gastric ulcer in rats in pylorus ligation-induced and ethanol-induced models was studied using single dosing (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and repeated dosing (200 mg/kg for 10 and 20 days) approaches. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and sucralfate (100 mg/kg) were used as the standard drugs...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124156/helicobacter-pylori-induced-changes-in-gastric-acid-secretion-and-upper-gastrointestinal-disease
#20
REVIEW
Adam J Smolka, Mitchell L Schubert
Appropriate management of Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is evolving and remains a significant clinical challenge. Acute infection results in hypochlorhydria, whereas chronic infection results in either hypo- or hyperchlorhydria, depending upon the anatomic site of infection. Acute hypochlorhydria facilitates survival of the bacterium and its infection of the stomach. Interestingly, most patients chronically infected with H. pylori manifest a pangastritis with reduced acid secretion due to bacterial virulence factors, inflammatory cytokines, and various degrees of gastric atrophy...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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