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Total body sodium

Ludmila S Almeida, Maidane C Araújo, Denise E Zantut-Wittmann, Lígia V Assumpção, Thiago F Souza, Cleide M Silva, Juliana L Argenton, Allan O Santos, Jair Mengatti, Celso D Ramos, Elba C Etchebehere
BACKGROUND: Radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinomas (RAIRs) are characterized by reduced expression of sodium-iodine symporter, rising serum thyroglobulin levels, and negative whole-body radioiodine scans. Interestingly, RAIRs continue to express somatostatin receptors and can be identified with Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare lesion detectability in Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT performed with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (eTSH) levels with suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH) levels...
March 14, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Jean Yoo, Yeon-Mi Lim, Haewon Kim, Eun-Ji Kim, Doo-Hee Lee, Byeongwoo Lee, Pilje Kim, Seung Do Yu, Hyun-Mi Kim, Byung-Il Yoon, Ilseob Shim
Many consumer products used in our daily lives result in inhalation exposure to a variety of chemicals, although the toxicities of the active ingredients are not well known; furthermore, simultaneous exposure to chemical mixtures occurs. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) and propylene glycol (PG) are used in a variety of products. Both the cytotoxicity and the sub-acute inhalation toxicity of each chemical and their mixtures were evaluated. Assays for cell viability, membrane damage, and lysosome damage demonstrated that SM over 100 μg/ml induced significant cytotoxicity; moreover, when PG, which was not cytotoxic, was mixed with SM, the cytotoxicity of the mixture was enhanced...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-Song Bian, Dongdong Sun, Lingyi Kong, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Chronic stress is known to promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unresolved. Here, we found chronic stress to sensitize mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis; to increase the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory ly6Chi macrophages in colonic lamina propria; and to present with decreased thymus and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) coefficients. Circulating total white blood cells were significantly increased after stress, and the proportion of MLN-associated immune cells were largely changed...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kittima Lewchalermvong, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Sumontha Nookabkaew, Tawit Suriyo, Jutamaad Satayavivad
Despite its nutritional values, rice also contains arsenic. There has been increasing concern about health implications associated with exposure to arsenic through rice consumption. The present study evaluated arsenic accumulation and its speciation in selected organs of Wistar rats after 28-day repeated oral administrations of polished or unpolished rice and their control arsenic compounds (sodium arsenite or dimethylarsinic acid). Only the treatment of sodium arsenite (2 µg/kg body weight), significantly increased total arsenic concentrations in blood when compared to the distilled water control group...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yexiang Sun, Chunyu Yuan, Xulin Chen, Fei Wang, Congsong Sun, Zhi Gao, Sheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different concentrations of hypertonic saline solution (HS) on intestine injury in rats at the early stage of severe burn. METHODS: 104 adult healthy female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group (n = 8), lactated Ringer solution (LR) group (n = 24) and 200, 300, 400 mmol/L HS group (HS200 group, HS300 group, HS400 group, all n = 24). All the rats in LR group and different concentrations of HS groups were scalded for 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with III degree, after immediately, the rats were given burn resuscitation therapy by LR or corresponding concentrations of HS through the tail vein...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Vahid Vosooghi-Postindoz, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Abbas Ali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Seyed Hadi Ebrahimi
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intermittent watering on Baluchi lambs, regarding their performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Methods: Twenty male Baluchi lambs, 120 ± 5 days of age and 29 ±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to four watering treatments: (T1) free access to water during the day, (T2) watered ad libitum twice a day, (T3) watered ad libitum once a day, (T4) watered ad libitum once every two days...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Todd S Ing, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Yijuan Sun, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Osmotic diuresis results from urine loss of large amounts of solutes distributed either in total body water or in the extracellular compartment. Replacement solutions should reflect the volume and monovalent cation (sodium and potassium) content of the fluid lost. Whereas the volume of the solutions used to replace losses that occurred prior to the diagnosis of osmotic diuresis is guided by the clinical picture, the composition of these solutions is predicated on serum sodium concentration and urinary sodium and potassium concentrations at presentation...
March 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Yochai Birnbaum, Mandeep Bajaj, Hsiu-Chiung Yang, Yumei Ye
BACGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4I) are used to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM). DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4) attenuate Nlrp3 inflammasome activation in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibition reduces inflammation and attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The effects of dapagliflozin (Dapa) on the activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome and the combined effect of SGLT2 and DPP4 on T2DM-induced inflammasome activation and progression of DN have not been previously studied...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Hiroki Nakajima, Sadanori Okada, Takako Mohri, Eiichiro Kanda, Naoyuki Inaba, Yoko Hirasawa, Hiroaki Seino, Hisamoto Kuroda, Toru Hiyoshi, Tetsuji Niiya, Hitoshi Ishii
Background: The benefits of sodium glucose cotransporters 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus include plasma glucose control, reduction in body weight and blood pressure, and low risk of hypoglycemia, although they may also cause genitourinary infections, polyuria, or volume depletion. It is not clear whether dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, improves treatment satisfaction among patients in a comprehensive way despite the negative side effects. This study assessed the effect of dapagliflozin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, and treatment satisfaction in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Kentaro Murakami
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study examined how the nutritional quality of meals and snacks was associated with overall diet quality and adiposity measures. METHODS: Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06:00-09:00 h, 12:00-14:00 h, and 17:00-20:00 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (meals: ≥15%; snacks: <15%) in British children aged 4-10 (n = 808) and adolescents aged 11-18 (n = 809)...
February 27, 2018: Nutrition
Y S Cui, Q Zhong, W F Li, Z H Liu, Y Wang, C C Hou
Objective: To investigate the effects of fluoride exposure on the thyroid hormone level and intelligence in rats and to investigate the biomarkers of intellectual impairment induced by high fluoride exposure. Methods: A total of 24 clean healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (tap water containing 0.344 mg/L fluoride) and low-, medium-, and high-fluoride exposure groups (tap waters containing 10, 50, and 100 mg/L sodium fluoride, respectively). One male rat was cohabited with two female rats in the same group...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Shunhua Wu, Jing Li, Xiang Jin
Long-term consumption of sodium arsenite contaminated water can cause endemic arsenic disease. The proteome profile changes of liver fibrosis after exposure to arsenite containing water remain unclear. In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were treated with sodium arsenite (iAs3+), using a daily dose of 1.36 mg/kg body weight (medium dose group, M), 2.73 mg/kg body weight (high dose group, H) or deionized water (control group, C). Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) were used to identify the different abundant proteins (DAPs) after arsenic-induced liver fibrosis...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
E Ren, X Chen, S Yu, J Xu, Y Su, W Zhu
Previous studies showed that butyrate played benefit roles in the health and metabolism of animals. However, little information on the effects of butyrate on the metabolism of piglets at the extraintestinal level is available. The present study investigated transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of intravenous sodium butyrate (SB) on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Large White growing barrows (60 days of age) fitted with jugular vein cannula were randomly allocated to either the SB group or the control (CO) group...
February 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ji-Sook Kong, Yeon-Kyung Lee, Mi Kyung Kim, Mi-Kyeong Choi, Young-Ran Heo, Taisun Hyun, Sun Mee Kim, Eun-Soon Lyu, Se-Young Oh, Hae-Ryun Park, Moo-Yong Rhee, Hee-Kyong Ro, Mi Kyung Song
This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set...
2018: PloS One
Muzi Maseko, Mercy Mashao, Abdulraheem Bawa-Allah, Edgar Phukubje, Bongubuhle Mlambo, Thamsanqa Nyundu
Previous studies conducted to investigate the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in our African population have yielded contradictory results. With the high prevalence of obesity in this population, it is possible that these contradictory findings are due to the masking effects of obesity on this relationship. We measured 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and 24-hour urine excretion on 547 South Africans of African ancestry. A multivariate regression analysis revealed no independent relationship between 24-hour sodium excretion and blood pressure in the total population sample, but when participants were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) status, there was a significant association between 24-hour sodium excretion and blood pressure in the normal-BMI participants but not in the overweight/obese participants...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Pinar Karakaya, Bahar Ozdemir, Meral Mert, Yildiz Okuturlar
AIM: The sodium-sparing effect of insulin leads to increase in total sodium pool of the body which is a chronic stimulus for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between ANP and microvascular complications of diabetes. METHODS: 60 patients, 30-70 years old, with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are enrolled into the study. Patients with a chronic disease other than DM are excluded. Blood samples for routine biochemical tests are taken after at least 12 h fasting at 8-9 am...
February 14, 2018: Obesity Facts
Á Jerzsele, Z Karancsi, E Pászti-Gere, Á Sterczer, A Bersényi, K Fodor, D Szabó, P Vajdovich
Xylitol is commonly used as sugar substitute in households. While it has numerous beneficial effects on human health, it is highly toxic to dogs. The goal of this study was to examine whether xylitol has similar deleterious effects, such as hypoglycaemia and acute hepatic failure, on cats. Our research included six healthy middle-aged cats. Xylitol was dissolved in deionized water and administered p.o. at three doses (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight). These dosages have been considered toxic and can cause liver failure or even death in dogs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Leila Safaeian, Reyhaneh Emami, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Zahra Haghighatian
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a natural antioxidant with beneficial cardiovascular properties. In this study, the effect of supplementation with PCA was investigated in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Male Wistar rats received DOCA (25 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly and 1% NaCl in drinking water and simultaneously treated with PCA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was detected using tail-cuff method. Electrolytes including Na+, K+ and chloride, catalase activity, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroperoxides concentration were measured in serum samples...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Katharine Roberts, Janet Cade, Jeremy Dawson, Michelle Holdsworth
The aim of this study was to examine empirical dietary patterns in UK adults and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, self-reported nutrient intake, nutrient biomarkers, and the Nutrient-based Diet Quality Score (NDQS) using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data 2008-2012 ( n = 2083; mean age 49 years; 43.3% male). Four patterns explained 13.6% of the total variance: 'Snacks, fast food, fizzy drinks' (SFFFD), 'Fruit, vegetables, oily fish' (FVOF), 'Meat, potatoes, beer' (MPB), and 'Sugary foods, dairy' (SFD)...
February 6, 2018: Nutrients
Kimberly R Milleman, Jonathan E Creeth, Gary R Burnett, Jeffery L Milleman
OBJECTIVES: Phytate is an organic, cyclic polyphosphate analogous to linear condensed polyphosphates used as stain removal agents. This study investigated stain removal efficacy of an experimental sodium phytate-containing dentifrice compared to a reference dentifrice. METHODS: An experimental, moderate abrasivity (relative dentine abrasivity [RDA] ∼130) antisensitivity fluoride dentifrice containing sodium phytate (0.85% w/w as the hexasodium salt) (n = 111) was compared to a reference, marketed, low-abrasivity (RDA ∼ 43), anti-sensitivity fluoride dentifrice (n = 113), both containing 1150 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
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