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Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Arthur Orlando Corrêa Schilithz, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: The rate of cesarean delivery (CD) in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS). METHODS: This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Mariza Theme-Filha, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elizabeth Moreira, Silvana Granado Gama
BACKGROUND: The rate of preterm birth has been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. This constitutes a significant public health challenge because of the higher levels of morbidity and mortality and long-term health effects associated with preterm birth. This study describes and quantifies factors affecting spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in Brazil. METHODS: Data are from the 2011-2012 "Birth in Brazil" study, which used a national population-based sample of 23,940 women...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Arthur Orlando Corrêa Schilithz, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Maternal near-miss (MNM) audits are considered a useful approach to improving maternal healthcare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with maternal near-miss cases in childbirth and the postpartum period in Brazil. METHODS: The study is based on data from a nationwide hospital-based survey of 23,894 women conducted in 2011-2012. The data are from interviews with mothers during the postpartum period and from hospital medical files...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Sonia Duarte de Azevedo Bittencourt, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis, Márcia Melo Ramos, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. METHODS: Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study "Birth in Brazil: national survey into labor and birth" conducted in 2011-2012...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elisabeth Moreira
BACKGROUND: Cesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide but there is some concern with this trend because of potential maternal and perinatal risks. The Robson classification is the standard method to monitor and compare CS rates. Our objective was to analyze CS rates in Brazil according to source of payment for childbirth (public or private) using the Robson classification. METHODS: Data are from the 2011-2012 "Birth in Brazil" study, which used a national hospital-based sample of 23,940 women...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delayed locomotor activity rhythms during the early night and advanced during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, PDF, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) are part of both entrainment pathways, while allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Luciana G Madeira, Renata Lf Passos, Juliana F de Souza, Nilton A Rezende, Luiz O C Rodrigues
Objective: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) causes neural and cutaneous disorders and reduced exercise capacity. Exercise/heat exposure increasing internal temperature must be compensated by eccrine sweat function and warmed skin vasodilation. We suspected NF1 could adversely affect eccrine sweat function and/or vascular thermoregulatory responses (VTR). Methods: The eccrine sweat function and VTR of 25 NF1 volunteers (14 males, 11 females; 16-57 years old) were compared with 23 non-NF1 controls matched by sex, age, height and weight (CG)...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Mariana Governo, Mónica S F Santos, Arminda Alves, Luís M Madeira
Cytostatics are part of the forefront research topics due to their high prescription, high toxicity, and the lack of effective solutions to stop their entrance and spread in the environment. Among them, 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) has received particular attention because is one of the most prescribed active substances in chemotherapy worldwide. The degradation of 5-Fu by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is a poorly addressed topic, and this work brings valuable inputs concerning this matter. Herein, the efficacy of Fenton's process in the degradation of 5-Fu is explored for the first time; the study of the main variables and its successful application to the treatment of real wastewaters is demonstrated...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Camila L Madeira, Samuel A Speet, Cristina A Nieto, Leif Abrell, Jon Chorover, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Jim A Field
Insensitive munitions, such as 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), are being considered by the U.S. Army as replacements for conventional explosives. Environmental emissions of NTO are expected to increase as its use becomes widespread; but only a few studies have considered the remediation of NTO-contaminated sites. In this study, sequential anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of NTO was investigated in bioreactors using soil as inoculum. Batch bioassays confirmed microbial reduction of NTO under anaerobic conditions to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO) using pyruvate as electron-donating cosubstrate...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
P A Lopes, A P Martins, S V Martins, M S Madeira, N C Santos, T F Moura, J A M Prates, G Soveral
The production of pork with moderate amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) without an increase in subcutaneous fat is highly desirable for the meat industry. Several studies indicate that dietary protein reduction during the growing-finishing period of pigs enhances IMF content, but its consequence on carcass fat deposition is still contradictory. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of reduced protein diets (RPD), corrected or not with the limiting amino acid lysine, on subcutaneous fat deposition from pigs with distinct genotypes are mediated by adipose membranes biophysical properties...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sereina Rutschmann, Harald Detering, Sabrina Simon, David H Funk, Jean-Luc Gattolliat, Samantha J Hughes, Pedro M Raposeiro, Rob DeSalle, Michel Sartori, Michael T Monaghan
The study of processes driving diversification requires a fully sampled and well resolved phylogeny. Multilocus approaches to the study of recent diversification provide a powerful means to study the evolutionary process, but their application remains restricted because multiple unlinked loci with suitable variation for phylogenetic or coalescent analysis are not available for most non-model taxa. Here we identify novel, putative single-copy nuclear DNA (nDNA) phylogenetic markers to study the colonization and diversification of an aquatic insect species complex, Cloeon dipterum L...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Alice Rodrigues Willhelm, Paula Madeira Fortes, Fernanda Rasch Czermainski, Aline Schwalm Andrade Rates, Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida
Introduction: The aim of neuropsychological assessment is to understand the multifaceted relationship between behavior, cognition and brain organization. The main objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on impulsivity and inhibitory control in healthy adolescents and preadolescents. Method: Three researchers conducted a systematic review on November 25, 2014. The first step was to conduct searches on the Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases for articles in English using the following keywords: child; adolescents; impulsivity; inhibition; inhibitory control; and neuropsychology...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Teresa A Lapa, Filipa M Madeira, Joaquim S Viana, José Pinto-Gouveia
Anaesthesiologists face stressful working conditions that can culminate in burnout syndrome. Despite various studies and protective measures which have attempted to prevent this situation, burnout continues to be a problem within the profession, impacting negatively on physicians' lives and their performance. In this review article mechanisms and consequences of burnout are described in addition to individual strategies for stress management and burnout reduction with potential impact on health care quality and wellbeing in anaesthesiologists...
October 4, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Anderson Feijó, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela
Dasypus kappleri is the largest species of the genus Dasypus and is restricted to the Amazonian rainforest biome. Over the last century, related taxa have been described and synonymized without comprehensive analyses, and the current classification involving two subspecies, Dasypus k. kappleri and Dasypus k. pastasae, has never been revised. The aim of this work is to clarify the taxonomy of Dasypus kappleri through integrative morphological and morphometric analyses. We examined 70 specimens housed in scientific collections as well as photographs of the type specimens of five nominal taxa...
September 23, 2016: Zootaxa
Willian Massaharu Ohara, Luiz F C Tencatt, Marcelo R Britto
A new species of Corydoras is described from the upper Rio Machado, Rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the absence of contact between the posterior process of the parieto-supraoccipital and the nuchal plate; a ventral laminar expansion of the infraorbital 1 conspicuously developed; and the posterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine with serrations along almost of its entire length, only lacking in the distal portion. Additionally, Corydoras hephaestus possesses dorsal and pectoral spines short, and exhibits an unusual color pattern in life...
September 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Andrea R Nawrocki, Dan Zhou, Margaret Wu, Stephen Previs, Corey Miller, Haiying Liu, Catherine D G Hines, Maria Madeira, Jin Cao, Kithsiri Herath, Liangsu Wang, David E Kelley, Cai Li, Hong-Ping Guan
OBJECTIVES: Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and enhanced glucose oxidation, which in turn led to net reduction of liver triglycerides (TG), reduced ambient glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity...
2016: PloS One
Jorge da Costa Eiras
An extensive literature review is made of the parasites in marine and freshwater fish in mainland Portugal, the Portuguese archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, as well as in farmed fish. The host(s) of each parasite species, its location in the host, site of capture of the host, whenever possible, and all the available bibliographic references are described. The economic importance of some parasites and the zoonotic relevance of some parasitic forms are discussed. A general overview of the data is provided, and some research lines are suggested in order to increase and complement the current body of knowledge about the parasites of fish from Portugal...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Sonia Regina Lambert Passos, Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel, Sandro Javier Bedoya-Pacheco, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino, Erica Camargo Ferreira Vasconcellos, Liliane Fatima Antonio, Mauricio Naoto Saheki, Mariza Mattos Salgueiro, Ginelza Peres Lima Santos, Madelon Noato Ribeiro, Fatima Conceição-Silva, Maria Fatima Madeira, Jorge Luiz Nunes Silva, Aline Fagundes, Armando Oliveria Schubach
American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Carla Araújo, Marta Pereira, Marta Viana, Olga Laszczyńska Rocha, Kathleen Bennett, Nuno Lunet, Ana Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Information is scarce about the geographic variation in time trends of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). We aimed to describe trends in death rates, absolute number of deaths and years of life lost (YLL) due to CHD among men and women in Portugal, by region, from 1981 to 2012. METHODS: The age-standardized mortality rates from CHD were estimated by sex and region. We used joinpoint regression analysis to calculate the annual percent change (APC) in mortality and to identify points of significant change in the trend...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Pedro A Pereira, Tiago Millner, Manuel Vilela, Sérgio Sousa, Armando Cardoso, M Dulce Madeira
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been identified as a critical center for working and long-term memory. In this study, we have examined the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in mPFC interneurons and the density of the mPFC cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in cognitively-impaired aged Wistar rats. We also tested the possibility that the potential age-related changes might rely on insufficient neurotrophic support. The total number of NPY- and VIP-immunoreactive neurons and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive varicosities were estimated using stereological methods...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
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