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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682299/the-impact-of-hiv-prevalence-conflict-corruption-and-gdp-capita-on-treatment-cascades-data-from-137-countries
#1
EDITORIAL
Jacob Levi, Anton Pozniak, Katherine Heath, Andrew Hill
Objective: In 2014, UNAIDS and partners set the 90-90-90 targets for the HIV treatment cascade. Multiple social, political and structural factors might influence progress towards these targets. We assessed how close countries and regions are to reaching these targets, and compared cascade outcomes with HIV prevalence, gross domestic product (GDP)/capita, conflict and corruption. Methods: Country-level HIV cascade data on diagnosis, ART coverage and viral suppression, from 2010 to 2016 were extracted from national reports, published papers and the www...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681869/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-internal-globus-pallidus-improves-response-initiation-and-proactive-inhibition-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Yixin Pan, Linbin Wang, Yingying Zhang, Chencheng Zhang, Xian Qiu, Yuyan Tan, Haiyan Zhou, Bomin Sun, Dianyou Li
Background: Impulse control disorder is not uncommon in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy and subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). Internal globus pallidus (GPi)-DBS is increasingly used, but its role in inhibitory control has rarely been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effect of GPi-DBS on inhibitory control in PD patients. Methods: A stop-signal paradigm was used to test response initiation, proactive inhibition, and reactive inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679465/generating-anchors-only-to-lose-them-the-unusual-story-of-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor-biosynthesis-and-remodeling-in-yeast-and-fungi
#3
REVIEW
Sneha Sudha Komath, Sneh Lata Singh, Vavilala A Pratyusha, Sudisht Kumar Sah
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are present ubiquitously at the cell surface in all eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in the interaction of the cell with its external environment, allowing the cell to receive signals, respond to challenges, and mediate adhesion. In yeast and fungi, they also participate in the structural integrity of the cell wall and are often essential for survival. Roughly four decades after the discovery of the first GPI-APs, this review provides an overview of the insights gained from studies of the GPI biosynthetic pathway and the future challenges in the field...
May 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678956/local-actin-polymerization-during-endocytic-carrier-formation
#4
REVIEW
Claudia Hinze, Emmanuel Boucrot
Extracellular macromolecules, pathogens and cell surface proteins rely on endocytosis to enter cells. Key steps of endocytic carrier formation are cargo molecule selection, plasma membrane folding and detachment from the cell surface. While dedicated proteins mediate each step, the actin cytoskeleton contributes to all. However, its role can be indirect to the actual molecular events driving endocytosis. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular steps mediating local actin polymerization during the formation of endocytic carriers...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678234/antibodies-to-in-silico-selected-gpi-anchored-theileria-parva-proteins-neutralize-sporozoite-infection-in-vitro
#5
James Nyagwange, Vishvanath Nene, Stephen Mwalimu, Sonal Henson, Lucilla Steinaa, Benjamin Nzau, Edwin Tijhaar, Roger Pelle
East Coast fever (ECF) caused by Theileria parva kills cattle in East, Central and Southern Africa leading to significant economic losses. Vaccination is used as a control strategy against ECF and is presently dependent on deliberate infection with live sporozoites and simultaneous treatment with a long-acting oxytetracycline. Although effective, this method has serious limitations; the immunity is parasite strain specific and immunized cattle can become life-long asymptomatic carriers of the parasite, posing risk for the spread of the disease...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675623/influence-of-autoimmunity-and-inflammation-on-endothelial-function-and-thrombosis-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#6
Kamil Bugała, Adam Mazurek, Krzysztof Gryga, Monika Komar, Grzegorz Kopeć, Jacek Musiał, Piotr Podolec, Carlo Perricone, Wojciech Płazak
The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between autoimmunity and endothelial activation/damage (ICAM-1 and vWF serum levels) and the degree of prothrombotic activity (thrombin-antithrombin complexes-TAT serum levels) in SLE. In 60 clinically stable SLE patients, levels of the following parameters were estimated in their serum: lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies in both IgG and IgM classes (aCL-IgG and aCL-IgM, respectively), antiβ2GPI antibodies in both IgG and IgM classes (antiβ2GPI-IgG and antiβ2GPI-IgM, respectively), ICAM, von Willebrand factor (vWF), TAT, CRP, C3c, C4, and IL-6...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674847/good-function-and-high-patient-satisfaction-at-mean-2-8-years-after-dual-mobility-tha-following-femoral-neck-fracture-a-cross-sectional-study-of-124-patients
#7
Steffan Tabori-Jensen, Torben B Hansen, Søren Bøvling, Peter Aalund, Morten Homilius, Maiken Stilling
Aims: Our aim was to investigate function, health status and satisfaction in patients treated with primary dual mobility (DM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) after displaced femoral neck fracture (FNF). Patients and methods: From 2005-2011, 414 consecutive FNF patients received Saturne DM THA. At a minimum of 1-year follow-up, 124 (95 women) were evaluated with Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip Score (HHS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measure (EQ-5D) and two functional tests: Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Sit to Stand 10 times (STS)...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670778/multiple-arterial-thrombosis-related-with-cantharidin-ingestion
#8
Zehra Narli Ozdemir, Ugur Sahin, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Osman Ilhan
Inherited and/or acquired thrombophilic defects can result in venous or arterial thrombosis. This case report describes arterial thrombotic episodes triggered by the ingestion of an aphrodisiac remedy containing cantharidin in a 46-year-old female patient later discovered to be heterozygous for prothrombin G20210A mutation and seropositive for anti- β 2 glycoprotein-I (anti- β 2-GPI) antibodies of IgA isotype.
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669439/predictive-value-of-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complexes-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-gpi-in-nonautoimmune-atherothrombosis
#9
Paul R J Ames, Giuseppe Di Girolamo, Giovanna D'Andrea, Luis R Lopez, Giovanni Gaeta, Luigi Iannaccone, Maurizio Maraglione
INTRODUCTION: Lipid oxidation is a definite feature of atherosclerosis, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is not only highly immunogenic but toxic to several cell types. Beta-2-glycoprotein-I (β2 GPI) dampens oxLDL toxicity by forming binary oxLDL/β2 GPI complexes. We evaluated whether circulating oxLDL/β2 GPI complexes are associated to atherosclerosis-related events (ARE) and to venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: In a cross-sectional case-control study, cases were (a) 57 consecutive patients (male/female [M/F] 33/24, mean age 57 [10] years) attending a thrombosis unit for ARE (myocardial infarction [MI] n = 20, peripheral vascular disease n = 7, and ischemic strokes n = 30); (b) 52 consecutive patients (M/F 22/30, mean age 55 [17] years) attending the same unit for unprovoked (VTE); (c) normal controls comprised 90 participants (M/F 35/55, mean age 41 [15] years); and (d) oxLDL/β2 GPI complexes were measured by immunoassay and resulting levels divided into quartiles...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669399/the-impact-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-on-the-clinical-phenotype-of-antiphospholipid-antibody-positive-patients-results-from-antiphospholipid-syndrome-alliance-for-clinical-trials-and-international-networking-aps-action-clinical-database-and-repository
#10
Ozan Unlu, Doruk Erkan, Medha Barbhaiya, Danieli Andrade, Iana Nascimento, Renata Rosa, Alessandra Banzato, Vittorio Pengo, Amaia Ugarte, Maria Gerosa, Lanlan Ji, Maria Efthymiou, D Ware Branch, Guilherme Raires de Jesus, Angela Tincani, H Michael Belmont, Paul R Fortin, Michelle Petri, Esther Rodriguez, Guillermo J Pons-Estel, Jason S Knight, Tatsuya Atsumi, Rohan Willis, Stephane Zuily, Maria G Tektonidou
OBJECTIVE: Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most common autoimmune disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), limited data exist on the impact of SLE on the clinical phenotype of aPL-positive patients. The primary objective was to compare the clinical, laboratory, and treatment characteristics of aPL-positive patients with or without SLE. METHODS: A secure web-based data capture system stores patient demographics, and aPL-related clinical and laboratory characteristics...
April 18, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#11
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665982/oscillatory-activity-and-cortical-coherence-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#12
Muhammad Nazmuddin, D L Marinus Oterdoom, J Marc C van Dijk, Jonathan C van Zijl, Anne K Kampman, Gea Drost, Teus van Laar, Martijn Beudel
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is a new potential treatment for Parkinson's Disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia. To get a better understanding of this structure, its local neurophysiological properties and cortical connectivity patterns were studied. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded DBS local field potentials (LFPs) and electroencephalography (EEG) in two patients with PDD. Both patients had DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with one or more distal contacts close to or inside the NBM...
March 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664738/pharmacological-induction-of-hypoxia-inducible-transcription-factor-arnt-attenuates-chronic-kidney-failure
#13
Björn Tampe, Désirée Tampe, Gunsmaa Nyamsuren, Friederike Klöpper, Gregor Rapp, Anne Kauffels, Thomas Lorf, Elisabeth M Zeisberg, Gerhard A Müller, Raghu Kalluri, Samy Hakroush, Michael Zeisberg
Progression of chronic kidney disease associated with progressive fibrosis and impaired tubular epithelial regeneration is still an unmet biomedical challenge, because once chronic lesions have manifested, no effective therapies are available as of yet for clinical use. Prompted by various studies across multiple organs demonstrating that preconditioning regimens to induce endogenous regenerative mechanisms protect various organs from later incurring acute injuries, we here aimed to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying successful protection and to explore whether such pathways could be utilized to inhibit progression of chronic organ injury...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656374/expression-of-circulating-semaphorin3a-and-its-association-with-inflammation-and-bone-destruction-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Hui Gao, Xiao-Xu Ma, Qian Guo, Lin-Feng Xie, Yu-Chao Zhong, Xue-Wu Zhang
To determine the expression of Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and analyze the correlation between serum Sema3A and the pathogenesis of RA. The concentration of serum Sema3A and its mRNA expression level were detected in RA patients. The association of serum Sema3A level with clinical and laboratory features of RA were analyzed. Serum Sema3A of 130 RA patients (15.89 ± 8.58 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of 150 HC (6.96 ± 2.62 ng/ml) and 215 patients with other rheumatic diseases (P < 0...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643245/recombinant-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-expressing-membrane-bound-il-15-as-immunomodulatory-adjuvant-enhances-nk-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-responses-and-confers-heterologous-protection
#15
Qian M Cao, Yan-Yan Ni, Dianjun Cao, Debin Tian, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Christopher Overend, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Adam J Rogers, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Paul C Roberts, Xiang-Jin Meng
Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to improve vaccine immunogenicity, since they are important in initiating and shaping the immune response. The available commercial modified live-attenuated vaccines (MLVs) against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are unable to mount sufficient heterologous protection, as they typically induce weak innate and inadequate T cell responses. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of recombinant PRRSV MLVs incorporated with porcine cytokine IL-15 or IL-18 gene fusing to a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification signal that can anchor the cytokines to cell membrane...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618668/establishment-of-a-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cell-line-expressing-anchorless-bovine-prion-protein
#16
Hyo-Jin Kim, In-Soon Roh, Hoo-Chang Park, Su Bi Ahn, Tae-Young Suh, Kyung-Je Park, Hae-Eun Kang, Hyun-Joo Sohn
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed using extensively purified bacterially expressed bovine prion protein (PrP) shows decreased cross-reactivity. We generated a transduced Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line continuously expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchorless bovine PrP (designated as MDBK ∆GPI protein) by using a lentiviral expression system. The present study also described the method for purifying bovine PrP through sequential culturing without the need for complex purification protocol...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618646/functional-relevance-of-the-transmembrane-domain-and-cytoplasmic-tail-of-the-pseudorabies-virus-glycoprotein-h-for-membrane-fusion
#17
Melina Vallbracht, Walter Fuchs, Barbara G Klupp, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Herpesvirus membrane fusion depends on the core fusion machinery comprising glycoproteins (g)B and gH/gL. Although gB structurally resembles autonomous class III fusion proteins, it strictly depends on gH/gL to drive membrane fusion. Whether the gH/gL complex needs to be membrane-anchored to fulfill its function and which role the gH cytoplasmic (CD) and transmembrane domains (TMD) play in fusion is unclear. While the gH CD and TMD play an important role during infection, soluble gH/gL of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) seems to be sufficient to mediate cell-cell fusion in transient assays arguing against an essential contribution of the CD and TMD...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617460/loss-of-hai-2-in-mice-with-decreased-prostasin-activity-leads-to-an-early-onset-intestinal-failure-resembling-congenital-tufting-enteropathy
#18
Roman Szabo, Thomas H Bugge
Prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease that is essential for epithelial development and overall survival in mice. Prostasin is regulated primarily by the transmembrane serine protease inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-2, and loss of HAI-2 function leads to early embryonic lethality in mice due to an unregulated prostasin activity. We have recently reported that critical in vivo functions of prostasin can be performed by proteolytically-inactive or zymogen-locked variants of the protease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608802/king-s-parkinson-s-disease-pain-scale-for-assessment-of-pain-relief-following-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Marisa DiMarzio, Julie G Pilitsis, Lucy Gee, Sophia Peng, Julia Prusik, Jennifer Durphy, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Era Hanspal, Eric Molho, Sarah E McCallum
OBJECTIVE: Pain is a prevalent and debilitating nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is often inadequately managed. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to relieve pain in PD but an effective method of identifying which types of PD pain respond to DBS has not been established. We examine the effects of DBS on different types of PD pain using the King's Parkinson's disease pain scale (KPDPS), the only validated scale of PD pain. METHODS: We prospectively followed 18 PD patients undergoing subthalamic nucleus (STN) or Globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS...
April 2, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604397/oxidative-post-translational-modification-of-%C3%AE-eta-2-glycoprotein-i-in-the-pathophysiology-of-the-anti-phospholipid-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
James C Weaver, Steven A Krilis, Bill Giannakopoulos
The anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is a prothrombotic autoimmune disorder characterized by either thrombosis or pregnancy complications in the setting of persistent anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). βeta 2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI) is the major autoantigen in APS that binds anionic phospholipids as well as specific receptors on platelets and endothelial cells resulting in activation of prothrombotic pathways. β2-GPI consists of 5 Domains that exist in a circular or linear form, with the latter occurring after binding to anionic phospholipids...
March 28, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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