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Hiroe Ono, Hiromi Sakamoto, Teruhiko Yoshida, Norihisa Saeki
Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein and exhibits an organ-dependent expression pattern in cancer. PSCA is upregulated in prostate cancer and downregulated in gastric cancer. PSCA is expressed in a variety of human organs. Although certain studies previously demonstrated its expression in the mammalian and avian brain, its expression in the human brain has not been thoroughly elucidated. Additionally, it was previously reported that PSCA is weakly expressed in the astrocytes of the normal human brain but aberrantly expressed in glioma, suggesting that PSCA is a promising target of glioma therapy and prostate cancer therapy...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Antonella Macerollo, Günther Deuschl
Among the broad entity of tardive syndromes, tardive dystonia and classical tardive dyskinesia sometimes require advanced treatments like deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internum (Gpi-DBS) or the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). This systematic review has analyzed the currently available literature reporting cases with either tardive dystonia or dyskinesia treated with DBS. The key words for the literature search included all tardive syndromes and "deep brain stimulation." Thirty-four level VI studies and one level II study with 117 patients were included...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Xiujing Dou, Yang Li, Junlan Han, Dante S Zarlenga, Weijuan Zhu, Xiaofeng Ren, Na Dong, Xunliang Li, Guangxing Li
BACKGROUND: Lipid rafts are major structural components in plasma membranes that play critical roles in many biological processes including virus infection. However, few reports have described the relationship between lipid rafts and porcine rotavirus (PRV) infection. In this study, we investigated whether or not the locally high concentrations (3-5 fold) of cholesterol present in lipid rafts are required for PRV infection, and further examined which stages of the infection process are most affected...
February 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Floris C Loeff, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Lois Hageman, Wesley Huisman, Sabrina A J Veld, H M Esther van Egmond, Marian van de Meent, Peter A von dem Borne, Hendrik Veelken, Constantijn J M Halkes, Inge Jedema
Alemtuzumab (ALM) is used for T cell depletion in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) to prevent acute graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection. Following ALM-based T cell-depleted alloSCT, relatively rapid recovery of circulating T cells has been described, including T cells that lack membrane expression of the GPI-anchored ALM target Ag CD52. We show, in a cohort of 89 human recipients of an ALM-based T cell-depleted alloSCT graft, that early lymphocyte reconstitution always coincided with the presence of large populations of T cells lacking CD52 membrane expression...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Nicholas AuYong, Joni Ricks-Oddie, Yvette Bordelon, Nader Pouratian
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) are equally efficacious in the management of Parkinson disease (PD). Studies of STN-DBS have revealed a therapeutic reduction in excessive cortical β-γ phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). It is unclear whether this is specific to STN-DBS and potentially mediated by modulation of the hyperdirect pathway or if it is a generalizable mechanism seen with DBS of other targets. Moreover, it remains unclear how cortical signals are differentially modulated by movement versus therapy...
January 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Hemanti Mandal, Tamishraha Bagchi
Lactobacilli have several attributes that provide health benefits to the host. The aim of this study was to screen indigenous lactobacilli from human gut and fermented foods for such attributes as production of β- and α-galactosidase and also their ability to reduce serum cholesterol. Lactobacilli were cultured on MRS broth and β-galactosidase activity was determined using o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) as a substrate. Three isolates Lactobacillus fermentum GPI-3 and L. fermentum GPI-6 and Lactobacillus salivarius GPI-1(S) showed better β-galactosidase activity than the standard strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014...
February 8, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Holger Wille, Jesús R Requena
PrPSc (scrapie isoform of the prion protein) prions are the infectious agent behind diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, chronic wasting disease in cervids (deer, elk, moose, and reindeer), as well as goat and sheep scrapie. PrPSc is an alternatively folded variant of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, which is a regular, GPI-anchored protein that is present on the cell surface of neurons and other cell types. While the structure of PrPC is well studied, the structure of PrPSc resisted high-resolution determination due to its general insolubility and propensity to aggregate...
February 7, 2018: Pathogens
Peter M Lauro, Shane Lee, Minkyu Ahn, Andrei Barborica, Wael F Asaad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To create an open-source method for reconstructing microelectrode recording (MER) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode coordinates along multiple parallel trajectories with patient-specific DBS implantation platforms to facilitate DBS research. METHODS: We combined the surgical geometry (extracted from WayPoint Planner), pre-/intra-/postoperative computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) images, and integrated them into the Analysis of Functional NeuroImages (AFNI) neuroimaging analysis environment using functions written in Python...
February 7, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Y Wang, X Ding, Z Tan, K Xing, T Yang, Y Wang, D Sun, C Wang
Using the PorcineSNP80 BeadChip, we performed a genome-wide association study for seven reproductive traits, including total number born, number born alive, litter birth weight, average birth weight, gestation length, age at first service and age at first farrowing, in a population of 1207 Large White pigs. In total, we detected 12 genome-wide significant and 41 suggestive significant SNPs associated with six reproductive traits. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by all significant SNPs for each trait ranged from 4...
February 7, 2018: Animal Genetics
Toktam Abbasnia, Ahmad Asoodeh, Gholamreza Habibi, Alireza Haghparast
BACKGROUND: Tropical theileriosis is widely distributed from North Africa to East Asia. It is a tick-borne disease caused by Theileria annulata, an obligate two-host intracellular protozoan parasite of cattle. Theileria annulata use leukocytes and red blood cells for completion of the life-cycle in mammalian hosts. The stage of Theileria annulata in monocytes and B lymphocytes of cattle is an important step in pathogenicity and diagnosis of the disease. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are a distinct class of glycolipid structures found in eukaryotic cells and are implicated in several biological functions...
February 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Bledi Brahimaj, Ryan B Kochanski, Sepehr Sani
Microelectrode recording (MER) provides vital neurophysiological information about target nuclei during deep brain stimulation (DBS). There have been extensive studies looking at the accuracy of DBS lead placement; however, to date, no large series have assessed the accuracy of the microelectrode. In this study, we report the accuracy of microelectrode tip placement in comparison to preoperatively planned radiographic target. Patients who underwent DBS with MER from 2014 to 2016 were included in the study. At the authors' institution, intra-operative CT (iCT) is routinely performed after the first microelectrode track to confirm tip accuracy...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jizhou Li, Isabelle Mouyna, Christine Henry, Frédérique Moyrand, Christian Malosse, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Guilhem Janbon, Jean-Paul Latgé, Thierry Fontaine
Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are lipid anchors allowing the exposure of proteins at the outer layer of the plasma membrane. In fungi, a number of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are involved in the remodeling of the cell wall polymers. GPIs follow a specific biosynthetic pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. After the transfer of the protein onto the GPI-anchor, a lipid remodeling occurs to substitute the diacylglycerol moiety by a ceramide. In addition to GPI-APs, A. fumigatus produces a GPI-anchored polysaccharide, the galactomannan (GM), that remains unique in the fungal kingdom...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephen J Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Daniel S Jones, Xunliang Liu, Andrew C Willoughby, Benjamin E Smith, Ravishankar Palanivelu, Sharon A Kessler
In flowering plants, cell-cell communication plays a key role in reproductive success, as both pollination and fertilization require pathways that regulate interactions between many different cell types. Some of the most critical of these interactions are those between the pollen tube (PT) and the embryo sac, which ensure the delivery of the sperm cells required for double fertilization. Synergid cells function to attract the PT through the secretion of small peptides and in PT reception via membrane-bound proteins associated with the endomembrane system and the surface of the cell...
January 31, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
D Robert Sutherland, Fernando Ortiz, Graeme Quest, Andrea Illingworth, Miroslav Benko, Rakesh Nayyar, Iuri Marinov
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired Hematopoietic Stem Cell disorder characterized by an inability to make glyco-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-linked cell surface structures. Fluorescent proaerolysin (FLAER-Alexa488) is increasingly used to detect GPI-deficient WBCs by flow cytometry. However, FLAER is not available in all countries and is expensive to obtain in others. An earlier study to compare FLAER-based and non-FLAER assays confirmed very good agreement between the two tubes suggesting a cost effective simultaneous evaluation of PNH neutrophils and monocytes is possible without FLAER...
January 30, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Miao Zhao, Alexander J Lepak, Brian VanScoy, Justin C Bader, Karen Marchillo, Jamie Vanhecker, Paul G Ambrose, David R Andes
APX001 is the prodrug of APX001A, which is a first in class small molecule with a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the fungal enzyme (Gwt1) in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis pathway. The goal of the present study was to determine which pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index and magnitude best correlated with efficacy in the murine disseminated candidiasis model for Candida albicans (n=5), C. glabrata (n=5) and C. auris (n=4). MIC values ranged from 0.002 to 0.03 mg/L for C...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Tetsuya Hirata, Sushil K Mishra, Shota Nakamura, Kazunobu Saito, Daisuke Motooka, Yoko Takada, Noriyuki Kanzawa, Yoshiko Murakami, Yusuke Maeda, Morihisa Fujita, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Taroh Kinoshita
Many eukaryotic proteins are anchored to the cell surface via the glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). Mammalian GPIs have a conserved core but exhibit diverse N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) modifications, which are added via a yet unresolved process. Here we identify the Golgi-resident GPI-GalNAc transferase PGAP4 and show by mass spectrometry that PGAP4 knockout cells lose GPI-GalNAc structures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PGAP4, in contrast to known Golgi glycosyltransferases, is not a single-pass membrane protein but contains three transmembrane domains, including a tandem transmembrane domain insertion into its glycosyltransferase-A fold as indicated by comparative modeling...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhen Ni, Sang Jin Kim, Nicolas Phielipp, Soumya Ghosh, Kaviraja Udupa, Carolyn A Gunraj, Utpal Saha, Mojgan Hodaie, Suneil K Kalia, Andres M Lozano, Darrin J Lee, Elena Moro, Alfonso Fasano, Mark Hallett, Anthony E Lang, Robert Chen
OBJECTIVE: Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves symptoms in dystonia patients. However, the physiological effects produced by GPi DBS are not fully understood. In particular, how a single-pulse GPi DBS changes cortical circuits has never been investigated. We studied the modulation of motor cortical excitability and plasticity with single-pulse GPi DBS in dystonia patients with bilateral implantation of GPi DBS. METHODS: The cortical evoked potentials from DBS were recorded with electroencephalography...
January 25, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Rhiannon David, Emily Talbot, Bethany Allen, Amy Wilson, Usman Arshad, Ann Doherty
A recent flow cytometry-based in vivo mutagenicity assay involves the hemizygous phosphatidylinositol class A (Pig-a) gene. Pig-a forms the catalytic subunit of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase required for glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis. Mutations in Pig-a prevent GPI-anchor synthesis resulting in loss of cell-surface GPI-linked proteins. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate an in vitro Pig-a assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated cells (186...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Johanna Blaha, Klaus Schwarz, Claudia Fischer, Peter Schauwecker, Britta Höchsmann, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Markus Anliker
BACKGROUND: CD157, encoded by BST-1, has been described as a useful flow cytometric marker for the analysis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) as it is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked molecule highly expressed on normal monocytes and neutrophils. We and others observed isolated CD157 signal dropouts during intended PNH analysis. We hypothesize that these negative populations occur due to an antibody failure. To investigate the reason for this finding, we compared two different anti-CD157 antibody clones for PNH analysis...
January 23, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
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