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Claudia Doi Antunes, Malson Neilson Lucena, Daniela Pereira Garçon, Francisco Assis Leone, John Campbell McNamara
Fresh caught Clibanarius vittatus [SW, 31‰ salinity (S)] were acclimated to a dilute medium (15‰ S) for 10 days, employing silver staining to locate gill ion transporting tissue, immunofluorescence to localize the Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in the lamellae, and electron microscopy to portray ultrastructural changes in the gill epithelia. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was characterized kinetically in a gill microsomal fraction, including synergistic stimulation by NH4+ plus K+. Silver staining revealed that all 26 phyllobranchiate arthro- and pleurobranchiae participate in ion transport...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Marie T Dittmann, Michael Kreuzer, Ullrich Runge, Marcus Clauss
Horses achieve a higher degree of particle size reduction through ingestive mastication than functional ruminants. We characterized mastication using chew-monitoring halters (RumiWatch) in six domestic horses, cattle, and Bactrian camels each. All animals were offered grass hay of the same batch for 15 min. In cattle and camels, measurements were continued after eating until rumination was observed. Except for one horse, 96% of the horses' ingestive mastication data were identified as "rumination" by the proprietary RumiWatch algorithm, whereas ingestion and rumination by cattle and camels were mostly classified correctly...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Sophie Regnault, Vivian R Allen, Kyle P Chadwick, John R Hutchinson
The patella ("kneecap") is a biomechanically important feature of the tendinous insertion of the knee extensor muscles, able to alter the moment arm lengths between its input and output tendons, and so modify the mechanical advantage of the knee extensor muscle. However, patellar gearing function is little-explored outside of humans, and the patella is often simplified or ignored in biomechanical models. Here, we investigate patellar gearing and kinematics in the ostrich-frequently used as an animal analogue to human bipedal locomotion and unusual in its possession of two patellae at the knee joint...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Satendra Kumar, S Maji, K Sundararajan, K Sankaran
Uranyl tris nitrato i.e. [UO2 (NO3 )3 ]- was formed by adding tetramethylammonium nitrate to uranyl nitrate in acetonitrile medium. The luminescence features of this complex in acetonitrile are very sensitive to water content, which could lead to the use of it as a luminescent probe for water present in acetonitrile. The luminescence intensity ratio of 507 to 467 nm peak of uranyl tris nitrato showed a linear response in the range 0-5% (v/v) water content in acetonitrile. The present method was applied for three synthetic samples of acetonitrile for water detection and the results obtained were compared using Karl Fischer titration...
January 22, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Dan Bing, Jun Ying, Jun Miao, Lan Lan, Dayong Wang, Lidong Zhao, Zifang Yin, Lan Yu, Jing Guan, Qiuju Wang
OBJECTIVE: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is a multifactorial disorder with high heterogeneity, thus the outcomes vary widely. The present study aimed to develop predictive models based on four machine learning methods for SSHL, identifying the best performer for clinical application. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective study. SETTING: Chinese People's liberation army (PLA) hospital, Beijing, China. PARTICIPANTS: 1220 in-patient SSHL patients were enrolled between June 2008 and December 2015...
January 21, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
John M Wood, Jerry P Weir
The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Riccardo Montioli, Giacomo Janson, Alessandro Paiardini, Mariarita Bertoldi, Carla Borri Voltattorni
Aromatic amino acid or Dopa decarboxylase (AADC or DDC) is a homodimeric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) enzyme responsible for the generation of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. AADC deficiency is a rare inborn disease caused by mutations of the AADC gene leading to a defect of AADC enzyme and resulting in impaired dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Until now, only the molecular effects of homozygous mutations were analyzed. However, although heterozygous carriers of AADC deficiency were identified, the molecular aspects of their enzymatic phenotypes are not yet investigated...
January 22, 2018: IUBMB Life
Mingli Yong, Yijia Liu, Tianqi Chen, Linlin Fan, Zhengyi Wang, Dongwei Hu
In recent years, false smut disease of rice has been one of the most important diseases of cultivated rice in China. Ustilaginoidea virens is an ascomycete fungal pathogen that causes false smut in rice. There is always controversy about whether the pathogen can infect the rice root and cause the occurrence of false smut, mainly due to lack direct cytological evidence. In our study, we observed the cytological structure of rice root invaded by U. virens. The results showed that U. virens could attach to the surface of young roots and penetrate into the intercellular space of the root epidermis...
January 22, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Biao Yu, Shengyang Wang, Jiansong Sun, Qingju Zhang, Xin Cao, Yachen Zhao, Gongli Tang
The proposed diastereoisomers (1a-1d) together with their C8'-epimers (1e-1h) of amipurimycin, a unique antifungal peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic, have been synthesized for the first time. The synthetic approach is efficient and stereo-divergent, featuring a stereoselective aldol condensation to build the branched C9 sugar amino acid skeleton and a regio- and stereo-controlled gold(I)-catalyzed N-glycosylation to furnish the purine nucleoside. Analysis of the NMR data suggests that the previously assigned configuration of the tertiary C-3' in amipurimycin should be inverted...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Sajid Iqbal, M Usman Ghani, Tanzila Saba, Amjad Rehman
A tumor could be found in any area of the brain and could be of any size, shape, and contrast. There may exist multiple tumors of different types in a human brain at the same time. Accurate tumor area segmentation is considered primary step for treatment of brain tumors. Deep Learning is a set of promising techniques that could provide better results as compared to nondeep learning techniques for segmenting timorous part inside a brain. This article presents a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to segment brain tumors in MRIs...
January 22, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
L V Visseaux, A D Durlach, S B Barete, M B B Beylot-Barry, N B Bonnet, A F C Chassine, N F Franck, G H Herve, C L Leclec'h, L M Machet, S I O Ingen-Housz-Oro, T P Petrella, B V Vergier, N O Ortonne, F G Grange
BACKGROUND: A distinctive eruption referred to as "insect bite-like reaction", or "eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy" has been described during the course of hematological B-cell malignancies (BCM). However, its clinical evolution, histopathological features and pathogenesis remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To characterize this eruption and to investigate its pathogenesis and relationship with the underlying BCM. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study of the French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas, 37 patients with a BCM and a cutaneous eruption consisting in chronic and/or recurrent papules, papulo-vesicles and/or nodules were included...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
R Pampena, E Benati, S Borsari, C Bombonato, M Lombardi, M Raucci, M Mirra, A Lallas, Z Apalla, I Papadimitriou, E Moscarella, A Kyrgidis, G Argenziano, G Pellacani, C Longo
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) 0.015% gel is an approved field treatment option for non-hyperkeratotic non-hypertrophic actinic keratosis (AKs) of face and scalp. Efficacy of IngMeb has been assessed only on a clinical ground, in the majority of studies. Dermoscopy is a pivotal tool for the diagnosis of AK, while its role in evaluating the response to non-surgical therapies for AK has not been fully defined. OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to determine if some dermoscopic features of AK of the face and scalp areas, may independently predict the response to IngMeb therapy...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Anton H Hofman, Ilse A van Hees, Juan Yang, Marleen Kamperman
Nature has developed protein-based adhesives whose underwater performance has attracted much research attention over the last few decades. The adhesive proteins are rich in catechols combined with amphiphilic and ionic features. This combination of features constitutes a supramolecular toolbox, to provide stimuli-responsive processing of the adhesive, to secure strong adhesion to a variety of surfaces, and to control the cohesive properties of the material. Here, the versatile interactions used in adhesives secreted by sandcastle worms and mussels are explored...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Han-Chi Tseng, Chun-Bing Chen, Ji-Chen Ho, Yu-Wen Cheng, Hsin-Wei Huang, Pei-Lun Sun, Chih-Hung Lee
BACKGROUND: Protothecosis is an uncommon infection caused by the achlorophyllic algae found more commonly in tropical areas. Only a limited number of cases have been reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of cutaneous protothecosis. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 20 pathology-confirmed cases of cutaneous protothecosis based on skin biopsies in two tertiary medical centers in Taiwan from 1997 to 2015...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Elias P Casula, Isabella M S Mayer, Mahalekshmi Desikan, Sarah J Tabrizi, John C Rothwell, Michael Orth
BACKGROUND: In Huntington's disease there is evidence of structural damage in the motor system, but it is still unclear how to link this to the behavioral disorder of movement. One feature of choreic movement is variable timing and coordination between sequences of actions. We postulate this results from desynchronization of neural activity in cortical motor areas. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the ability to synchronize activity in a motor network using transcranial magnetic stimulation and to relate this to timing of motor performance...
January 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Shengyu Jin, Yixiu Wang, Maithilee Motlag, Shengjie Gao, Jin Xu, Qiong Nian, Wenzhuo Wu, Gary J Cheng
Ongoing efforts in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) focus on enhancing power generation, but obstacles concerning the economical and cost-effective production of TENGs continue to prevail. Micro-/nanostructure engineering of polymer surfaces has been dominantly utilized for boosting the contact triboelectrification, with deposited metal electrodes for collecting the scavenged energy. Nevertheless, this state-of-the-art approach is limited by the vague potential for producing 3D hierarchical surface structures with conformable coverage of high-quality metal...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Marco Adriano Chessa, Annalisa Patrizi, Andrea Sechi, Annalucia Virdi, Miriam Leuzzi, Iria Neri
BACKGROUND: The tongue is covered by fungiform, filiform and circumvallate papillae. Fungiform papillae may be mainly pigmented in dark-skinned individuals. OBJECTIVE: A single-center study aimed to examine the clinical and dermoscopic features of pigmented fungiform papulae of the tongue (PFPT) in children, and a concise review of the literature has been performed. METHODS: The clinical and anamnestic data of 8 children affected by PFPT visited at the Pediatric Dermatology Unit of Bologna between 2010 and 2017, and a sistemic review of all studies of PFPT published on Pubmed up to August 31, 2017 have been collected and analyzed...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Anthony J Deegan, Faezeh Talebi-Liasi, Shaozhen Song, Yuandong Li, Jingjiang Xu, Shaojie Men, Michi M Shinohara, Mary E Flowers, Stephanie J Lee, Ruikang K Wang
BACKGROUND: In clinical dermatology, the identification of subsurface vascular and structural features known to be associated with numerous cutaneous pathologies remains challenging without the use of invasive diagnostic tools. OBJECTIVE: To present an advanced optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) method to directly visualize capillary-level vascular and structural features within skin in vivo. METHODS: An advanced OCTA system with a 1310 nm wavelength was used to image the microvascular and structural features of various skin conditions...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
James E Cutting, Kacie L Armstrong
Hollywood movies can be deeply engaging and easy to understand. To succeed in this manner, feature-length movies employ many editing techniques with strong psychological underpinnings. We explore the origins and development of one of these, the reaction shot. This shot typically shows a single, unspeaking character with modest facial expression in response to an event or to the behavior or speech of another character. In a sample of movies from 1940 to 2010, we show that the prevalence of one type of these shots-which we call the cryptic reaction shot-has grown dramatically...
January 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
René Westerhausen, Kristiina Kompus
The dichotic-listening paradigm with verbal stimuli is a widely employed behavioral task for the assessment of hemispheric asymmetry for speech and language processing. Participants with assumed left-hemispheric dominance report the right-ear stimulus with higher probability than the left-ear stimulus. However, there is substantial between-subject and trial-to-trial variability observed in the paradigm, motivating scrutiny of the task set-up and theoretical models. Here, we give an in-depth discussion of specific features of stimulus material and experimental parameters, as well as the conditions of stimulus/response selection, which explain a significant proportion of intra- and inter-individual variability...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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