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Ross W Anderson, AmirAli Farokhniaee, Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: High frequency (∼130 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic region is an established clinical therapy for the treatment of late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Direct modulation of the hyperdirect pathway, defined as cortical layer V pyramidal neurons that send an axon collateral to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), has emerged as a possible component of the therapeutic mechanisms. However, numerous questions remain to be addressed on the basic biophysics of hyperdirect pathway stimulation...
May 12, 2018: Brain Stimulation
John A Thompson, Salam Oukal, Hagai Bergman, Steven Ojemann, Adam O Hebb, Sara Hanrahan, Zvi Israel, Aviva Abosch
OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become standard care for the surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reliable interpretation of microelectrode recording (MER) data, used to guide DBS implantation surgery, requires expert electrophysiological evaluation. Recent efforts have endeavored to use electrophysiological signals for automatic detection of relevant brain structures and optimal implant target location. The authors conducted an observational case-control study to evaluate a software package implemented on an electrophysiological recording system to provide online objective estimates for entry into and exit from the STN...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Tsung-Che Chang, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yukari Fujimoto, Shino Ohshima, Yoshie Kametani, Kazuya Kabayama, Yuka Nimura, Chun-Cheng Lin, Koichi Fukase
Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA) rarely observed on healthy tissues. We synthesized two fully synthetic N-acetyl and N-propionyl STn trimer (triSTn) vaccines possessing a T-helper epitope and a TLR2 agonist, since the clustered STn antigens are highly expressed on many cancer cells. Immunization of both vaccines in mice induced the anti-triSTn IgG antibodies, which recognized triSTn-expressing cell lines PANC-1 and HepG2. The N-propionyl triSTn vaccine induced the triSTn-specific IgGs, while IgGs induced by the N-acetyl triSTn vaccine were less specific...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Petra Fischer, Chiung Chu Chen, Ya Ju Chang, Chien-Hung Yeh, Alek Pogosyan, Damian M Herz, Binith Cheeran, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz, Jonathan Hyam, Simon Little, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Harutomo Hasegawa, Michael Samuel, Keyoumars Ashkan, Peter Brown, Huiling Tan
Gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease are commonly refractory to current treatment options and majorly impair patient's quality of life. Auditory cues facilitate gait and prevent motor blocks. We investigated how neural dynamics in the human subthalamic nucleus of Parkinsons's disease patients (14 male, 2 female) vary during stepping and whether rhythmic auditory cues enhance the observed modulation. Oscillations in the beta band were suppressed after ipsilateral heel strikes, when the contralateral foot had to be raised, and re-appeared after contralateral heel strikes, when the contralateral foot rested on the floor...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rui Zhao, Xinxin Zhang, Ningbo Fei, Yuanqiang Zhu, Jinbo Sun, Peng Liu, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
The effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on the neural substrates of inhibition control are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of 24 h of SD on cerebral activation during a stop-signal task in 20 normal young subjects. Behaviorally, subjects showed significantly delayed stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) following SD. In addition, reduced cerebral activation was found in the "stopping network" (including the inferior frontal gyrus [IFG], supplementary motor area, subthalamic nucleus [STN] and insula) and vision-related regions (occipital cortex, lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus) after SD...
May 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Takashi Kawasaki, Masahiro Shin, Yuiko Kimura, Yoshitomo Umitsu, George Matsumura, Fusako Yokochi, Ryoichi Okiyama, Makoto Taniguchi, Nobutaka Arai
Despite the recent advent of neuro-radiographic techniques, creating a 'perfect' human brain atlas providing precise and consistent images with minimal distortion is practically difficult. In this study, we created a new human brain atlas from cadaveric brains with serial sections of 50 μm thickness covering the entire basal ganglia. Human cerebral hemispheres were obtained from 10 donated cadavers and fixed in 10% formalin solution, cut in a block measuring 50 mm × 30 mm × 50 mm around the midpoint of the anterior and posterior commissures and frozen at -40 °C...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Oliver Bichsel, Roger Gassert, Lennart Stieglitz, Mechthild Uhl, Heide Baumann-Vogel, Daniel Waldvogel, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
Spatially segregated cortico-basal ganglia networks have been proposed for the control of goal-directed and habitual behavior. In Parkinson's disease, selective loss of dopaminergic neurons regulating sensorimotor (habitual) behavior might therefore predominantly cause deficits in habitual motor control, whereas control of goal-directed movement is relatively preserved. Following this hypothesis, we examined the electrophysiology of cortico-basal ganglia networks in Parkinson patients emulating habitual and goal-directed motor control during self-paced and externally-cued finger tapping, respectively, while simultaneously recording local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and surface EEG...
May 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Vincent Planche, Fanny Munsch, Bruno Pereira, Emmanuel de Schlichting, Tiphaine Vidal, Jerome Coste, Dominique Morand, Ingrid de Chazeron, Philippe Derost, Bérangère Debilly, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Ana Marques, Franck Durif
We investigated whether pre-operative MRI measures of focal brain atrophy could predict cognitive decline occurring after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). For that purpose, we prospectively collected data of 42 consecutive patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. Normalized brain structure volumes and cortical thicknesses were measured on pre-operative T1-weighted MRI. Patients were tested for their cognitive performances before surgery and 1 year after...
May 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hülagu Kaptan, Raif Çakmur
BACKGROUND: The primary target of this operation is Ventral Intermediate Nucleus (VIM); however VIM - Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) were tried to be reached with one electrode, adjusting the angle well, the coronal section; medial of VIM can partially reach the STN. Using the properties of the electrode; we believe we could act on a wide area. METHODS: An analysis was performed on one patient who underwent VIM Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in 3 periods (pre - peri - post-operation)...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Bing Hu, Qianqian Shi, Yu Guo, Xiyezi Diao, Heng Guo, Jinsong Zhang, Liang Yu, Hao Dai, Luonan Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is common in the elderly population. The most important pathological change in PD is the degeneration and death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain, which results in a decrease in the dopamine (DA) content of the striatum. The exact cause of this pathological change is still unknown. Numerous studies have shown that the evolution of PD is associated with abnormal oscillatory activities in the basal ganglia, with different oscillation frequency ranges, such as the typical beta band (13-30 Hz), the alpha band (8-12 Hz), the theta band (4-7 Hz) and the delta band (1-3 Hz)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Abuzer Güngör, Şevki Serhat Baydın, Vanessa M Holanda, Erik H Middlebrooks, Cihan Isler, Bekir Tugcu, Kelly Foote, Necmettin Tanriover
OBJECTIVE Despite the extensive use of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target, unveiling the extensive functional connectivity of the nucleus, relating its structural connectivity to the stimulation-induced adverse effects, and thus optimizing the STN targeting still remain challenging. Mastering the 3D anatomy of the STN region should be the fundamental goal to achieve ideal surgical results, due to the deep-seated and obscure position of the nucleus, variable shape and relatively small size, oblique orientation, and extensive structural connectivity...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ahmed Negida, Mohamed Elminawy, Gehad El Ashal, Ahmed Essam, Athar Eysa, Mohamed Abd Elalem Aziz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment in which stimulation electrodes are permanently implanted in basal ganglia to treat motor fluctuations and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) are the commonly used targets for DBS in PD. Many studies have compared motor and non-motor outcomes of DBS in both targets. However, the selection of PD patients for DBS targets is still poorly studied. Therefore, we performed this narrative review to summarize published studies comparing STN DBS and GPi DBS...
February 26, 2018: Curēus
Kendra E Hinton, Benjamin B Lahey, Victoria Villalta-Gil, Brian D Boyd, Benjamin C Yvernault, Katherine B Werts, Andrew J Plassard, Brooks Applegate, Neil D Woodward, Bennett A Landman, David H Zald
Go/no-go tasks are widely used to index cognitive control. This construct has been linked to white matter microstructure in a circuit connecting the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and pre-supplementary motor area. However, the specificity of this association has not been tested. A general factor of white matter has been identified that is related to processing speed. Given the strong processing speed component in successful performance on the go/no-go task, this general factor could contribute to task performance, but the general factor has often not been accounted for in past studies of cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Laura H Schulte, Angie Allers, Arne May
OBJECTIVE: The visual system has often been described to be sensitized in migraineurs, with light being perceived as aversive or even painful. One possible explanation for this altered perception is crosslinks between the visual and the trigeminonociceptive system. Visual stimulation in chronic migraineurs on the level of the brainstem might lead to enhanced activity within the spinal trigeminal nucleus (sTN) as the main site of trigeminal pain processing within this area. METHODS: Eighteen episodic migraineurs (EM), 17 chronic migraineurs (CM), and 19 healthy controls (HC) underwent one session of high-resolution brainstem imaging during which a rotating checkerboard was presented repeatedly as a visual stimulus...
April 27, 2018: Neurology
Philip S Lee, Gregory M Weiner, Danielle Corson, Jessica Kappel, Yue-Fang Chang, Valerie R Suski, Sarah B Berman, Houman Homayoun, Amber D Van Laar, Donald J Crammond, R Mark Richardson
In deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for Parkinson's disease (PD), there is debate concerning the use of neuroimaging alone to confirm correct anatomic placement of the DBS lead into the STN, versus the use of microelectrode recording (MER) to confirm functional placement. We performed a retrospective study of a contemporaneous cohort of 45 consecutive patients who underwent either interventional-MRI (iMRI) or MER-guided DBS lead implantation. We compared radial lead error, motor and sensory side effect, and clinical benefit programming thresholds, and pre- and post-operative unified PD rating scale scores, and levodopa equivalent dosages...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Karthik Kumaravelu, Chintan S Oza, Christina E Behrend, Warren M Grill
Parkinson's disease is associated with altered neural activity in the motor cortex. High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) suppresses parkinsonian motor symptoms and modulates cortical activity. However, the anatomical pathways responsible for STN DBS mediated cortical modulation remain unclear. Cortical evoked potentials (cEP) generated by STN DBS reflect the response of cortex to subcortical stimulation, and the goal was to determine the neural origin of cEP using a two-step approach...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Hui Feng Wu, Li Juan Song, Feng Du, Wen Fang Hao
Focused on different rehabilitation ages grassland in Wuqi County in loess hilly region, the present study aimed to explore niche characteristics of populations and their influence factors. The results showed that the dominant species were Artemisia sacrorum, A. leucophylla, A. scoparia, Lespedeza daurica and Poa sphondylodes, and the dominant species varied along with the rehabilitation age. The niche breadth of dominant populations increased with increasing rehabilitation age from 5 to 10 years, indicating enhanced adaptability to the environment...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Charlotte Spay, Marion Albares, Guillaume Lio, Stephane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Brian Lau, Benedicte Ballanger, Philippe Boulinguez
Clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication which acts as an alpha-adrenergic receptors agonist. As the noradrenergic system is likely to support cognitive functions including attention and executive control, other clinical uses of clonidine have recently gained popularity for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that the noradrenergic system regulates the activity of subthalamo-motor cortical loops, and that this influence can be modulated by clonidine...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Prajna Hegde, Jagadeesh Narasimhappagari, Bale M Swamy, Shashikala R Inamdar
Expression of altered glycans like TF, Tn and sTn antigens has been observed in a number of carcinomas which are targeted in cancer therapy. Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is known to recognize TF and its substituted forms. Clinical potential of SRL has been demonstrated by studying its interaction with different types of cancer cells. Here we report, in vitro studies of SRL on breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells and in vivo studies with MCF-7 xenografts. In vitro growth inhibitory studies of SRL on metastatic triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells was performed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, adhesion and CAM assay...
April 20, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Elena A Khabarova, Natalia P Denisova, Aleksandr B Dmitriev, Konstantin V Slavin, Leo Verhagen Metman
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who previously underwent lesioning of the basal ganglia. Material and methods. The study included 22 patients who underwent STN DBS. Eleven patients had undergone prior unilateral pallidotomy ( n = 6) or VL/VIM thalamotomy ( n = 5) while the other 11 patients had not. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the motor subscore of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) 12 months after STN DBS...
April 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
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