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peptic acid disease

Eitaro Aihara, Andrea L Matthis, Rebekah A Karns, Kristen A Engevik, Peihua Jiang, Jiang Wang, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Marshall H Montrose
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ari Garber, Sunguk Jang
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the most common etiology of which is peptic ulcer disease, remains a persistent challenge despite a reduction in both its incidence and mortality. Both pharmacologic and endoscopic techniques have been developed to achieve hemostasis, with varying degrees of success. Among the pharmacologic therapies, proton pump inhibitors remain the mainstay of treatment, as they reduce the risk of rebleeding and requirement for recurrent endoscopic evaluation. Tranexamic acid, a derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent whose role requires further investigation before application...
September 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
Iftikhar Ahmad Asim Syed, Syed Hasan Abbas Naqvi
Proton pump inhibitors are most widely prescribed medicines all over the world. Since their introduction in pharmacy, life of millions of people has changed completely. Their ability to inhibit acid secretion in stomach has changed the natural history of many once-dreaded conditions like peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Operation like gastrectomy and partial gastrectomy are carried out very rarely. These medicines are considered very cost-effective, have excellent safety profile, and provide prompt symptomatic relief...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Isabelle N Colmers-Gray, Ben Vandermeer, Robert I Greidanus, Michael R Kolber
OBJECTIVE: To determine the Helicobacter pylori status of patients who underwent gastroscopy. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Peace River Community Health Centre in rural northwestern Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from patients who had a gastroscopy performed by either of 2 family physicians between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of patients who had positive test results for H pylori overall and among first-time gastroscopy patients...
September 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion and proper use of antisecretory medications. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid kills microorganisms, modulates the gut microbiome, assists in digestion of protein, and facilitates absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral G cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Chih-Ming Liang, Chien-Ning Hsu, Wei-Chen Tai, Shih-Cheng Yang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Chih-Wei Shih, Ming-Kun Ku, Lan-Ting Yuan, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Kuo-Lun Tseng, Wei-Chih Sun, Tsung-Hsing Hung, Seng-Howe Nguang, Pin-I Hsu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Seng-Kee Chuah
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who had peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) may have more adverse outcomes. This population-based cohort study aimed to identify risk factors that may influence the outcomes of patients with CKD and PUB after initial endoscopic hemostasis. Data from 1997 to 2008 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included a cohort dataset of 1 million randomly selected individuals and a dataset of patients with CKD who were alive in 2008. A total of 18,646 patients with PUB were screened, and 1229 patients admitted for PUB after endoscopic hemostasis were recruited...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yoku Hayakawa, Wenju Chang, Guangchun Jin, Timothy C Wang
Gastrin was initially identified as the hormone primarily responsible for gastric acid secretion, but was subsequently shown to be a growth factor for the proximal stomach, acting through the gastrin receptor CCK2R. Studies in the past several decades have explored the role of gastrin, along with its incompletely processed precursors, in cancer development. The growth in long-term PPI use has frequently led to elevations in serum gastrin levels in patients with upper GI disease, including GERD, peptic ulcers, and chronic gastritis...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Qamar Ul Islam, Muhammad Kashif Hanif, Sheraz Tareen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of various systemic risk factors associated with acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) in our setup. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to June 2014. METHODOLOGY: All consecutive patients with acute CSCR who presented in the outpatient department during the study period were recruited...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Satoki Shichijo, Yoshihiro Hirata, Ryota Niikura, Yoku Hayakawa, Atsuo Yamada, Satoshi Mochizuki, Keigo Matsuo, Yoshihiro Isomura, Motoko Seto, Nobumi Suzuki, Hirobumi Suzuki, Shinzo Yamamoto, Takafumi Sugimoto, Tomoya Omae, Makoto Okamoto, Hirotsugu Watabe, Goichi Togo, Noriyuki Takano, Keisuke Fukui, Yuri Ito, Kazuhiko Koike
AIM: Vonoprazan is a potassium-competitive acid blocker, a new type of acid-suppressing drug, and has recently become available for peptic ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Its efficacy for H. pylori eradication therapy isreported in a phase III randomized controlled trial, and in a single center study. However, the evidence for its efficacy and feasibility is still limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective study of patients who received first-line H...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Riccardo Vasapolli, Peter Malfertheiner, Arne Kandulski
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H...
September 2016: Helicobacter
Nobuhiro Inatomi, Jun Matsukawa, Yuuichi Sakurai, Kazuyoshi Otake
Acid-related diseases (ARDs), such as peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease, represent a major health-care concern. Some major milestones in our understanding of gastric acid secretion and ARD treatment reached during the last 50years include 1) discovery of histamine H2-receptors and development of H2-receptor antagonists, 2) identification of H(+),K(+)-ATPase as the parietal cell proton pump and development of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and 3) identification of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as the major cause of peptic ulcers and development of effective eradication regimens...
August 8, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
David Raj Chellappan, Arun K Purushothaman, Brindha Pemiah
ETHANO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pattanga is botanically equated as Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) and is used in Ayurveda system of medicine since ages. According to Ayurveda, useful part is Heartwood, which is bitter, astringent and acrid and is useful in vitiated conditions of vata and pitta, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, leprosy, skin diseases, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, and diabetes. It is used as a major ingredient in Ayurvedic formulations and preparations like Patrangasava, Chandanadya Thalia, and Karpuradyarka...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
F S Oluwole
Peptic ulcer disease is a multi-factorial disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a global prevalence affecting about 4.6 million people annually and having a mortality of one death per 10,000 cases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, including gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and carcinoma. Any compromise to the gastric mucosal barrier will greatly affect the integrity of the stomach. H. pylori is an organism which mediates a compromise of the gastric mucosal barrier by stimulating increased gastric acid secretion, causing alteration of certain immune factors, penetration of the mucosal layer and provoking persistent inflammation even without invading the mucus membrane...
December 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
Abhijit Maity, Mithun Pal, Sanchi Maithani, Barnali Ghosh, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori utilizes molecular hydrogen (H2) as a respiratory substrate during colonization in the gastric mucosa. However, the link between molecular H2 and the pathogenesis of peptic-ulcer disease (PUD) and non-ulcerous dyspepsia (NUD) by the enzymatic activity of H. pylori still remains mostly unknown. Here we provide evidence that breath H2 excretion profiles are distinctly altered by the enzymatic activity of H. pylori for individuals with NUD and PUD. We subsequently unravelled the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the alteration of H2 in exhaled breath in association with peptic ulcers, encompassing both gastric and duodenal ulcers, along with NUD...
2016: Journal of Breath Research
Mumtaz Ibrahim, Dildar Hussain, Seema Waheed, Raazia Tahir, Ghulam Haider, Nauvan Ali, Shahid Latif Sarfraz
A 32 years old gentleman, presented in emergency department, with complaints of sudden onset of severe upper abdominal pain, associated with nausea and vomiting. He was a known case of acid peptic disease. His abdominal examination showed signs of peritonitis. X-ray chest showed pneumoperitoneum, with dextrocardia. Ultrasound showed situs inversus. Exploration confirmed the diagnosis of perforated ulcer and situs inversus. Grahm's patch repair of perforation was done. His postoperative recovery was smooth.
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Feng Kai, Liu Lifeng, Song Haijing, Liu Xianhua, Xia Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of 4,183 Da peptide of dermcidin protein in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. METHODS: A prospective controlled study was conducted. Serum samples were drawn from 161 patients with acute coronary'syndrome [ACS, including 46 patients with unstable angina (UA), 23 with acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and 92 with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction], 111 subjects for routine physical examination, including 45 patients with hypertension history, 42 with coronary heart disease, 22 with diabetes, and 54 patients with non-ACS (including pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, aneurysm, arrhythmia, myocarditis, coronary myocardial bridge, pleurisy, pneumothorax pneumomediastinum, rib fracture, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer, and pancreatitis) to serve as controls...
December 2015: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Nora J Foegeding, Rhonda R Caston, Mark S McClain, Melanie D Ohi, Timothy L Cover
The VacA toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori enhances the ability of the bacteria to colonize the stomach and contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease. The amino acid sequence and structure of VacA are unrelated to corresponding features of other known bacterial toxins. VacA is classified as a pore-forming toxin, and many of its effects on host cells are attributed to formation of channels in intracellular sites. The most extensively studied VacA activity is its capacity to stimulate vacuole formation, but the toxin has many additional effects on host cells...
2016: Toxins
Woon Ching Lee, Khean Lee Goh, Mun Fai Loke, Jamuna Vadivelu
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori colonizes almost half of the human population worldwide. H. pylori strains are genetically diverse, and the specific genotypes are associated with various clinical manifestations including gastric adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). However, our current knowledge of the H. pylori metabolism is limited. To understand the metabolic differences among H. pylori strains, we investigated four Malaysian H. pylori clinical strains, which had been previously sequenced, and a standard strain, H...
June 3, 2016: Helicobacter
S Calabria, E Cinconze, M Rossini, E Rossi, A P Maggioni, A Pedrini, M De Rosa
PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and an important health and social burden due to its worldwide prevalence. Literature and clinical experience report incomplete adherence to the therapy. This retrospective observational study aimed at assessing the adherence to first-line antiosteoporosis drugs (AODs; reimbursed by the National Health System, according to the Italian Medicine Agency recommendation number 79), alendronate or risedronate, with or without calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, in a real, Italian clinical setting...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Hardik Rameshbhai Patel, Priti Dhande
INTRODUCTION: One out of four prescriptions in out-patient departments contains a gastro-protective drug (APUD) - PPI/ H2 Blockers/ Antacids/ Ulcer Protective's. These drugs should be prescribed only when there is a justified indication. To assess the prescriptions of gastro-protective agents for appropriateness and rationality, in a tertiary care hospital setup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional observational study conducted from Aug 2013 to Dec 2013 at OPDs of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Pune...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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