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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822983/impulsivity-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-altered-subthalamic-but-not-globus-pallidus-internus-activity
#1
Peter Justin Rossi, Jonathan B Shute, Enrico Opri, Rene Molina, Corinna Peden, Oscar Castellanos, Kelly D Foote, Aysegul Gunduz, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: A significant subset of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from impulse control disorders (ICDs). A hallmark feature of many ICDs is the pursuit of rewarding behaviours despite negative consequences. Recent evidence implicates the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) in reward and punishment processing, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of these structures has been associated with changes in ICD symptoms. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that in patients with PD diagnosed with ICD, neurons in the STN and GPi would be more responsive to reward-related stimuli and less responsive to loss-related stimuli...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811696/relationship-between-fetal-loss-and-serum-gonadal-hormones-level-in-experimental-antiphospholipid-syndrome-mouse
#2
Shanmugam Velayuthaprabhu, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hidehiko Matsubayashi, Govindaraju Archunan
To investigate the effects of antiphospholipid antibodies on establishment of pregnancy and changes in hormones such as estradiol-17ß (E2) and progesterone (P) levels in circulation. Hence, mice were immunized with human β2-Glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and the effect of these antibodies on fetuses weight, placental obsrvation, Serum levels of P and E2 in pregnant mice, hematological were observed. Immunization of mice with human β2-GPI resulted in elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies. The experimentally induced antiphospholipid syndrome mouse showed higher rate of fetal resorption, low number of viable fetuses, and "placental abnormalities"...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#3
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807980/cd177-modulates-human-neutrophil-migration-through-activation-mediated-integrin-and-chemoreceptor-regulation
#4
Ming Bai, Ricardo Grieshaber-Bouyer, Junxia Wang, Angela B Schmider, Zachary S Wilson, Liling Zeng, Olha Halyabar, Matthew D Godin, Hung N Nguyen, Anaïs Levescot, Pierre Cunin, Craig T Lefort, Roy J Soberman, Peter A Nigrovic
CD177 is a GPI-anchored protein expressed by a variable proportion of human neutrophils that mediates surface expression of the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) antigen proteinase 3. CD177 associates with β2 integrins and recognizes PECAM-1, suggesting a role in neutrophil migration. However, CD177(pos) neutrophils exhibit no clear migratory advantage in vivo, despite interruption of transendothelial migration by in vitro CD177 ligation. We sought to understand this paradox. Using a PECAM-1-independent transwell system, we found that CD177(pos) and CD177(neg) neutrophils migrated comparably...
August 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806982/software-guided-versus-nurse-directed-blood-glucose-control-in-critically-ill-patients-the-logic-2-multicenter-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Dieter Mesotten, Jasperina Dubois, Tom Van Herpe, Roosmarijn T van Hooijdonk, Ruben Wouters, Domien Coart, Pieter Wouters, Aimé Van Assche, Guy Veraghtert, Bart De Moor, Joost Wauters, Alexander Wilmer, Marcus J Schultz, Greet Van den Berghe
BACKGROUND: Blood glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) has the potential to save lives. However, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within a chosen target range is difficult in clinical practice and holds risk of potentially harmful hypoglycemia. Clinically validated computer algorithms to guide insulin dosing by nurses have been advocated for better and safer blood glucose control. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized controlled trial involving 1550 adult, medical and surgical critically ill patients, requiring blood glucose control...
August 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803808/two-novel-mutations-p-ser160pro-and-p-arg472cys-causing-glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase-deficiency-are-associated-with-erythroid-dysplasia-and-inappropriately-suppressed-hepcidin
#6
Renata Mojzikova, Pavla Koralkova, Dusan Holub, Zuzana Saxova, Dagmar Pospisilova, Daniela Prochazkova, Petr Dzubak, Monika Horvathova, Vladimir Divoky
Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency, a genetic disorder responsible for chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, is the second most common red blood cell glycolytic enzymopathy. We report three patients from two unrelated families of Czech and Slovak origin with macrocytic hemolytic anemia due to GPI deficiency. The first patient had 15% of residual GPI activity resulting from two new heterozygous missense mutations c.478T>C and c.1414C>T leading to substitutions p.(Ser160Pro) and p.(Arg472Cys)...
April 14, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803732/reck-and-gpr124-are-essential-receptor-cofactors-for-wnt7a-wnt7b-specific-signaling-in-mammalian-cns-angiogenesis-and-blood-brain-barrier-regulation
#7
Chris Cho, Philip M Smallwood, Jeremy Nathans
Reck, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, and Gpr124, an orphan GPCR, have been implicated in Wnt7a/Wnt7b signaling in the CNS vasculature. We show here that vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific reduction in Reck impairs CNS angiogenesis and that EC-specific postnatal loss of Reck, combined with loss of Norrin, impairs blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. The most N-terminal domain of Reck binds to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of Gpr124, and weakening this interaction by targeted mutagenesis reduces Reck/Gpr124 stimulation of Wnt7a signaling in cell culture and impairs CNS angiogenesis...
August 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796901/from-peroxisomal-disorders-to-common-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-role-of-ether-phospholipids-in-the-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Fabian Dorninger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Johannes Berger
The emerging diverse roles of ether (phospho)lipids in nervous system development and function in health and disease are currently attracting growing interest. Plasmalogens, a subgroup of ether lipids, are important membrane components involved in vesicle fusion and membrane raft composition. They store polyunsaturated fatty acids and may serve as antioxidants. Ether lipid metabolites act as precursors for the formation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchors; others, like platelet-activating factor, are implicated in signaling functions...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770705/are-the-cutaneous-manifestations-in-patients-with-primary-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-marker-for-predicting-lung-manifestations
#9
Milica Kontic, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Milena Mijailović-Ivković, Mladen Velinović, Jasminka Srnka, Marija Zdravkovic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate association between pulmonary and skin manifestations in a large group of patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) as well as their connection with antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: Our prospective study comprises of 390 patients with primary APS. Antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) analysis included detection of aCL (IgG/IgM), ß2GPI (IgG/IgM) and LA. Distinct pulmonary and skin associations were determined, as well as their associations with aPL...
July 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761773/deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-new-and-emerging-targets-for-refractory-motor-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#10
REVIEW
Dustin Anderson, Grayson Beecher, Fang Ba
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability (PI), in addition to numerous nonmotor manifestations. Many pharmacological therapies now exist to successfully treat PD motor symptoms; however, as the disease progresses, it often becomes challenging to treat with medications alone. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a crucial player in PD treatment, particularly for patients who have disabling motor complications from medical treatment...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759310/ultrastructure-and-pathology-of-prion-protein-amyloid-accumulation-and-cellular-damage-in-extraneural-tissues-of-scrapie-infected-transgenic-mice-expressing-anchorless-prion-protein
#11
Brent Race, Martin Jeffrey, Gillian McGovern, David Dorward, Bruce Chesebro
In most human and animal prion diseases the abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) is deposited as non-amyloid aggregates in CNS, spleen and lymphoid organs. In contrast, in humans and transgenic mice with PrP mutations which cause expression of PrP lacking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor, most PrPSc is in the amyloid form. In transgenic mice expressing only anchorless PrP (tg anchorless), PrPSc is deposited not only in CNS and lymphoid tissues, but also in extraneural tissues including heart, brown fat, white fat, and colon...
July 4, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755172/micro-lesion-effect-of-the-globus-pallidus-internus-with-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#12
Yi Wang, Peng Li, FeiLong Gong, Yuan Gao, Yang Y Xu, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: The micro-lesion effect (MLE) has been observed in many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. For subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation, the MLE has been reported as a predictor of the long-term efficacy of DBS. However, the research on the MLE in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is insufficient. In this report, we conducted a study of the correlation between the MLE and improvement of GPi DBS. METHODS: From July 2014 to November 2015, 36 PD patients underwent GPi DBS in our hospital...
July 28, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749414/adjuvantation-of-pulmonary-administered-influenza-vaccine-with-gpi-0100-primarily-stimulates-antibody-production-and-memory-b-cell-proliferation
#13
Harshad P Patil, José Herrera Rodriguez, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Tjarko Meijerhof, Henderik W Frijlink, Wouter L J Hinrichs, Anke Huckriede
Adjuvants are key components in vaccines, they help in reducing the required antigen dose but also modulate the phenotype of the induced immune response. We previously showed that GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant, enhances antigen-specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses to influenza subunit and whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine administered via the pulmonary route. However, the impact of the GPI-0100 dose on immune stimulation and the immune mechanisms stimulated by GPI-0100 along with antigen are poorly understood...
July 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748758/protozoan-parasites-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchors-structures-functions-and-trends-for-drug-discovery
#14
Ana Luísa Malaco Morotti, Maristela Braga Martins-Teixeira, Ivone Carvalho
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors are complex molecules that support certain proteins in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The GPI anchor scaffold is comprised of a glycan core which contains a phosphoethanolamine linker and a phospholipid chain. GPI-anchored proteins are structurally and functionally diverse and play essential roles in several biological processes, in particular cell-cell interaction. Although all eukaryotes possess GPI anchors in their cell membrane, protozoan parasites use this anchorage much more frequently than higher eukaryotes...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748463/detection-of-in-vivo-mutation-in-the-pig-a-gene-of-mouse-bone-marrow-erythroids
#15
Takafumi Kimoto, Daishiro Miura
Detection of in vivo mutation is important for evaluating the health risks associated with chemicals. The Pig-a in vivo gene mutation assay has been developed over the last decade for this purpose. Most approaches for the assay, however, measure cells with a Pig-a mutant phenotype in erythrocytes from the peripheral blood, with the mutations causing the phenotype being difficult to determine directly. This chapter describes a procedure for detecting mutations in the Pig-a gene of phenotypically mutant mouse bone marrow erythroids, the precursors of peripheral blood erythrocytes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748462/in-vivo-rat-t-lymphocyte-pig-a-assay-detection-and-expansion-of-cells-deficient-in-the-gpi-anchored-cd48-surface-marker-for-analysis-of-mutation-in-the-endogenous-pig-a-gene
#16
Vasily N Dobrovolsky, Javier Revollo, Dayton M Petibone, Robert H Heflich
The Pig-a assay is being developed as an in vivo gene mutation assay for regulatory safety assessments. The assay is based on detecting mutation in the endogenous Pig-a gene of treated rats by using flow cytometry to measure changes in cell surface markers of peripheral blood cells. Here we present a methodology for demonstrating that phenotypically mutant rat T-cells identified by flow cytometry contain mutations in the Pig-a gene, an important step for validating the assay. In our approach, the mutant phenotype T-cells are sorted into individual wells of 96-well plates and expanded into clones...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744215/safety-and-effectiveness-of-bivalirudin-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi, Ahmad Fauzi Dali, Thimarul Huda Mat Nuri, Muhammad Syafiq Saleh, Noor Nabila Ajmi, Chin Fen Neoh, Long Chiau Ming, Amir Heberd Abdullah, Tahir Mehmood Khan
Recent clinical trials have shown that while bivalirudin exhibits similar efficacy with heparin, it offers several advantages over heparin, such as a better safety profile. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin use during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in the treatment of angina and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct from January 1980 to January 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743912/structural-basis-for-dolichylphosphate-mannose-biosynthesis
#18
Rosaria Gandini, Tom Reichenbach, Tien-Chye Tan, Christina Divne
Protein glycosylation is a critical protein modification. In biogenic membranes of eukaryotes and archaea, these reactions require activated mannose in the form of the lipid conjugate dolichylphosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man). The membrane protein dolichylphosphate mannose synthase (DPMS) catalyzes the reaction whereby mannose is transferred from GDP-mannose to the dolichol carrier Dol-P, to yield Dol-P-Man. Failure to produce or utilize Dol-P-Man compromises organism viability, and in humans, several mutations in the human dpm1 gene lead to congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG)...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743494/neural-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins-in-synaptic-specification
#19
REVIEW
Ji Won Um, Jaewon Ko
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are a specialized class of lipid-associated neuronal membrane proteins that perform diverse functions in the dynamic control of axon guidance, synaptic adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, and localized signal transduction, particularly at lipid raft domains. Recent studies have demonstrated that a subset of GPI-anchored proteins act as critical regulators of synapse development by modulating specific synaptic adhesion pathways via direct interactions with key synapse-organizing proteins...
July 22, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739265/role-of-adam10-in-intestinal-crypt-homeostasis-and-tumorigenesis
#20
Peter J Dempsey
A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of mSultidomain, membrane-anchored proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis and other cell signaling events. Catalytically-active ADAMs act as ectodomain sheddases that proteolytically cleave type I and type II transmembrane proteins and some GPI-anchored proteins from the cellular surface. ADAMs can also modulate other cellular signaling events through a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP)...
July 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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