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Xin-Xin Xu, Akiko Komatsuzaki, Yasunori Chiba, Xiao-Dong Gao, Takehiko Yoko-O
In eukaryotes, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification of many glycoproteins on the cell surface is highly conserved. The lipid moieties of GPI-anchored proteins undergo remodeling processes during their maturation. To date, the products of the PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been shown to be involved in the lipid remodeling. Here, we focus on the putative GPI remodeling pathway in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta. We found that the O. minuta homologs of PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 are functionally compatible with those of S...
October 13, 2017: Yeast
Han-Yuan Liu, Wei-Liang Chen, Christopher Kemper Ober, Susan Daniel
Reconstituted supported lipid bilayers (SLB) are widely used as in vitro cell-surface models because they are compatible with a variety of surface based analytical techniques. However, one of the challenges of using SLBs as a model of the cell surface is the limited complexity in membrane composition, including the incorporation of transmembrane proteins and lipid diversity that may impact the activity of those proteins. Additionally, it is challenging to preserve the transmembrane protein native orientation, function, and mobility in SLBs...
October 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kia Guarino, Arend Voorman, Maxime Gasteen, Donte Stewart, Jay Wenger
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels...
2017: PloS One
Dan Wang, Li Zhang, Qingyu Zeng, Mingxing Xie
To calculate left ventricular (LV) global performance values in heart transplant (HT) recipients by three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI) and to observe the changes in LV global performance over time after HT and investigate the correlated factors.The 30 HT patients were divided into 2 groups according to postoperative time: 1 month postoperatively (HT-1) group and 6 months postoperatively (HT-2) group. Thirty healthy subjects were enrolled as control group. 3D-STI was performed to assess LV torsion, LV systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI), and LV global strain (GS)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sungdae Kim, Minyeop Nahm, Najin Kim, Yumi Kwon, Joohyung Kim, Sukwoo Choi, Eun Young Choi, Jiwon Shim, Cheolju Lee, Seungbok Lee
GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (Graf1) is an essential component of the GPI-enriched endocytic compartment (GEEC) endocytosis pathway. Mutations in the human graf1 gene are associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but its normal role in myeloid cell development remains unclear. We show that Graf, the Drosophila ortholog of Graf1, is expressed and specifically localizes to GEEC endocytic membranes in macrophage-like plasmatocytes. We also find that loss of Graf impairs GEEC endocytosis, enhances EGFR signaling, and induces a plasmatocyte overproliferation phenotype that requires the EGFR signaling cascade...
October 9, 2017: Development
Can Araman, Robert E Thompson, Siyao Wang, Stefanie Hackl, Richard J Payne, Christian F W Becker
The prion protein (PrP) is an N-glycosylated protein attached to the outer leaflet of eukaryotic cell membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Different prion strains have distinct glycosylation patterns and the extent of glycosylation of potentially pathogenic misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) has a major impact on several prion-related diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs). Based on these findings it is hypothesized that posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of PrP influence conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into PrP(Sc) and, as such, modified PrP variants are critical tools needed to investigate the impact of PTMs on the pathogenesis of TSEs...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Myeongjin Hong, Leesun Ryu, Maria C Ow, Jinmahn Kim, A Reum Je, Satya Chinta, Yang Hoon Huh, Kea Joo Lee, Rebecca A Butcher, Hongsoo Choi, Piali Sengupta, Sarah E Hall, Kyuhyung Kim
Experiences during early development can influence neuronal functions and modulate adult behaviors [1, 2]. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the long-term behavioral effects of these early experiences are not fully understood. The C. elegans ascr#3 (asc-ΔC9; C9) pheromone triggers avoidance behavior in adult hermaphrodites [3-7]. Here, we show that hermaphrodites that are briefly exposed to ascr#3 immediately after birth exhibit increased ascr#3-specific avoidance as adults, indicating that ascr#3-experienced animals form a long-lasting memory or imprint of this early ascr#3 exposure [8]...
October 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Beatriz Nogueira Messias Miranda, Wesley Luzetti Fotoran, Fernanda Canduri, Dulce Helena Ferreira de Souza, Gerhard Wunderlich, Emanuel Carrilho
The role of Alpha folate receptors (FRα) in folate metabolism and cancer development has been extensively studied. The reason for this is not only associated to its direct relation to disease development but also to its potential use as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for cancers therapies. Over the recent years, the crystal structures of human FRα complexed with different ligands were described relying on an expensive and time-consuming production process. Here, we constructed an efficient system for the expression and purification of a human FRα in E...
October 4, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Dongdong Sun, Minghui Wang, Ao Li
Due to the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human health and diseases, PTMs are regularly reported in the biomedical literature. However, the continuing and rapid pace of expansion of this literature brings a huge challenge for researchers and database curators. Therefore, there is a pressing need to aid them in identifying relevant PTM information more efficiently by using a text mining system. So far, only a few web servers are available for mining information of a very limited number of PTMs, which are based on simple pattern matching or pre-defined rules...
October 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
Wenjun Zhu, Wei Wei, Yayun Wu, Yang Zhou, Fang Peng, Shaopeng Zhang, Ping Chen, Xiaowen Xu
We experimentally isolated and characterized a CFEM protein with putative GPI-anchored site BcCFEM1 in Botrytis cinerea. BcCFEM1 contains a CFEM (common in several fungal extracellular membrane proteins) domain with the characteristic eight cysteine residues at N terminus, and a predicted GPI modification site at C terminus. BcCFEM1 was significantly up-regulated during early stage of infection on bean leaves and induced chlorosis in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using Agrobacterium infiltration method. Targeted deletion of BcCFEM1 in B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andreas Wloch, Christian Blahak, Mahmoud Abdallat, Hans E Heissler, Marc E Wolf, Joachim K Krauss
BACKGROUND: Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has become an established treatment for dystonia. While bradykinetic symptoms may occur on chronic stimulation, the appearance of hyperkinetic movements has not been well characterized. CASE REPORT: We report on the development of hyperkinesias after more than 10 years of GPi DBS. DISCUSSION: Hyperkinesias may evolve upon long-term GPi DBS in dystonia. This might be related to a combined effect consisting of a reduced threshold for effective GPi stimulation for dystonia and spread of current to the globus pallidus externus...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Sara Meoni, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Alim Louis Benabid, Eric Seigneuret, Laurent Vercueil, Pierre Pollak, Paul Krack, Eric Chevrier, Stephan Chabardes, Elena Moro
BACKGROUND: Pallidal deep brain stimulation (globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS) is the best therapeutic option for disabling isolated idiopathic (IID) and inherited (INH) dystonia. Acquired dystonia (AD) may also benefit from GPi DBS. Efficacy and safety in the long-term remained to be established. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess long-term clinical outcomes and safety in dystonic patients who underwent GPi DBS. METHODS: Patients were videotaped and assessed preoperatively and postoperatively (1-year and at last available follow-up) using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (motor score (BFMDRS-M); disability score (BFMDRS-D))...
November 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Ermao Li, Luhao Liu, Futian Li, Lianmin Luo, Shankun Zhao, Jiamin Wang, Ran Kang, Jintai Luo, Zhigang Zhao
BACKGROUND: The Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Increasing evidence has indicated PSCA plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, its function and the underlying molecular mechanisms in prostate cancer (PCa) are still not fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of PSCA on cell cycle of PCa cells and its mechanism research. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to quantify PSCA expression pattern in PCa tissues and cell lines...
October 2, 2017: Prostate
Wen-Qiang Li, Min-Juan Zhang, Peng-Fei Gan, Lei Qiao, Shuai-Qi Yang, Hai Miao, Gang-Feng Wang, Mao-Mao Zhang, Wen-Ting Liu, Hai-Feng Li, Chun-Hai Shi, Kun-Ming Chen
Leaf rolling is considered as one of the most important agronomic traits in rice breeding. It has been previously reported that SEMI-ROLLED LEAF1 (SRL1) modulates leaf rolling by regulating the formation of bulliform cells in rice. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying SRL1 has yet to be further elucidated. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel leaf rolling mutant, curled leaf and dwarf 1 (cld1), with multiple morphological defects. Map-based cloning revealed that CLD1 is allelic with SRL1 and loss its function in cld1 through DNA methylation...
September 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
He Zhang, Jingda Li, Amei Chen, Qingping Liu
We analyzed the binding of P.rβ₂-GPI-DV with ox-LDL by fluorescence, molecular simulation and circular dichroism. We used SDS-PAGE and Western blotting to identify the purity of P.rβ₂-GPI-DV, fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular docking simulation to analyze the binding between P.rβ₂-GPI-DV and oxLDL. P.rβ₂-GPI-DV was specifically recognized by anti-His antibody at 12 kDa position. The chromophoric groups, the changes of secondary structure and the molecular docking simulations revealed that the active pocket formed by Cys281-Lys-Asn-Lys-Glu-Lys-Lys287 and Leu313-Ala-Phe-Trp316 of P...
January 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Aman Kumar, Monika Garg, Navneet Kaur, Venkatesh Chunduri, Saloni Sharma, Swati Misser, Ashish Kumar, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Quan-Wen Dou, Raj K Gupta
The protein content and its type are principal factors affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum) end product quality. Among the wheat proteins, glutenin proteins, especially, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are major determinants of processing quality. Wheat and its primary gene pool have limited variation in terms of HMW-GS alleles. Wild relatives of wheat are an important source of genetic variation. For improvement of wheat processing quality its wild relative Thinopyrum elongatum with significant potential was utilized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Satarudra Prakash Singh, Deeksha Srivastava, Bhartendu Nath Mishra
In spite of decades of malaria research and clinical trials, a fully effective and long-lasting preventive vaccine remains elusive. In the present study, 5370 proteins of Plasmodium falciparum genome were screened for the presence of signal peptide/anchor and GPI anchor motifs. Out of 45 screened surface-associated proteins, 22 were consensually predicted as antigens and had no orthologs in human and mouse except circumsporozoite protein (PF3D7_0304600). Among 22 proteins, 19 were identified as new antigens...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Julio Scharfstein, Pablo I P Ramos, Manoel Barral-Netto
For decades, immunologists have considered the complement system as a paradigm of a proteolytic cascade that, acting cooperatively with the immune system, enhances host defense against infectious organisms. In recent years, advances made in thrombosis research disclosed a functional link between activated neutrophils, monocytes, and platelet-driven thrombogenesis. Forging a physical barrier, the fibrin scaffolds generated by synergism between the extrinsic and intrinsic (contact) pathways of coagulation entrap microbes within microvessels, limiting the systemic spread of infection while enhancing the clearance of pathogens by activated leukocytes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
Asuka Nakajima, Yasushi Shimo, Takanori Uka, Nobutaka Hattori
Both the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) are major targets for neuromodulation therapy for movement disorders. An example of such a therapy is deep brain stimulation (DBS). The striatum is the primary target for pharmacological treatment of these disorders. To further our understanding of both the functional relationships among motor nuclei and the mechanisms of therapies for movement disorders, it is important to clarify how changing the neuronal activity of one target, either by medication or by artificial electrical stimulation, affects the other connected nuclei...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Camila T França, Connie S N Li Wai Suen, Amandine Carmagnac, Enmoore Lin, Benson Kiniboro, Peter Siba, Louis Schofield, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: Further reduction in malaria prevalence and its eventual elimination would be greatly facilitated by the development of biomarkers of exposure and/or acquired immunity to malaria, as well as the deployment of effective vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A better understanding of the acquisition of immunity in naturally-exposed populations is essential for the identification of antigens useful as biomarkers, as well as to inform rational vaccine development...
September 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
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