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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725273/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-the-effects-of-dapagliflozin-and-dpp-4-inhibitors-on-glucose-variability-and-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-insulin
#1
Hiroshi Nomoto, Hideaki Miyoshi, Hajime Sugawara, Kota Ono, Shingo Yanagiya, Mayuko Oita, Akinobu Nakamura, Tatsuya Atsumi
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve hyperglycemia, and the usefulness of co-administration of DPP-4 inhibitors and insulin therapy has been well established. However, it has been still uncertain whether combination therapy of SGLT2 inhibitors and insulin is superior to that of DPP-4 inhibitors and the latter. Therefore, we investigated the superiority of dapagliflozin on glucose fluctuation compared with DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on insulin using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723715/novel-weight-based-dose-threshold-for-18f-naf-pet-ct-imaging-using-advanced-pet-ct-systems-a-potential-tool-for-reducing-radiation-burden
#2
Fahad Marafi, Abdulreda Esmail, Rashid Rasheed, Fareeda Alkandari, Sharjeel Usmani
BACKGROUND: Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET/CT is an important tool for detecting and evaluating metastatic bone cancer. Besides traditional dose metrics, recent methods such as real-time dose mapping, dose calculation from DICOM information, and their relevance to entrance skin exposure are currently in use to reduce the radiation burden. In this study, we have analyzed the data of 1062 patients retrospectively to evaluate patterns of absorbed dose for institutional weight-based dose protocol as compared with fixed dose method guidelines of Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI)...
July 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713897/expression-of-irak%C3%A2-3-is-associated-with-colitis%C3%A2-associated-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#3
Dingting Xu, Hanyun Zhang, Xiaoying Wang, Yan Chen
Interleukin‑1 receptor‑associated kinase‑3 (IRAK‑3) is a negative regulator in Toll‑like receptor (TLR) pathways. The present study investigated the importance of IRAK‑3 in a mouse model of chemically‑induced colitis‑associated tumorigenesis. The colitis‑associated tumorigenesis was induced in ICR mice by the administration of 1,2‑dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), termed the DMH + DSS group. In the DSS group, mice were administered with DSS; in the DMH group, mice were injected with DMH; in the control group, mice were injected with physiological saline...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711257/seasonal-and-maternal-effects-on-acid-base-l-lactate-electrolyte-and-hematological-status-of-205-dairy-calves-born-to-eutocic-dams
#4
L Kovács, F L Kézér, E Albert, F Ruff, O Szenci
In this study, we used linear mixed models to determine the effects of season, time of sampling relative to birth (factors), duration of the delivery process, duration of maternal grooming, calf body weight (BW) at birth, and time of day (covariates) on values of venous blood gas, acid-base and electrolyte parameters, and l-lactate concentrations in dairy calves born to eutocic dams in summer (SUM, n = 101) and winter (WIN, n = 104). Neonatal vitality was assessed at 0, 1, and 24 h after delivery in a linear scoring system using muscle tone, erection of the head, muscle reflexes, heart rate, and sucking drive as criteria...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708587/sodium-fluoride-induces-renal-inflammatory-responses-by-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-reducing-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-mice
#5
Qin Luo, Hengmin Cui, Huidan Deng, Ping Kuang, Huan Liu, Yujiao Lu, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Junliang Deng, Yinglun Li, Xun Wang, Ling Zhao
Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment and often results in adverse health effects on animals and human beings. It has been proved that fluoride can induce inflammatory responses in vitro. However, very limited reports are focused on fluoride-induced inflammatory responses in vivo. In this study, mice were used to investigate sodium fluoride (NaF) induced renal inflammatory responses and the potential mechanism by using the methods of pathology, biochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702877/absorption-distribution-metabolism-and-excretion-of-14-c-volixibat-in-healthy-men-phase-1-open-label-study
#6
Nicholas Siebers, Melissa Palmer, Debra G Silberg, Lee Jennings, Caleb Bliss, Patrick T Martin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Volixibat is a potent inhibitor of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in development for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This phase 1, open-label study investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C]-volixibat in heathy men. METHODS: Eligible men (n = 8) aged 18-50 years (body mass index 18.0-30.0 kg/m(2); weight >50 kg) received a single oral dose of [(14)C]-volixibat 50 mg containing ~5...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700086/antiseptics-for-burns
#7
REVIEW
Gill Norman, Janice Christie, Zhenmi Liu, Maggie J Westby, Jayne M Jefferies, Thomas Hudson, Jacky Edwards, Devi Prasad Mohapatra, Ibrahim A Hassan, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting...
July 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696993/special-communication-of-a-case-of-hypovolemic-associated-eah-lessons-learned-during-recovery
#8
Tamara Hew-Butler, Rus Hamilton, Bridget Hamilton, Zachary Colesa
Severe exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is largely dilutional, whereas contributions of sodium loss remain equivocal. We present a case of EAH with encephalopathy involving an experienced male cyclist with no recollection of the event. We thereby conducted a retrospective analysis of biochemical trajectories during hospital recovery. The normalization of serum [Na], in context with changes in other variables, offered a 'reverse' perspective of the underlying pathophysiology. The following biochemical changes were temporally observed, with the return of normonatremia: 1) a decrease in serum potassium and calcium concentrations (absence of extracellular fluid dilution); 2) a decrease in total protein, blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit and hemoglobin (plasma volume expansion); and 3) an increase in mean platelet and red cell corpuscular volumes (cellular expansion after total body water and sodium deficits)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684676/integrated-assessment-of-pharmacological-and-nutritional-cardiovascular-risk-management-blood-pressure-control-in-the-diabetes-and-lifestyle-cohort-twente-dialect
#9
Christina M Gant, S Heleen Binnenmars, Else van den Berg, Stephan J L Bakker, Gerjan Navis, Gozewijn D Laverman
Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement of treatment quality. Therefore, we analysed blood pressure (BP) management in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT). DIALECT is an observational cohort from routine diabetes care, performed at the ZGT Hospital (Almelo and Hengelo, The Netherlands)...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665967/effects-of-canagliflozin-on-weight-loss-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
Wenjun Ji, Mei Zhao, Meng Wang, Wenhui Yan, Yuan Liu, Shuting Ren, Jun Lu, Bing Wang, Lina Chen
Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weight, liver weight, liver morphology, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660810/intravenous-fluid-and-electrolyte-administration-in-elective-gastrointestinal-surgery-mechanisms-of-excessive-therapy
#11
R G Simpson, J Quayle, N Stylianides, G Carlson, M Soop
INTRODUCTION While clinical guidelines stress the importance of the judicious perioperative intravenous fluid administration, data show that adherence to these protocols is poor. The reasons have not been identified. We therefore audited the magnitude and indications of fluid and electrolyte administration in a teaching hospital. We hypothesised that epidural analgesia is associated with excessive fluid therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Intravenous fluid and electrolyte administration during the day of surgery and the subsequent 2 days in consecutive patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery between November 2013 and May 2014 were retrospectively audited...
July 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649089/prognostic-nutritional-index-and-the-risk-of-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure
#12
Yu-Lun Cheng, Shih-Hsien Sung, Hao-Min Cheng, Pai-Feng Hsu, Chao-Yu Guo, Wen-Chung Yu, Chen-Huan Chen
BACKGROUND: Nutritional status has been related to clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. We assessed the association between nutritional status, indexed by prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and survival in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1673 patients (age 76±13 years, 68% men) hospitalized for acute heart failure in a tertiary medical center were analyzed. PNI was calculated as 10×serum albumin (g/dL)+0...
June 25, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638920/-a-study-on-toxic-effects-of-sodium-salicylate-on-rat-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-dopamine-receptors-mediate-expressions-of-nmda-and-gabaa-receptors
#13
Ting-Jia Wei, Hui-Ying Chen, Xi Huang, Jing-Jin Weng, Jiang-Yuan Qin, Ji-Ping Su
The aim of the present study was to observe whether dopamine receptor (DR) was involved in the effects of sodium salicylate (SS) on the expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Forty-eight hours after primary culture of rat SGNs, immunofluorescence technique was applied to detect expressions of DR1 and DR2, the two subtypes of dopamine receptors. Western blot was performed to assess NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and GABAA receptor subunit α2 (GABRα2) protein expressions in the SGNs after the treatments of SS alone or in combination with DR antagonists...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638287/use-of-sodium-hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose-bioresorbable-membrane-in-loop-ileostomy-construction-facilitates-stoma-closure
#14
Danielle M Bertoni, Kerry L Hammond, David E Beck, Terry C Hicks, Charles B Whitlow, H David Vargas, David A Margolin
BACKGROUND: Loop ileostomy is a common adjunct to surgical procedures for low rectal cancers and inflammatory bowel disease. Ileostomy closure through a limited incision can be technically challenging. We hypothesized that placing a sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose (SH/CMC) bioresorbable membrane at loop ileostomy creation would decrease stoma closure time without increasing morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective review at a single institution with 6 board-certified colorectal surgeons, patients with loop ileostomy creation and closure between September 1999 and December 2011 were grouped based on SH/CMC placement at ileostomy creation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633650/effects-of-tolvaptan-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Chunbin Wang, Bo Xiong, Lin Cai
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure, which requires urgent evaluation and treatment, is a leading cause for admission to the emergency department. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of tolvaptan on acute heart failure and compare them with the effects of conventional therapy or placebo. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial registry were searched from their starting dates to October 24, 2016. Two authors independently read the trials and extracted related information from the included studies...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619187/safety-and-efficacy-of-long-term-use-of-sodium-oxybate-for-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-in-routine-clinical-practice
#16
Panagis Drakatos, Dimosthenis Lykouras, Grainne D'Ancona, Sean Higgins, Nadia Gildeh, Raluca Macavei, Ivana Rosenzweig, Joerg Steier, Adrian J Williams, Rexford Muza, Brian D Kent, Guy Leschziner
BACKGROUND: Sodium oxybate is licensed in Europe for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of sodium oxybate in clinical practice in patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy refractory to other treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective single centre study including patients with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy refractory to other treatments, who were initiated on sodium oxybate between 2009 and 2015...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618404/prevalence-of-hyponatremia-and-its-associated-morbimortality-in-hospitalized-patients-receiving-parenteral-nutrition
#17
Emilia Gómez-Hoyos, Martín Cuesta, Nayade Del Prado-González, Pilar Matía, Natalia Pérez-Ferre, Daniel Antonio De Luis, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Isabelle Runkle-De la Vega
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia (HN) and its associated morbimortality in hospitalized patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: A retrospective study including 222 patients receiving total PN (parenteral nutrition group [PNG]) over a 7-month period in a tertiary hospital and 176 matched to 179 control subjects without PN (control subjects group [CSG]). Demographic data, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), date of HN detection-(serum sodium or SNa <135 mmol/L)-intrahospital mortality, and hospital length-of-stay (LOS) were registered...
June 16, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611859/ipragliflozin-improves-glycemic-control-and-decreases-body-fat-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Takehiro Kawata, Takashi Iizuka, Kotaro Iemitsu, Masahiro Takihata, Masahiko Takai, Shigeru Nakajima, Nobuaki Minami, Shinichi Umezawa, Akira Kanamori, Hiroshi Takeda, Shogo Ito, Taisuke Kikuchi, Hikaru Amemiya, Mizuki Kaneshiro, Atsuko Mokubo, Tetsuo Takuma, Hideo Machimura, Keiji Tanaka, Taro Asakura, Akira Kubota, Sachio Aoyanagi, Kazuhiko Hoshino, Masashi Ishikawa, Yoko Matsuzawa, Mitsuo Obana, Nobuo Sasai, Hideaki Kaneshige, Fuyuki Minagawa, Tatsuya Saito, Kazuaki Shinoda, Masaaki Miyakawa, Yasushi Tanaka, Yasuo Terauchi, Ikuro Matsuba
BACKGROUND: Ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, was administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 24 weeks to evaluate its effect on glycemic control and body composition. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated multicenter prospective intervention study in which ipragliflozin (50 mg) was administered once daily and glycemic control, blood pressure, body weight (BW), body composition (measured by a biological impedance method), the lipid profile, and adverse events were evaluated after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605608/canagliflozin-and-cardiovascular-and-renal-events-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Dick de Zeeuw, Greg Fulcher, Ngozi Erondu, Wayne Shaw, Gordon Law, Mehul Desai, David R Matthews
Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188...
June 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596160/effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-urinary-excretion-of-intact-and-total-angiotensinogen-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Takuo Yoshimoto, Takayuki Furuki, Hiroyuki Kobori, Masaaki Miyakawa, Hitomi Imachi, Koji Murao, Akira Nishiyama
We conducted a descriptive case study to examine the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on urinary angiotensinogen excretion, which represents the function of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, in patients with type 2 diabetes. An SGLT2 inhibitor (canagliflozin 100 mg/day, ipragliflozin 25 mg/day, dapagliflozin 5 mg/day, luseogliflozin 2.5 mg/day or tofogliflozin 20 mg/day) was administered for 1 month (n=9). ELISA kits were used to measure both urinary intact and total angiotensinogen levels...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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