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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624346/theta-burst-magnetic-stimulation-over-the-pre-supplementary-motor-area-improves-motor-inhibition
#1
Ignacio Obeso, Leonora Wilkinson, James T Teo, Penelope Talelli, John C Rothwell, Marjan Jahanshahi
BACKGROUND: Stopping an ongoing motor response or resolving conflict induced by conflicting stimuli are associated with activation of a right-lateralized network of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, the roles of the right IFG and pre-SMA in stopping a movement and in conflict resolution remain unclear. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to examine the involvement of the right IFG and pre-SMA in inhibition and conflict resolution using the conditional stop signal task...
May 22, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617266/sustainable-public-health-systems-for-rare-diseases
#2
Rita Maria Ferrelli, Amalia Egle Gentile, Marta De Santis, Domenica Taruscio
INTRODUCTION: In the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (RD-ACTION), a specific task was defined to identify mechanisms influencing sustainability, equity and resilience of health systems for rare diseases (RDs). METHOD: Literature narrative review on health systems sustainability and resilience for RDs. Years: 2000-2015. Databases: PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOHost, EMBAL, PASCAL, EMBASE, STN International and GoogleScholar. ANALYSIS: interpretive synthesis concept and thematic analysis (Dixon-Wood, et al...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614090/three-dimensional-topography-of-the-supratrochlear-nerve-with-reference-to-the-lacrimal-caruncle-and-its-danger-zone-in-asians
#3
Young-Chun Gil, Shin-Hyo Lee, Kang-Jae Shin, Wu-Chul Song, Ki-Seok Koh, Hyun Jin Shin
BACKGROUND: The supratrochlear nerve (STN) is relatively superficial and therefore vulnerable to iatrogenic injury. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the course of STN with reference to the lacrimal caruncle, with the aim of preventing nerve injury during surgery in the forehead region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four hemifaces from 18 Korean cadavers were dissected. The vertical line through the apex of lacrimal caruncle and the horizontal line through the supraorbital margin were used as horizontal and vertical reference lines, respectively...
June 12, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607168/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-employs-trkb-signaling-for-neuroprotection-and-functional-restoration
#4
D Luke Fischer, Christopher J Kemp, Allyson Cole-Strauss, Nicole K Polinski, Katrina L Paumier, Jack W Lipton, Kathy Steece-Collier, Timothy J Collier, Daniel J Buhlinger, Caryl E Sortwell
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the most common neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. In preclinical models, STN DBS provides neuroprotection for substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the nigrostriatal system and primary motor cortex. However, whether BDNF signaling in the SN participates in the neuroprotective effects of DBS remains unknown. We demonstrate that STN DBS in male rats activates signaling downstream of tropomyosin receptor kinase type B (trkB), namely phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6, in SN neurons...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603416/successful-in-vivo-hyperthermal-therapy-toward-breast-cancer-by-chinese-medicine-shikonin-loaded-thermosensitive-micelle
#5
Yonghua Su, Nian Huang, Di Chen, Li Zhang, Xia Dong, Yun Sun, Xiandi Zhu, Fulei Zhang, Jie Gao, Ying Wang, Kexing Fan, Puichi Lo, Wei Li, Changquan Ling
The Chinese traditional medicine Shikonin is an ideal drug due to its multiple targets to tumor cells. But in clinics, improving its aqueous solubility and tumor accumulation is still a challenge. Herein, a copolymer with tunable poly(N-isopropylacrymaide) and polylactic acid block lengths is designed, synthesized, and characterized in nuclear magnetic resonance. The corresponding thermosensitive nanomicelle (TN) with well-defined core-shell structure is then assembled in an aqueous solution. For promoting the therapeutic index, the physical-chemistry properties of TNs including narrow size, low critical micellar concentration, high serum stability, tunable volume phase transition temperature (VPTT), high drug-loading capacity, and temperature-controlled drug release are systematically investigated and regulated through the fine self-assembly...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602813/automated-segmentation-of-midbrain-structures-with-high-iron-content
#6
REVIEW
Benjamín Garzón, Rouslan Sitnikov, Lars Bäckman, Grégoria Kalpouzos
The substantia nigra (SN), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the red nucleus (RN) are midbrain structures of ample interest in many neuroimaging studies, which may benefit from the availability of automated segmentation methods. The high iron content of these structures awards them high contrast in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) images. We present a novel segmentation method that leverages the information of these images to produce automated segmentations of the SN, STN, and RN. The algorithm builds a map of spatial priors for the structures by non-linearly registering a set of manually-traced training labels to the midbrain...
June 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592690/dynamics-of-human-subthalamic-neuron-phase-locking-to-motor-and-sensory-cortical-oscillations-during-movement
#7
Witold J Lipski, Thomas A Wozny, Ahmad Alhourani, Efstathios Kondylis, Robert S Turner, Donald J Crammond, Robert Mark Richardson
Coupled oscillatory activity recorded between sensorimotor regions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop is thought to reflect information transfer relevant to movement. A neuronal firing-rate model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry, however, has dominated thinking about basal ganglia function for the past three decades, without knowledge of the relationship between basal ganglia single neuron firing and cortical population activity during movement itself. We recorded activity from 34 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, simultaneously with cortical local field potentials and motor output, in eleven subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing awake deep brain stimulator lead placement...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590521/seventy-years-with-the-globus-pallidus-pallidal-surgery-for-movement-disorders-between-1947-and-2017
#8
REVIEW
Laura Cif, Marwan Hariz
The year 2017 marks the 70th anniversary of the birth of human stereotactic neurosurgery. The first procedure was a pallidotomy for Huntington's disease. However, it was for Parkinson's disease that pallidotomy was soon adopted worldwide. Pallidotomy was abandoned in the late 1950s in favor of thalamotomy because of the latter's more striking effect on tremor. The advent of levodopa put a halt to all surgery for PD. In the mid-1980s, Laitinen reintroduced the posteroventral pallidotomy of Leksell, and this procedure spread worldwide thanks to its efficacy on most parkinsonian symptoms including levodopa-induced dyskinesias and thanks to basic scientific work confirming the role of the globus pallidus internus in the pathophysiology of PD...
June 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590508/pyramidal-tract-activation-due-to-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Philipp Mahlknecht, Harith Akram, Dejan Georgiev, Elina Tripoliti, Joseph Candelario, Andre Zacharia, Ludvic Zrinzo, Jonathan Hyam, Marwan Hariz, Thomas Foltynie, John C Rothwell, Patricia Limousin
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but can have side effects caused by stimulus spread to structures outside the target volume such as the pyramidal tract. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relevance of pyramidal tract activation with STN-DBS in PD. METHODS: In a multimodal, blinded study in 20 STN-DBS patients, we measured stimulation thresholds for evoking electromyographic activity in orbicularis oris and first dorsal interosseous muscles at each of 150 electrode sites...
June 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586141/connectivity-predicts-deep-brain-stimulation-outcome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Andreas Horn, Martin Reich, Johannes Vorwerk, Ningfei Li, Gregor Wenzel, Qianqian Fang, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Robert Nickl, Andreas Kupsch, Jens Volkmann, Andrea A Kühn, Michael D Fox
OBJECTIVE: The benefit of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) may depend on connectivity between the stimulation site and other brain regions, but which regions and whether connectivity can predict outcome in patients remains unknown. Here, we identify the structural and functional connectivity profile of effective DBS to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and test its ability to predict outcome in an independent cohort. METHODS: A training dataset of 51 PD patients with STN DBS was combined with publicly available human connectome data (diffusion tractography and resting state functional connectivity) to identify connections reliably associated with clinical improvement (motor score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale)...
June 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582689/the-impact-of-white-matter-lesions-on-the-cognitive-outcome-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
J Blume, M Lange, E Rothenfusser, C Doenitz, U Bogdahn, A Brawanski, J Schlaier
OBJECTIVES: White Matter lesions (WML) are a risk factor for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. There is no clear evidence of reduced general cognitive function after DBS. However, a subgroup of patients develops dementia rapidly after DBS despite careful patient selection processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the load of WML as a possible risk factor for cognitive decline following STN DBS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 PD-patients receiving bilateral STN-DBS were followed at least three years after surgery to detect dementia...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580139/factors-predicting-the-instant-effect-of-motor-function-after-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Xin-Ling Su, Xiao-Guang Luo, Hong Lv, Jun Wang, Yan Ren, Zhi-Yi He
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on surgical outcomes was confirmed by some studies, however there were different conclusions about that through long- and short-term follow-ups. We aimed to investigate the factors which influence the predictive value of levodopa responsiveness, and discover more predictive factors of surgical outcomes. METHODS: Twenty-three PD patients underwent bilateral STN-DBS and completed our follow-up...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571034/remotely-programmed-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-bilateral-subthalamic-nucleus-for-the-treatment-of-primary-parkinson-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial-investigating-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-deep-brain-stimulation-system
#13
Dianyou Li, Chencheng Zhang, Judith Gault, Wei Wang, Jianmin Liu, Ming Shao, Yanyan Zhao, Kristina Zeljic, Guodong Gao, Bomin Sun
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most commonly performed surgery for the debilitating symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). However, DBS systems remain largely unaffordable to patients in developing countries, warranting the development of a safe, economically viable, and functionally comparable alternative. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of wirelessly programmed DBS of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with primary PD...
June 2, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552340/long-term-follow-up-of-bilateral-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-tardive-dystonia
#14
Zheng-Dao Deng, Dian-You Li, Chen-Cheng Zhang, Yi-Xin Pan, Jin Zhang, Haiyan Jin, Kristina Zeljec, Shi-Kun Zhan, Bo-Min Sun
BACKGROUND: No effective treatment for tardive dystonia (TD) has been well established. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can ameliorate motor manifestations in primary dystonia, and may also be an effective approach for TD. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to illuminate the long-term efficacy and safety of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS in treating TD. METHODS: Ten patients with refractory TD underwent STN-DBS therapy and were assessed by the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) at four time points: pre-operation, 1 week post-operation, 6 months post-operation, and at a final long-term postsurgical follow-up time point...
May 19, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541214/investigating-synchronous-oscillation-and-deep-brain-stimulation-treatment-in-a-model-of-cortico-basal-ganglia-network
#15
Meili Lu, Xile Wei, Kenneth A Loparo
Altered firing properties and increased pathological oscillations in the basal ganglia have been proven to be hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synchronous oscillations and suppression in the cortex may also play a critical role in the pathogenic process and treatment of Parkinson's disease. In our study, a new closed-loop network including the cortex and basal ganglia using the Izhikevich models is proposed to investigate the synchrony and pathological oscillations in motor circuits and their modulation by deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537884/a-cancer-vaccine-based-on-fluorine-modified-sialyl-tn-induces-robust-immune-responses-in-a-murine-model
#16
Chengcheng Song, Xiu-Jing Zheng, Chang-Cheng Liu, Yifa Zhou, Xin-Shan Ye
Development of an effective vaccine to target tumor associated carbohydrate antigens, aberrantly expressed on the cell surface of various carcinomas, is an appealing approach toward cancer immunotherapy. However, a major problem of carbohydrate antigens is their poor immunogenicity. Immunization with modified-carbohydrate antigens could improve the immunogenicity and induce cross reaction with the native carbohydrate antigens. In this study, we investigated the antitumor ability of three fluoro-substituted sialyl-Tn (STn) analogues (2, 3, 4) coupled to KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) and studied the mechanism of tumor immunotherapy of the vaccines in a murine model of colon cancer...
May 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536045/toward-defining-deep-brain-stimulation-targets-in-mni-space-a-subcortical-atlas-based-on-multimodal-mri-histology-and-structural-connectivity
#17
REVIEW
Siobhan Ewert, Philip Plettig, Ningfei Li, M Mallar Chakravarty, D Louis Collins, Todd M Herrington, Andrea A Kühn, Andreas Horn
Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532905/choreatic-side-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anteromedial-subthalamic-nucleus-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Anne E P Mulders, Albert F G Leentjens, Koen Schruers, Annelien Duits, Linda Ackermans, Yasin Temel
BACKGROUND: Patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are potential candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (STN) is among the most commonly used targets for DBS in OCD. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a patient with a 30-year history of treatment-resistant OCD who underwent anteromedial STN-DBS. Despite a clear mood-enhancing effect, stimulation caused motor side effects, including bilateral hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, and sudden large amplitude choreatic movements of arms and legs when stimulating at voltages greater than approximately 1...
May 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531270/utilization-of-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-for-direct-targeting-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-during-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#19
Jonathan Rasouli, Ritesh Ramdhani, Fedor E Panov, Alexey Dimov, Yan Zhang, Catherine Cho, Yi Wang, Brian Harris Kopell
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has demonstrated efficacy in improving motor disability in Parkinson's disease. The recently developed quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) technique, which can accurately map iron deposits in deep brain nuclei, promises precise targeting of the STN. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the use of QSM to target STN effectively by correlating with classical physiological-based targeting measures in a prospective study...
May 21, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529730/effect-of-low-versus-high-frequency-stimulation-on-freezing-of-gait-and-other-axial-symptoms-in-parkinson-patients-with-bilateral-stn-dbs-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Tao Xie, Mahesh Padmanaban, Lisa Bloom, Ellen MacCracken, Breanna Bertacchi, Abraham Dachman, Peter Warnke
Some studies have shown that low frequency stimulation (LFS, most commonly 60 Hz), compared to high frequency stimulation (HFS, most commonly 130 Hz), has beneficial effects, short-term or even long-term, on improving freezing of gait (FOG) and other axial symptoms, including speech and swallowing function, in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). However, other studies failed to confirm this. It seems not clear what determines the difference in response to LFS...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
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