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Cluster B

Indrajyoti Indra, Jongho Choi, Chi-Shuo Chen, Regina B Troyanovsky, Lawrence Shapiro, Barry Honig, Sergey M Troyanovsky
Adherens junctions (AJs) play a fundamental role in tissue integrity; however, the organization and dynamics of the key AJ transmembrane protein, E-cadherin, both inside and outside of AJs, remain controversial. Here we have studied the distribution and motility of E-cadherin in punctate AJs (pAJs) of A431 cells. Using single-molecule localization microscopy, we show that pAJs in these cells reach more than 1 μm in length and consist of several cadherin clusters with crystal-like density interspersed within sparser cadherin regions...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S J Sun, J H Huo, Z J Geng, X Y Sun, X B Fu
Gene engineering has attracted worldwide attention because of its ability of precise location of disease mutations in genome. As a new gene editing technology, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system is simple, fast, and accurate to operate at a specific gene site. It overcomes the long-standing problem of conventional operation. At the same time, stem cells are a good foundation for establishing disease model in vitro. Therefore, it has great significance to combine stem cells with the rapidly developing gene manipulation techniques...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Sandun J Perera, Şerban ProcheŞ, Dayani Ratnayake-Perera, Syd Ramdhani
We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations...
February 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Mitra Mehrad, William A LaFramboise, Maureen A Lyons, Humberto E Trejo Bittar, Samuel A Yousem
Calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura (CFTP) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of unknown pathogenesis. The diagnosis often requires exclusion of other common entities. Our aim was to determine if genomic changes were associated with CFTP that could contribute to mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Three cases of CFTP with their corresponding uninvolved control lung tissue were identified. Two patients were male, and one was female (age range: 21-32years). Tumors were multifocal in two cases and solitary in one...
April 21, 2018: Human Pathology
Geilson Lima Santana, Bruno Mendonca Coelho, Yuan-Pang Wang, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho, Maria Carmen Viana, Laura Helena Andrade
INTRODUCTION: Most studies on the epidemiology of personality disorders (PDs) have been conducted in high-income countries and may not represent what happens in most part of the world. In the last decades, population growth has been concentrated in low- and middle-income countries, with rapid urbanization, increasing inequalities and escalation of violence. Our aim is to estimate the prevalence of PDs in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, one of the largest megacities of the world. We examined sociodemographic correlates, the influence of urban stressors, the comorbidity with other mental disorders, functional impairment and treatment...
2018: PloS One
Santanu Pramanik, Arpita Ghosh, Rituu B Nanda, Marlou de Rouw, Philip Forth, Sandra Albert
BACKGROUND: To improve immunization coverage, most interventions that are part of the national immunization program in India address supply-side challenges. But, there is growing evidence that addressing demand-side factors can potentially contribute to improvement in childhood vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries. Participatory engagement of communities can address demand-side barriers while also mobilizing the community to advocate for better service delivery. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel community engagement approach in improving immunization coverage...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
Wen-Chuan Kuo, Yue-Ming Kuo, Jia-Pu Syu, Han-Lin Wang, Chi-Ming Lai, Jia-Wei Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, You-Yin Chen
This study presents one use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT) technique to examine neurovascular coupling effect. Repeated B-scans OCT recording is performed on the rat somatosensory cortex with cranial window preparation while its contra-lateral forepaw is electrically stimulated to activate the neurons in rest. We use an intensity-based Doppler variance (IBDV) algorithm mapped cerebral blood vessels in the cortex, and the temporal alteration in blood perfusion during neurovascular activation is analyzed using the proposed IBDV quantitative parameters...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
K Kranthi Kumar, B Uma Devi, P Neeraja
In this study, cholesterol biotransformation gene-set of human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) domains were evaluated from high-throughput gene screening approaches. It was shown that STARD1, STARD3 and STARD4 proteins are better effective transporters of cholesterol than STARD5 and STARD6 domains. Docking studies show a strong agreement with gene ontology enrichment data. According to both complementary strategies, it was found that only STARD1, STARD3 and STARD4 are potentially involved in cholesterol biotransformation in mitochondria through Ω1-loop of C-terminal α4-helical domain...
April 24, 2018: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
Lynn Clark
Understanding how and why pronunciations vary and change has been a dominant theme in variationist sociolinguistics (Labov, , ). Linguistic variability has also been an area of focus in psychology and cognitive science. Work from these two fields has shown that where variation exists in language, an alternative form, once used, persists in working memory and has a greater chance of reuse (Bock, ; Bock & Loebell, ; Branigan, Pickering, & Cleland, ). While there have been efforts to connect priming research with sociolinguistics at the level of grammar (Poplack, ; Travis, ), there has been less work which explicitly considers the potential role of priming as a motivating factor in accent variation and change...
April 24, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Susan R Kahn, David R Morrison, Gisèle Diendéré, Alexandre Piché, Kristian B Filion, Adi J Klil-Drori, James D Douketis, Jessica Emed, André Roussin, Vicky Tagalakis, Martin Morris, William Geerts
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. While numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that the appropriate use of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients at risk for VTE is safe, effective, and cost-effective, thromboprophylaxis remains underused or inappropriately used. Our previous review suggested that system-wide interventions, such as education, alerts, and multifaceted interventions were more effective at improving the prescribing of thromboprophylaxis than relying on individual providers' behaviors...
April 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Miao-Miao Ju, Yi Fu, Gui-Fang Zhao, Cheng-Zhong He, Zhong-Hu Li, Bin Tian
Southwest China is an important biodiversity hotspot. The interactions among the complex topography, climate change, and ecological factors in the dry-hot valley areas in southwest China may have profoundly affected the genetic structure of plant species in this region. In this study, we determined the effects of the Tanaka Line on genetic variation in the wild Bombax ceiba tree in southwest China. We sampled 224 individuals from 17 populations throughout the dry-hot valley regions. Six polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat primers were employed to sequence the PCR products using the first-generation Sanger technique...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Marie Noelle Ndjiondjop, Kassa Semagn, Mounirou Sow, Baboucarr Manneh, Arnaud C Gouda, Sèdjro B Kpeki, Esther Pegalepo, Peterson Wambugu, Moussa Sié, Marilyn L Warburton
Using interspecific crosses involving Oryza glaberrima Steud. as donor and O. sativa L. as recurrent parents, rice breeders at the Africa Rice Center developed several 'New Rice for Africa (NERICA)' improved varieties. A smaller number of interspecific and intraspecific varieties have also been released as 'Advanced Rice for Africa (ARICA)'. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation, relatedness, and population structure of 330 widely used rice genotypes in Africa using DArTseq-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Roderic H Fabian, Paul J Derry, Harriett Charmaine Rea, William V Dalmeida, Lizanne G Nilewski, William K A Sikkema, Pitchaiah Mandava, Ah-Lim Tsai, Kimberly Mendoza, Vladimir Berka, James M Tour, Thomas A Kent
Introduction: While oxidative stress can be measured during transient cerebral ischemia, antioxidant therapies for ischemic stroke have been clinically unsuccessful. Many antioxidants are limited in their range and/or capacity for quenching radicals and can generate toxic intermediates overwhelming depleted endogenous protection. We developed a new antioxidant class, 40 nm × 2 nm carbon nanoparticles, hydrophilic carbon clusters, conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) termed PEG-HCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Issei Tokimatsu, Katsumi Shigemura, Kayo Osawa, Shinya Kinugawa, Koichi Kitagawa, Noriko Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
We conducted a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan investigated the correlation between the presence of binary toxin genes and CDI severity. This is the first report on molecular epidemiological analyses for CDI in multiple university hospitals in Japan, to our knowledge. We examined 124,484 hospitalized patients in 25 national and public university hospitals in Japan between December 2013 and March 2014, investigating antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin-related genes for C...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Elisa Palazzo, Alberto Amadasi, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Matteo Marchesi, Riccardo Zoja
The morphological analysis of stab wounds may often not be accurate enough to link it with the type of wounding weapon, but a further evaluation may be performed with the search for metallic residues left during the contact between the instrument and the skin. In this study, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was applied to the study of cadaveric stab wounds performed with kitchen knives composed of iron, chromium and nickel, in order to verify the presence of metallic residues on the wound's edge...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Qianying Zhao, Qiuhong Qian, Dongyan Cao, Jiaxin Yang, Ting Gui, Keng Shen
BACKGROUND: B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) might be an appropriate biomarker in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the biological role of BMI1 and its relevant molecular mechanism needs further elaboration. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is an excellent genome-editing tool and is scarcely used in EOC studies. METHODS: We first applied CRISPR/Cas9 technique to silence BMI1 in EOC cells; thereafter we accomplished various in vivo and in vitro experiments to detect biological behaviors of ovarian cancer cells, including MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays, etc...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Thabo J van Woudenberg, Kirsten E Bevelander, William J Burk, Crystal R Smit, Laura Buijs, Moniek Buijzen
BACKGROUND: The current study examined the effectiveness of a social network intervention to promote physical activity among adolescents. Social network interventions utilize peer influence to change behavior by identifying the most influential individuals within social networks (i.e., influence agents), and training them to promote the target behavior. METHOD: A total of 190 adolescents (46.32% boys; M age = 12.17, age range: 11-14 years) were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control condition...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
R Seufert, L Sedlacek, B Kahl, M Hogardt, A Hamprecht, G Haase, F Gunzer, A Haas, S Grauling-Halama, C R MacKenzie, A Essig, F Stehling, S Sutharsan, S Dittmer, D Killengray, D Schmidt, N Eskandarian, E Steinmann, J Buer, F Hagen, J F Meis, P-M Rath, J Steinmann
Objectives: Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent filamentous fungus in the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this prospective multicentre study was to investigate the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus (ARAF) in respiratory secretions from CF patients across Germany and to characterize ARAF isolates by phenotypic and molecular methods. Methods: Twelve tertiary care centres from Germany participated in the study. In total, 2888 A...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Leondios G Kostrikis, Johana Hezka, Dora C Stylianou, Evangelia Kostaki, Maria Andreou, Ioanna Kousiappa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Ioannis Demetriades
A molecular epidemiology study of HIV-1 infection was conducted in one hundred diagnosed and untreated HIV-1-infected patients in Cyprus between 2010 and 2012, representing 65.4% of all the reported HIV-1 infections in Cyprus in this three-year period, using a previously defined enrolment strategy. Eighty-two patients were newly diagnosed (genotypic drug resistance testing within six months from diagnosis), and eighteen patients were HIV-1 diagnosed for a longer period or the diagnosis date was unknown. Phylogenetic trees of the pol sequences obtained in this study with reference sequences indicated that subtypes B and A1 were the most common subtypes present and accounted for 41...
2018: PloS One
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
Bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract, vagina, oral cavity and breast milk. They influence human physiology and nutrition through health-promoting effects, play an important role as primary colonizers of the newborn gut, and contribute to vaginal microbiome homeostasis by producing lactic acid. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which bifidobacteria are transmitted from mother to infant remains in discussion. Moreover, studies have suggested that Bifidobacterium spp. have specializations for gut colonization, but comparisons of strains of the same bifidobacteria species from different body sites are lacking...
2018: PloS One
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