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Tsinsue Chen, Zaman Mirzadeh, Kristina M Chapple, Margaret Lambert, Holly A Shill, Guillermo Moguel-Cobos, Alexander I Tröster, Rohit Dhall, Francisco A Ponce
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown similar clinical outcomes between Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) under general anesthesia without microelectrode recording (MER), so-called "asleep" DBS, and historical cohorts undergoing "awake" DBS with MER guidance. However, few studies include internal controls. This study aims to compare clinical outcomes after globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS using awake and asleep techniques at a single institution...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Fabian Blasberg, Lars Wojtecki, Saskia Elben, Philipp Jörg Slotty, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually performed as awake surgery allowing sufficient intraoperative testing. Recently, outcomes after asleep surgery have been assumed comparable. However, direct comparisons between awake and asleep surgery are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference between awake and asleep surgery comparing motor and nonmotor outcome after subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS in a large single center PD population...
March 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Tong Hao, Dan Wu, Lingxuan Zhao, Qian Wang, Edwin Wang, Jinsheng Sun
The genome-scale cellular network has become a necessary tool in the systematic analysis of microbes. In a cell, there are several layers (i.e., types) of the molecular networks, for example, genome-scale metabolic network (GMN), transcriptional regulatory network (TRN), and signal transduction network (STN). It has been realized that the limitation and inaccuracy of the prediction exist just using only a single-layer network. Therefore, the integrated network constructed based on the networks of the three types attracts more interests...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zenat Z Hossain, Israt Farhana, Suhella M Tulsiani, Anowara Begum, Peter K M Jensen
Fish have been considered natural reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae , the deadly diarrheal pathogen. However, little is known about the role of fish in the transmission of V. cholerae from the Bay of Bengal to the households of rural and urban Bangladesh. This study analyzes the incidence and pathogenic potential of V. cholerae in Hilsha ( Tenualosa ilisha ), a commonly caught and consumed fish that exhibits a life cycle in both freshwater and marine environments in Bangladesh. During the period from October 2014 to October 2015, samples from the gills, recta, intestines, and scale swabs of a total of 48 fish were analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kun Hwang, Xia Jing Wu, Hun Kim, Dae Joong Kim
The aim of this study was to elucidate the sensory territory of the trigeminal nerve on the upper eyelid.Eight hemifaces from Korean cadavers were dissected. The frontal nerve (FN), supraorbital nerve (SON), supratrochlear nerve (STN), infratrochlear nerve (ITN), and lacrimal nerve (LN) were traced.The terminal branches to the eyelid margin of FN were distributed between 1/6 and 2/5 of the palpebral fissure width lateral to the medial canthus and 1/6 of the eyebrow height from eyelid margin. The SON was distributed between 2/5 and 9/10 of the eye width lateral to the medial canthus, at 1/3 of the eyebrow height...
March 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Yanyan Wang, Yong Wang, Junhua Liu, Xiaomin Wang
Previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) promotes recovery of motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). However the mechanisms are not completely understood. Clinically, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical target for deep brain stimulation treatment of PD, and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) plays an important role in the modulation of glutamate in the STN derived from the cortex. In this study, a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of PD was treated with 100 Hz EA for 4 weeks...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Chuyi Huang, Heling Chu, Yan Zhang, Xiaoping Wang
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a gait disorder featured by recurrent episodes of temporary gait halting and mainly found in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). FOG has a severe impact on the quality of life of patients with PD. The pathogenesis of FOG is unclear and considered to be related to several brain areas and neural circuits. Its close connection with cognitive disorder has been proposed and some researchers explain the pathogenesis using the cognitive model theory. FOG occurs concurrently with cognitive disorder in some PD patients, who are poorly responsive to medication therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Abhishek Lenka, Ketan R Jhunjhunwala, Albert Stezin, M Manjunath, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Ravi Yadav, Pramod K Pal
Improvement in motor symptoms with levodopa is one of the hallmark features of Parkinson's disease (PD). The response to levodopa may reduce during the course of the illness. Few studies have also reported reduced response to levodopa in patients with PD several years after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on both the sides. In this study, we report an extreme unresponsiveness to levodopa in the presence of a good response to STN stimulation in a patient 5 years after the DBS proceudre had been carried out...
March 2018: Neurology India
Milind Sankhe, Omkar Churi
An analysis of the existing literature on lesioning for movement disorders was undertaken to review lesion therapy and its advances. Advances in imaging technology and electrophysiological techniques used for localization of brain structures and its functions, such as microelectrode recordings and macrostimulation, have greatly improved the ability to accurately identify the target nuclei such as the ventrointermediate nucleus (Vim), globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). Many important changes are happening in the understanding of lesion making...
March 2018: Neurology India
Vijaya Sarangthem, Eun A Cho, Aena Yi, Sang Kyoon Kim, Byung-Heon Lee, Rang-Woon Park
Expression of various molecules on the surface of cancer cells compared to normal cells creates a platform for the generation of various drug vehicles for targeted therapy. Multiple interactions between ligands and their receptors mediated by targeting peptide-modified polymer could enable simultaneous delivery of a drug selectively to target tumor cells, thus limiting side effects resulting from non-specific drug delivery. In this study, we synthesized a novel tumor targeting system by using two key elements: (1) Bld-1 peptide (SNRDARRC), a recently reported bladder tumor targeting peptide identified by using a phage-displayed peptide library, and (2) ELP, a thermally responsive polypeptide...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaoguang Cao, Peng Wang, Cai Meng, Xiangzhi Bai, Guoping Gong, Miaoming Liu, Jun Qi
In this paper, a novel algorithm based on convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed to detect foreign object debris (FOD) based on optical imaging sensors. It contains two modules, the improved region proposal network (RPN) and spatial transformer network (STN) based CNN classifier. In the improved RPN, some extra select rules are designed and deployed to generate high quality candidates with fewer numbers. Moreover, the efficiency of CNN detector is significantly improved by introducing STN layer. Compared to faster R-CNN and single shot multiBox detector (SSD), the proposed algorithm achieves better result for FOD detection on airfield pavement in the experiment...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Friederike Leimbach, Dejan Georgiev, Vladimir Litvak, Chrystalina Antoniades, Patricia Limousin, Marjan Jahanshahi, Rafal Bogacz
During a decision process, the evidence supporting alternative options is integrated over time, and the choice is made when the accumulated evidence for one of the options reaches a decision threshold. Humans and animals have an ability to control the decision threshold, that is, the amount of evidence that needs to be gathered to commit to a choice, and it has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for this control. Recent behavioral and neurophysiological data suggest that, in some circumstances, the decision threshold decreases with time during choice trials, allowing overcoming of indecision during difficult choices...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ryan P Duncan, Linda R Van Dillen, Jane M Garbutt, Gammon M Earhart, Joel S Perlmutter
Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) reduces tremor, muscle stiffness, and bradykinesia in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Walking speed, known to be reduced in PD, typically improves after surgery; however, other important aspects of gait may not improve. Furthermore, balance may worsen and falls may increase after STN-DBS. Thus, interventions to improve balance and gait could reduce morbidity and improve quality of life following STN-DBS. Physical therapy (PT) effectively improves balance and gait in people with PD, but studies on the effects of PT have not been extended to those treated with STN-DBS...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Thea Knowles, Scott Adams, Anita Abeyesekera, Cynthia Mancinelli, Greydon Gilmore, Mandar Jog
Purpose: The settings of 3 electrical stimulation parameters were adjusted in 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) to examine their effects on vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Method: Participants were tested under permutations of low, mid, and high STN-DBS frequency, voltage, and pulse width settings. At each session, participants recited a sentence. Acoustic characteristics of vowel production were extracted, and naive listeners provided estimates of speech intelligibility...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Haidar S Dafsari, Monty Silverdale, Marian Strack, Alexandra Rizos, Keyoumars Ashkan, Picabo Mahlstedt, Lena Sachse, Julia Steffen, Till A Dembek, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Julian Evans, Angelo Antonini, Pablo Martinez-Martin, K Ray-Chaudhuri, Lars Timmermann
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate 24-month of effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: In this prospective, observational, multicenter, international study including 67 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we examined the Non-motor Symptom Scale, Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8, Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-motor examination, -activities of daily living, and -complications, and levodopa-equivalent daily dose preoperatively and at 5 and 24-month of follow-up...
February 21, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
S Senova, C Poupon, J Dauguet, H J Stewart, G P Dugué, C Jan, K Hosomi, G S Ralph, L Barnes, X Drouot, C Pouzat, J F Mangin, F Pain, I Doignon, R Aron-Badin, E Brouillet, E S Boyden, K A Mitrophanous, P Hantraye, S Palfi
Dissecting neural circuitry in non-human primates (NHP) is crucial to identify potential neuromodulation anatomical targets for the treatment of pharmacoresistant neuropsychiatric diseases by electrical neuromodulation. How targets of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and cortical targets of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) compare and might complement one another is an important question. Combining optogenetics and tractography may enable anatomo-functional characterization of large brain cortico-subcortical neural pathways...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anette Bro Christensen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Kåre Schmidt Ettrup, Dariusz Orlowski, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam
INTRODUCTION: The rotating 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model has long been important when developing new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). Similar non-human primate models have been developed for translational research purposes as large animal models are required by regulatory bodies as an intermediate "phase 0" trial step. However, experimental research in non-human primates encounters several economical and regulatory issues, which may be avoided by the alternative use of pigs as a large animal model for experimental brain research...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Frédérique Fluchère, Borís Burle, Franck Vidal, Wery van den Wildenberg, Tatiana Witjas, Alexandre Eusebio, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Thierry Hasbroucq
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) is known to increase response speed and lower response accuracy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It has been proposed that this speed-accuracy tradeoff is due to enhanced sensitivity of the motor system to sensory information. An alternative possibility is that this effect is due to weakened suppressive processes. The two alternative interpretations can be tested by analyzing the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the response agonists when the patients perform conflict reaction time tasks...
February 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sunghee Estelle Park, Kang-Il Song, Hyungmin Kim, Seok Chung, Inchan Youn
Recent studies have established methods for establishing a rodent model that mimics progressive stages of human Parkinson's disease (PD), via injection of graded doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into regions within the nigrostriatal pathway. However, the electrophysiological characteristics of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in this model have not been fully elucidated in this model. This study aimed to investigate changes in the neuronal activity of the STN in a graded mouse model of PD. Increasing doses of 6-OHDA were unilaterally injected into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to produce a hemi-parkinsonian mouse model, mimicking early, moderate, advanced, and severe stages of human PD...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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