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Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Nancy Wang, Matthias Osswald
The majority of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, are considered to be benign, and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging features allow a preliminary diagnosis. Meningiomas can be classified in the World Health Organization system as grade I, II, or III, depending on various histological features. In many cases, observation is the preferred management option, although this means the absence of a histological diagnosis. If necessary, standard therapy consists of surgery with or without adjuvant radiation, depending on the tumor grade and the degree of resection...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Zachary J Reitman, Frank Winkler, Andrew E H Elia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. The current standard of care for GBM is maximal resection followed by postoperative radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite this multimodality treatment, the median survival for GBM remains marginally better than 1 year. In the past decade, genome-wide analyses have uncovered new molecular features of GBM that have refined its classification and provided new insights into the molecular basis for GBM pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Julie J Miller, Wolfgang Wick
The majority of World Health Organization grade II and grade III gliomas harbor heterozygous mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and tumors with an IDH wild-type status show molecular features of a glioblastoma and simply may constitute a separate disease entity. This discovery has led to a profound shift in the way that gliomas are classified and, consequently, how treatment decisions are made. We will review the current understanding of IDH- mutant gliomagenesis and the preclinical models being used to investigate the underlying biology of these tumors and to explore new therapeutic options for these patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Andreas von Deimling, Takahiro Ono, Mitsuaki Shirahata, David N Louis
Estimating the malignancy level of tumors is key to management, and has been part of oncology practice for the past ∼100 years. A central aspect of assessing malignancy level is based on histological "grading"-a process in which a pathologist evaluates microscopic features of a tumor and interprets those findings in light of large prognostic studies. For the diffuse astrocytic gliomas, there have been many such studies over the past century and these have proven useful in estimating prognosis for patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Claire E Webster, Jon Clasper, Daniel J Stinner, Joseph Eliahoo, Spyros D Masouros
Background: Throughout history, traumatic amputation of the lower extremity has been a notable feature of all conflicts involving explosive incidents. Even at the close of the recent conflicts in Afghanistan, there were deaths that were deemed "potentially survivable." The purpose of this study is to characterize lower extremity blast injury and to determine if their amputation levels and associated injury characteristics correlate with a higher risk of mortality. Methods: the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) was interrogated to identify all lower extremity traumatic amputations sustained in both Iraq and Afghanistan between January 2003 and the end of UK operations in August 2014...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Qiaozhen Meng, Zhenling Peng, Jianyi Yang
Motivation: Coenzyme A (CoA)-protein binding plays an important role in various cellular functions and metabolic pathways. However, no computational methods can be employed for CoA-binding residues prediction. Results: We developed three methods for the prediction of CoA- and CoA derivatives-binding residues, including an ab-initio method SVMpred, a template-based method TemPred, and a consensus-based method CoABind. In SVMpred, a comprehensive set of features are designed from two complementary sequence profiles and the predicted secondary structure and solvent accessibility...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Jiawei Wang, Bingjiao Yang, André Leier, Tatiana T Marquez-Lago, Morihiro Hayashida, Andrea Rocker, Zhang Yanju, Tatsuya Akutsu, Kuo-Chen Chou, Richard A Strugnell, Jiangning Song, Trevor Lithgow
Motivation: Many Gram-negative bacteria use type VI secretion systems (T6SS) to export effector proteins into adjacent target cells. These secreted effectors (T6SEs) play vital roles in the competitive survival in bacterial populations, as well as pathogenesis of bacteria. Although various computational analyses have been previously applied to identify effectors secreted by certain bacterial species, there is no universal method available to accurately predict T6SS effector proteins from the growing tide of bacterial genome sequence data...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Dayna A Johnson, Jana A Hirsch, Kari A Moore, Susan Redline, Ana V Diez Roux
Although dense neighborhood built environments support increased physical activity and lower obesity, these features may also disturb sleep. Therefore, we sought to understand the association between the built environment and objectively measured sleep. From 2010 to 2013, we analyzed data from examination 5 of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a diverse population from 6 US cities. We fit multilevel models that assessed the association between the built environment (Street Smart Walk Score, social engagement destinations, street intersections, and population density) and sleep duration or efficiency from 1-week wrist actigraphy in 1,889 individuals...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
Ivan Yu Chernyshov, Philip V Toukach
Motivation: Glycans and glycoconjugates are usually recorded in dedicated databases in residue-based notations. Only a few of them can be converted into chemical (atom-based) formats highly demanded in conformational and biochemical studies. In this work, we present a tool for translation from a residue-based glycan notation to SMILES. Results: The REStLESS algorithm for translation from the CSDB Linear notation to SMILES was developed. REStLESS stands for ResiduEs as Smiles and LinkagEs as SmartS, where SMARTS reaction expressions are used to merge pre-encoded residues into a molecule...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Silvia Salerno, Aída Nelly García-Argáez, Elisabetta Barresi, Sabrina Taliani, Francesca Simorini, Concettina La Motta, Giorgio Amendola, Stefano Tomassi, Sandro Cosconati, Ettore Novellino, Federico Da Settimo, Anna Maria Marini, Lisa Dalla Via
Inhibition of angiogenesis via blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathway emerged as an established approach in anticancer therapy. So far, many monoclonal antibodies and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors have been clinically validated and approved. In this study, structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the 2-phenylamino-substituted benzothiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine class of kinase inhibitors were further refined by the synthesis and biological evaluation of new compounds 1-21 featuring different substitution patterns on the pendant phenyl moiety, combined with H, OCH3 , or Cl at 8-position...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Zahraa Haidar, Nadine Jalkh, Sandra Corbani, Ali Fawaz, Eliane Chouery, André Mégarbané
Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder. In the classical form, seizures are observed within the first month of life, while in the atypical form seizures appear later in life, sometimes as late as at the age of 3 years of life. Both types are unresponsive to conventional anticonvulsant therapy, but can be controlled with pyridoxine monotherapy. Mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, encoding α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase have been reported to cause this disease in most patients...
March 10, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Rodrigo Vargas, Lucas Beltrán, Rafael Lizama, Gabriela Reyes Valenzuela, Roberto Caraballo
PURPOSE: To present a retrospective study of 13 children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), also known as benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), associated with generalized spikes and waves as the only EEG manifestation at onset. METHOD: Charts of children with typical clinical criteria of BRE electroclinically followed-up between February 2000 and February 2015 were reviewed. RESULTS: Among 309 patients who met the electroclinical criteria of BRE, we identified 13 children who presented with the typical clinical manifestations but who, on the EEG, only had generalized paroxysms at onset that continued along the course of the syndrome...
March 9, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
A Garbout, M Férid
Considering the features in changing the structure and properties of rare earth titanates pyrochlores, the substituted Dy2 Ti2 O7 may be very attractive for various applications. Effect of Sm and Y substitution on the structural properties of Dy2 Ti2 O7 ceramic was established. These ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Both analysis show that YDyTi2 O7 with the pyrochlore structure is obtained after heating at 1400°C, but SmDyTi2 O7 has already formed after sintering at 1200°C...
March 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Yi Yan, Vitor Sencadas, Tiantian Jin, Xufeng Huang, Wilford Lie, Dongbin Wei, Zhengyi Jiang
Processing conditions deeply affect the mechanical, chemical and biological properties of elastomeric based nanocomposites. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed in poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) prepolymer, followed by curing under vacuum at 120 °C. It was observed an increase of the water contact angle with the amount of MWCNTs added, as well as the tensile strength and Young modulus, without compromising the elastomeric behaviour of the pristine PGS matrix. The cross-linking degree was determined by the Flory-Rehner swelling method and through the mechanical rubber elasticity model, and an increase of more than six-fold was observed, which demonstrates the chemical conjugation between the MWCNTs and the PGS polymer chains, resulting in stiff and elastomeric nanocomposites...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mehran Abolghasemibizaki, Robert L McMasters, Reza Mohammadi
HYPOTHESIS: Recently, it has been shown that the contact time of impacting water droplets on a superhydrophobic cylindrical surface decreases when its radius becomes comparable to that of the droplet, yet the correlation of this reduction with the impact velocity is unclear. Moreover, on a flat surface, experiments involving the addition of a single macrotexture, along with covering the surface with macroscopic cylindrical ridges (ribbed pattern), have been reported to shorten the contact time...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Evgenii Tcyganov, Jerome Mastio, Eric Chen, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
In recent years, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as one of the major inhibitors of immune effector cell function in cancer. MDSC represent a heterogeneous population of largely immature myeloid cells that are characterized by a pathological state of activation and display potent immune suppressive activity. Two major subsets of MDSC have been identified: monocytic (M-MDSC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN-MDSC). PMN-MSDC share phenotypic and morphologic features with neutrophils, whereas M-MDSC are similar to monocytes and are characterized by high plasticity...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Jole Mariella, Eleonora Iacono, Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Caterina Palermo, Lee Morris, Carolina Castagnetti
The umbilical cord (UC), the connection between mother and fetus via the umbilical vessels, carries nutrients and oxygenated blood to the fetus through the umbilical vein and removes deoxygenated blood and waste products via the umbilical arteries. It is designed to protect blood flow to the fetus during pregnancy. In equine medicine, only a few studies have described the UC, and most of these involved Thoroughbreds. The present study describes and compares the macroscopic features of the equine umbilical cord in three different breeds and in relation to the foal's gender...
March 7, 2018: Theriogenology
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