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Epigenetics obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923201/determinants-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-disordered-sleep-and-obesity
#1
Chandra L Jackson
Racial/ethnic minorities experience a disproportionate risk of both suboptimal sleep and obesity, and the relationship between sleep and obesity may differ by race/ethnicity for modifiable and non-modifiable reasons. Because many people of color have historically lived and continue to largely live in disadvantaged, obesogenic physical and social environments, these greater adverse exposures likely negatively affect sleep, resulting in physiological dysregulation. Physiological dysregulation may, in turn, lead to increased obesity risk and subsequent health consequences, which are likely more influential than potential genetic differences in race, a social construct...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923095/genetic-and-epigenetic-studies-of-adiposity-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#2
Michael V Holmes, Sara L Pulit, Cecilia M Lindgren
Over 300 million adults are obese, but little is known about the impact of obesity on cardiovascular health. We discuss recent genetic and epigenetic studies of adiposity that indicate a causal role for general and central adiposity in cardiometabolic disease, and highlight potential mechanisms including insulin resistance and gene expression.
September 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921259/epigenetic-effects-of-the-pregnancy-mediterranean-diet-adherence-on-the-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#3
REVIEW
David Lorite Mingot, Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#4
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891325/epigenetics-and-immunometabolism-in-diabetes-and-aging
#5
Tomasz J Guzik, Francesco Cosentino
SIGNIFICANCE: A strong relationship between hyperglycemia, impaired insulin pathway and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Immunometabolic pathways link these pathogenic processes and pose important potential therapeutic targets. Recent Advances: The link between immunity and metabolism is bi-directional and includes the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as T2D, obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertension as well as the role of metabolic factors in regulation of immune cell functions...
September 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889823/epigenetics-and-dohad-from-basics-to-birth-and-beyond
#6
T Bianco-Miotto, J M Craig, Y P Gasser, S J van Dijk, S E Ozanne
Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is the study of how the early life environment can impact the risk of chronic diseases from childhood to adulthood and the mechanisms involved. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs are involved in mediating how early life environment impacts later health. This review is a summary of the Epigenetics and DOHaD workshop held at the 2016 DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand Conference. Our extensive knowledge of how the early life environment impacts later risk for chronic disease would not have been possible without animal models...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888730/dna-methylation-patterns-at-sweet-taste-transducing-genes-are-associated-with-bmi-and-carbohydrate-intake-in-an-adult-population
#7
O Ramos-Lopez, A Arpón, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, M L Mansego, J A Martinez
Individual differences in taste perception may influence appetite, dietary intakes, and subsequently, disease risk. Correlations of DNA methylation patterns at taste transducing genes with BMI and dietary intakes were studied. A nutriepigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in 474 adults. DNA methylation in peripheral white blood cells was analyzed by a microarray approach. KEGG pathway analyses were performed concerning the characterization and discrimination of genes involved in the taste transduction pathway...
September 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887432/maternal-pregravid-obesity-remodels-the-dna-methylation-landscape-of-cord-blood-monocytes-disrupting-their-inflammatory-program
#8
Suhas Sureshchandra, Randall M Wilson, Maham Rais, Nicole E Marshall, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kent L Thornburg, Ilhem Messaoudi
Prepregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring, including increased incidence of neonatal bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. We recently reported that umbilical cord blood (UCB) monocytes from babies born to obese mothers generate a reduced IL-6/TNF-α response to TLR 1/2 and 4 ligands compared to those collected from lean mothers. These observations suggest altered development of the offspring's immune system, which in turn results in dysregulated function...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883895/alterations-of-sorbin-and-sh3-domain-containing-3-sorbs3-in-human-skeletal-muscle-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery
#9
Samantha E Day, Luis A Garcia, Richard L Coletta, Latoya E Campbell, Tonya R Benjamin, Elena A De Filippis, James A Madura, Lawrence J Mandarino, Lori R Roust, Dawn K Coletta
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disease that is caused by genetic and environmental factors. However, epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are less well known. DNA methylation provides a mechanism whereby environmental factors can influence gene transcription. The aim of our study was to investigate skeletal muscle DNA methylation of sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) with weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RESULTS: Previously, we had shown increased methylation (5...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878765/dyslipidemic-diet-induced-monocyte-priming-and-dysfunction-in-non-human-primates-is-triggered-by-elevated-plasma-cholesterol-and-accompanied-by-altered-histone-acetylation
#10
John D Short, Sina Tavakoli, Huynh Nga Nguyen, Ana Carrera, Chelbee Farnen, Laura A Cox, Reto Asmis
Monocytes and the recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages into sites of inflammation play a key role in atherogenesis and other chronic inflammatory diseases linked to cardiometabolic syndrome and obesity. Previous studies from our group have shown that metabolic stress promotes monocyte priming, i.e., enhanced adhesion and accelerated chemotaxis of monocytes in response to chemokines, both in vitro and in dyslipidemic LDLR(-/-) mice. We also showed that metabolic stress-induced monocyte dysfunction is, at least to a large extent caused by the S-glutathionylation, inactivation, and subsequent degradation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878369/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-in-obesity-and-colorectal-cancer-the-role-of-epigenetics
#11
T K Motawi, O G Shaker, M F Ismail, N H Sayed
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that is deregulated in obesity. PPARγ exerts diverse antineoplastic effects. Attempting to determine the clinical relevance of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling the expression PPARγ and susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC) in obese subjects, this study investigated the role of some microRNAs and DNA methylation on the deregulation of PPARγ. Seventy CRC patients (34 obese and 36 lean), 22 obese and 24 lean healthy controls were included...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878180/bariatric-surgery-and-precision-nutrition
#12
REVIEW
Carolina F Nicoletti, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Marcela A S Pinhel, Carla B Nonino
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient's genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment...
September 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869506/critical-role-of-the-human-atp-binding-cassette-g1-transporter-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Lise M Hardy, Eric Frisdal, Wilfried Le Goff
ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a member of the large family of ABC transporters which are involved in the active transport of many amphiphilic and lipophilic molecules including lipids, drugs or endogenous metabolites. It is now well established that ABCG1 promotes the export of lipids, including cholesterol, phospholipids, sphingomyelin and oxysterols, and plays a key role in the maintenance of tissue lipid homeostasis. Although ABCG1 was initially proposed to mediate cholesterol efflux from macrophages and then to protect against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), it becomes now clear that ABCG1 exerts a larger spectrum of actions which are of major importance in cardiometabolic diseases (CMD)...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864989/the-long-term-effects-of-the-periconceptional-period-on-embryo-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-paternal-role-and-his-contribution-and-how-males-can-affect-offspring-s-phenotype-epigenetic-profile
#14
Emma S Lucas, Adam J Watkins
The number of adults afflicted with heart disease, obesity and diabetes, central components of metabolic disorder, has grown rapidly in recent decades, affecting up to one quarter of the world's population. Typically, these diseases are attributed to lifestyle factors such as poor diet, lack of exercise and smoking. However, studies have now identified strong associations between patterns of growth during foetal and neonatal life and an increase predisposition towards developing heart disease, obesity and diabetes in adult life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864983/epigenetic-influences-during-the-periconception-period-and-assisted-reproduction
#15
Akwasi A Amoako, Tamer M Nafee, Bolarinde Ola
The periconception period starts 6 months before conception and lasts until the tenth week of gestation. In this chapter, we will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA and gene expression within this period and during assisted reproduction. There are two critical times during the periconception window when significant epigenetic 'reprogramming' occur: one during gametogenesis and another during the pre-implantation embryonic stage. Furthermore, assisted conception treatments, laboratory protocols and culture media can affect the embryo development and birth weights in laboratory animals...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864012/maternal-obesity-and-gestational-weight-gain-are-modestly-associated-with-umbilical-cord-dna-methylation
#16
Keshari M Thakali, Jennifer B Faske, Arjun Ishwar, Maria P Alfaro, Mario A Cleves, Thomas M Badger, Aline Andres, Kartik Shankar
INTRODUCTION: Maternal obesity (OB) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong independent contributors that augment obesity risk in offspring. However, direct evidence of epigenetic changes associated with maternal habitus remains sparse. METHODS: We utilized Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS) to conduct targeted DNA methylation association analysis of maternal obesity and excessive GWG with DNA methylation of select metabolism-related and imprinted genes...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860604/epigenetic-regulation-of-plin-1-in-obese-women-and-its-relation-to-lipolysis
#17
Lucia Bialesova, Agné Kulyté, Paul Petrus, Indranil Sinha, Jurga Laurencikiene, Chunyan Zhao, Karin Dahlman Wright, Peter Arner, Ingrid Dahlman
Increased adipocyte lipolysis links obesity to insulin resistance. The lipid droplet coating-protein Perilipin participates in regulation of lipolysis and is implicated in obesity. In the present study we investigate epigenetic regulation of the PLIN1 gene by correlating PLIN1 CpG methylation to gene expression and lipolysis, and functionally evaluating PLIN1 promoter methylation. PLIN1 CpG methylation in adipocytes and gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) was quantified in two cohorts by array. Basal lipolysis in WAT explants and adipocytes was quantified by measuring glycerol release...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853041/the-effect-of-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-on-dna-methylation-patterns
#18
REVIEW
Sonsoles Morcillo, Manuel Macías-González, Francisco J Tinahones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is considered to be the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only due to the significant weight reduction but also because of the many health benefits associated with it. In the last 5 years, several studies have suggested that epigenetic modifications could be involved in the mechanisms underlying the response to bariatric surgery. In this review, we will compile the different studies (2012-2017) concerning the effect of this surgical procedure on DNA methylation patterns (the most studied epigenetic marker) and its association with metabolic improvement...
August 30, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845613/the-epigenomic-analysis-of-human-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Christopher G Bell
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the epigenome-the chemical modifications and packaging of the genome that can influence or indicate its activity-enables molecular insight into cell type-specific machinery. It can, therefore, reveal the pathophysiological mechanisms at work in disease. Detected changes can also represent physiological responses to adverse environmental exposures, thus enabling the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation to act as an epidemiological biomarker, even in surrogate tissue...
September 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843454/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-genes-environment-and-a-comprehensive-therapeutic-approach
#20
REVIEW
Ryan Cappa, Liana Theroux, J Nicholas Brenton
BACKGROUND: Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that affects 3%-10% of all patients. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to be secondary to a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. MAIN FINDINGS: Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth...
July 13, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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