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Neurodynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405191/cognitive-architecture-with-evolutionary-dynamics-solves-insight-problem
#1
Anna Fedor, István Zachar, András Szilágyi, Michael Öllinger, Harold P de Vladar, Eörs Szathmáry
In this paper, we show that a neurally implemented a cognitive architecture with evolutionary dynamics can solve the four-tree problem. Our model, called Darwinian Neurodynamics, assumes that the unconscious mechanism of problem solving during insight tasks is a Darwinian process. It is based on the evolution of patterns that represent candidate solutions to a problem, and are stored and reproduced by a population of attractor networks. In our first experiment, we used human data as a benchmark and showed that the model behaves comparably to humans: it shows an improvement in performance if it is pretrained and primed appropriately, just like human participants in Kershaw et al...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395984/efficacy-of-manual-therapy-including-neurodynamic-techniques-for-the-treatment-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Tomasz Wolny, Edward Saulicz, Paweł Linek, Michael Shacklock, Andrzej Myśliwiec
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this randomized trial was to compare the efficacy of manual therapy, including the use of neurodynamic techniques, with electrophysical modalities on patients with mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: The study included 140 CTS patients who were randomly assigned to the manual therapy (MT) group, which included the use of neurodynamic techniques, functional massage, and carpal bone mobilizations techniques, or to the electrophysical modalities (EM) group, which included laser and ultrasound therapy...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385623/how-can-a-recurrent-neurodynamic-predictive-coding-model-cope-with-fluctuation-in-temporal-patterns-robotic-experiments-on-imitative-interaction
#3
Ahmadreza Ahmadi, Jun Tani
The current paper examines how a recurrent neural network (RNN) model using a dynamic predictive coding scheme can cope with fluctuations in temporal patterns through generalization in learning. The conjecture driving this present inquiry is that a RNN model with multiple timescales (MTRNN) learns by extracting patterns of change from observed temporal patterns, developing an internal dynamic structure such that variance in initial internal states account for modulations in corresponding observed patterns. We trained a MTRNN with low-dimensional temporal patterns, and assessed performance on an imitation task employing these patterns...
March 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345282/neuroplasticity-of-language-in-left-hemisphere-stroke-evidence-linking-subsecond-electrophysiology-and-structural-connections
#4
Vitória Piai, Lars Meyer, Nina F Dronkers, Robert T Knight
The understanding of neuroplasticity following stroke is predominantly based on neuroimaging measures that cannot address the subsecond neurodynamics of impaired language processing. We combined behavioral and electrophysiological measures and structural-connectivity estimates to characterize neuroplasticity underlying successful compensation of language abilities after left-hemispheric stroke. We recorded the electroencephalogram from patients with stroke lesions to the left temporal lobe and from matched controls during context-driven word retrieval...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319883/the-influence-of-a-depressed-scapular-alignment-on-upper-limb-neural-tissue-mechanosensitivity-and-local-pressure-pain-sensitivity
#5
Patricia Martínez-Merinero, Enriqe Lluch, Tomas Gallezo-Izquierdo, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Susana Nuñez-Nagy, Deborah Falla
BACKGROUND: A depressed scapular alignment could lead to prolonged and repetitive stress or compression of the brachial plexus, resulting in sensitization of neural tissue. However, no study has investigated the influence of alignment of the scapulae on sensitization of upper limb neural tissue in otherwise asymptomatic people. In this case-control study, we investigate the influence of a depressed scapular alignment on mechanosensitivity of the upper limb peripheral nervous system as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT)...
March 10, 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287988/output-feedback-based-boundary-control-of-uncertain-coupled-semilinear-parabolic-pde-using-neurodynamic-programming
#6
Behzad Talaei, Sarangapani Jagannathan, John Singler
In this paper, neurodynamic programming-based output feedback boundary control of distributed parameter systems governed by uncertain coupled semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) under Neumann or Dirichlet boundary control conditions is introduced. First, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is formulated in the original PDE domain and the optimal control policy is derived using the value functional as the solution of the HJB equation. Subsequently, a novel observer is developed to estimate the system states given the uncertain nonlinearity in PDE dynamics and measured outputs...
March 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286626/periodic-lateralized-epileptiform-discharges-can-survive-anesthesia-and-result-in-asymmetric-drug-induced-burst-suppression
#7
Edward C Mader, Louis A Cannizzaro, Frank J Williams, Saurabh Lalan, Piotr W Olejniczak
Drug-induced burst suppression (DIBS) is bihemispheric and bisymmetric in adults and older children. However, asymmetric DIBS may occur if a pathological process is affecting one hemisphere only or both hemispheres disproportionately. The usual suspect is a destructive lesion; an irritative or epileptogenic lesion is usually not invoked to explain DIBS asymmetry. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with new-onset seizures who was found to have a hemorrhagic cavernoma and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) in the right temporal region...
February 20, 2017: Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285487/load-carriage-related-paresthesias-part-2-meralgia-paresthetica
#8
Joseph J Knapik, Katy Reynolds, Robin Orr, Rodney Pope
This is the second of a two-part series addressing symptoms, evaluation, and treatment of load carriage- related paresthesias. Part 1 addressed rucksack palsy and digitalgia paresthetica; here, meralgia paresthetica (MP) is discussed. MP is a mononeuropathy involving the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). MP has been reported in load carriage situations where the LFCN was compressed by rucksack hipbelts, pistol belts, parachute harnesses, and body armor. In the US military, the rate of MP is 6.2 cases/10,000 personyears...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238938/estimating-direction-in-brain-behavior-interactions-proactive-and-reactive-brain-states-in-driving
#9
Javier O Garcia, Justin Brooks, Scott Kerick, Tony Johnson, Tim R Mullen, Jean M Vettel
Conventional neuroimaging analyses have ascribed function to particular brain regions, exploiting the power of the subtraction technique in fMRI and event-related potential analyses in EEG. Moving beyond this convention, many researchers have begun exploring network-based neurodynamics and coordination between brain regions as a function of behavioral parameters or environmental statistics; however, most approaches average evoked activity across the experimental session to study task-dependent networks. Here, we examined on-going oscillatory activity as measured with EEG and use a methodology to estimate directionality in brain-behavior interactions...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217092/neurodynamics-in-the-sensorimotor-loop-representing-behavior-relevant-external-situations
#10
Frank Pasemann
In the context of the dynamical system approach to cognition and supposing that brains or brain-like systems controlling the behavior of autonomous systems are permanently driven by their sensor signals, the paper approaches the question of neurodynamics in the sensorimotor loop in a purely formal way. This is carefully done by addressing the problem in three steps, using the time-discrete dynamics of standard neural networks and a fiber space representation for better clearness. Furthermore, concepts like meta-transients, parametric stability and dynamical forms are introduced, where meta-transients describe the effect of realistic sensor inputs, parametric stability refers to a class of sensor inputs all generating the "same type" of dynamic behavior, and a dynamical form comprises the corresponding class of parametrized dynamical systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212073/a-two-time-scale-neurodynamic-approach-to-constrained-minimax-optimization
#11
Xinyi Le, Jun Wang
This paper presents a two-time-scale neurodynamic approach to constrained minimax optimization using two coupled neural networks. One of the recurrent neural networks is used for minimizing the objective function and another is used for maximization. It is shown that the coupled neurodynamic systems operating in two different time scales work well for minimax optimization. The effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach are illustrated using several examples. Furthermore, the proposed approach is applied for H∞ model predictive control...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174612/classification-of-epileptic-seizures-using-wavelet-packet-log-energy-and-norm-entropies-with-recurrent-elman-neural-network-classifier
#12
S Raghu, N Sriraam, G Pradeep Kumar
Electroencephalogram shortly termed as EEG is considered as the fundamental segment for the assessment of the neural activities in the brain. In cognitive neuroscience domain, EEG-based assessment method is found to be superior due to its non-invasive ability to detect deep brain structure while exhibiting superior spatial resolutions. Especially for studying the neurodynamic behavior of epileptic seizures, EEG recordings reflect the neuronal activity of the brain and thus provide required clinical diagnostic information for the neurologist...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166509/a-collaborative-neurodynamic-approach-to-multiple-objective-distributed-optimization
#13
Shaofu Yang, Qingshan Liu, Jun Wang
This paper is concerned with multiple-objective distributed optimization. Based on objective weighting and decision space decomposition, a collaborative neurodynamic approach to multiobjective distributed optimization is presented. In the approach, a system of collaborative neural networks is developed to search for Pareto optimal solutions, where each neural network is associated with one objective function and given constraints. Sufficient conditions are derived for ascertaining the convergence to a Pareto optimal solution of the collaborative neurodynamic system...
February 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113639/a-neurodynamic-optimization-approach-to-bilevel-quadratic-programming
#14
Sitian Qin, Xinyi Le, Jun Wang
This paper presents a neurodynamic optimization approach to bilevel quadratic programming (BQP). Based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) theorem, the BQP problem is reduced to a one-level mathematical program subject to complementarity constraints (MPCC). It is proved that the global solution of the MPCC is the minimal one of the optimal solutions to multiple convex optimization subproblems. A recurrent neural network is developed for solving these convex optimization subproblems. From any initial state, the state of the proposed neural network is convergent to an equilibrium point of the neural network, which is just the optimal solution of the convex optimization subproblem...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090180/a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-of-neurodynamic-sliders-on-hamstring-responses-in-footballers-with-hamstring-tightness
#15
Pattanasin Areeudomwong, Ketsarakon Oatyimprai, Saranchana Pathumb
BACKGROUND: Neurodynamics intervention is known to increase apparent muscle extensibility, but information regarding hamstring responses after a neurodynamic sliders (NS) technique is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NS on apparent hamstring extensibility and activity in footballers with hamstring tightness. METHODS: Forty eligible healthy male footballers with hamstring tightness were each randomly allocated to either a 4-week NS technique or a control group (CG) receiving placebo shortwave intervention...
November 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077003/influence-of-extrinsic-inputs-and-synaptic-gains-on-dynamics-of-wendling-s-neural-mass-model-a-bifurcation-analysis
#16
Shujuan Geng, Weidong Zhou
We analyze the neurodynamics attributed by a model proposed by Wendling and co-workers (2002) [Wendling, F., Bartolomei, F., Bellanger, J.J. & Chauvel, P. (2002) Epileptic fast activity can be explained by a model of impaired GABAergic dendritic inhibition. Eur. J. Neurosci., 15, 1499.] to explain several different types of electroencephalographic activities. We could find three principal types of steady states when the system parameters change slowly: (i) the model produce a constant output when it is under a state of stable equilibrium point with a constant input...
December 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076355/multiple-choice-neurodynamical-model-of-the-uncertain-option-task
#17
Andrea Insabato, Mario Pannunzi, Gustavo Deco
The uncertain option task has been recently adopted to investigate the neural systems underlying the decision confidence. Latterly single neurons activity has been recorded in lateral intraparietal cortex of monkeys performing an uncertain option task, where the subject is allowed to opt for a small but sure reward instead of making a risky perceptual decision. We propose a multiple choice model implemented in a discrete attractors network. This model is able to reproduce both behavioral and neurophysiological experimental data and therefore provides support to the numerous perspectives that interpret the uncertain option task as a sensory-motor association...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992294/effects-of-a-novel-neurodynamic-tension-technique-on-muscle-extensibility-and-stretch-tolerance-a-counterbalanced-cross-over-study
#18
Max Pietrzak, Niels Bj Vollard
CONTEXT: Neurodynamic tension affects hamstring extensibility and stretch tolerance, and is considered important in hamstring injury management. Neurodynamic tension was postulated to affect segmental muscle extensibility and stretch tolerance, and potentially also demonstrate extra-segmental and contralateral effects. OBJECTIVES: Assess the effects of a novel sciatic-tibial neurodynamic tension technique, the modified long sit slump (MLSS), on segmental, extra-segmental and contralateral muscle extensibility and stretch tolerance...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990266/breeding-novel-solutions-in-the-brain-a-model-of-darwinian-neurodynamics
#19
András Szilágyi, István Zachar, Anna Fedor, Harold P de Vladar, Eörs Szathmáry
Background: The fact that surplus connections and neurons are pruned during development is well established. We complement this selectionist picture by a proof-of-principle model of evolutionary search in the brain, that accounts for new variations in theory space. We present a model for Darwinian evolutionary search for candidate solutions in the brain. Methods: We combine known components of the brain - recurrent neural networks (acting as attractors), the action selection loop and implicit working memory - to provide the appropriate Darwinian architecture...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982418/a-developmental-neuroscience-study-of-moral-decision-making-regarding-resource-allocation
#20
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Melanie Killen, Jean Decety
Distinguishing between equity and equality is essential when making social and moral decisions, yet the related neurodevelopmental processes are unknown. Evaluations of contextually based third-party distributions incorporating recipient need and resource importance were examined in children and adolescents (N = 82; 8-16 years). Spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses show distinct developmental profiles to viewing such distributions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) differentially predicted real-life behaviors based on age, where older children's (8-10 years) evaluations were related to a fairly rapid, automatic ERP component (early posterior negativity), whereas adolescent and preadolescent (11-16 years) evaluations, first-person allocations, and prosocial behaviors were predicted by later, cognitively controlled ERP components (P3 and late positive potential)...
December 16, 2016: Child Development
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