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S M Ali Eslami, Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Frederic Besse, Fabio Viola, Ari S Morcos, Marta Garnelo, Avraham Ruderman, Andrei A Rusu, Ivo Danihelka, Karol Gregor, David P Reichert, Lars Buesing, Theophane Weber, Oriol Vinyals, Dan Rosenbaum, Neil Rabinowitz, Helen King, Chloe Hillier, Matt Botvinick, Daan Wierstra, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis
Scene representation-the process of converting visual sensory data into concise descriptions-is a requirement for intelligent behavior. Recent work has shown that neural networks excel at this task when provided with large, labeled datasets. However, removing the reliance on human labeling remains an important open problem. To this end, we introduce the Generative Query Network (GQN), a framework within which machines learn to represent scenes using only their own sensors. The GQN takes as input images of a scene taken from different viewpoints, constructs an internal representation, and uses this representation to predict the appearance of that scene from previously unobserved viewpoints...
June 15, 2018: Science
Loren G Rabinowitz
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 378, Issue 24, Page 2253-2255, June 2018.
June 14, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Russell A Miller, Yuji Shi, Wenyun Lu, David A Pirman, Aditi Jatkar, Matthew Blatnik, Hong Wu, César Cárdenas, Min Wan, J Kevin Foskett, Junyoung O Park, Yiyi Zhang, William L Holland, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Morris J Birnbaum
In the version of this article initially published, the "[13C2]α-ketoglutarate" label on Fig. 1g is incorrect. It should be "[13C5]α-ketoglutarate". Additionally, in Fig. 3b, the "AAV-GFP" group is missing a notation for significance, and in Fig. 3c, the "AAV-GLS2-sh" group is missing a notation for significance. There should be a double asterisk notating significance in both panels. Finally, in the Fig. 4g legend, "[13C6]UDP-glucose" should be "[13C3]UDP-glucose", and in the Fig...
June 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
Antonio Davila, Ling Liu, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Philip Redpath, Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso, Lauren M Paolella, Zhigang Zhang, Marie E Migaud, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Joseph A Baur
Mitochondrial NAD levels influence fuel selection, circadian rhythms, and cell survival under stress. It has alternately been argued that NAD in mammalian mitochondria arises from import of cytosolic nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), or NAD itself. We provide evidence that murine and human mitochondria take up intact NAD. Isolated mitochondria preparations cannot make NAD from NAM, and while NAD is synthesized from NMN, it does not localize to the mitochondrial matrix or effectively support oxidative phosphorylation...
June 12, 2018: ELife
Sutchin R Patel, Sara L Best, Ronald Rabinowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Mariam Lofty Khaled, Yelena Bykhovskaya, Sarah E R Yablonski, Hanzhou Li, Michelle D Drewry, Inas F Aboobakar, Amy Estes, X Raymond Gao, W Daniel Stamer, Hongyan Xu, R Rand Allingham, Michael A Hauser, Yaron S Rabinowitz, Yutao Liu
Purpose: Keratoconus (KC) is the most common corneal ectasia. We aimed to determine the differential expression of coding and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human corneas affected with KC. Methods: From the corneas of 10 KC patients and 8 non-KC healthy controls, 200 ng total RNA was used to prepare sequencing libraries with the SMARTer Stranded RNA-Seq kit after ribosomal RNA depletion, followed by paired-end 50-bp sequencing with Illumina Sequencer. Differential analysis was done using TopHat/Cufflinks with a gene file from Ensembl and a lncRNA file from NONCODE...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ian Rabinowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Peter A Arnett
Recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) is heterogeneous, with injury characteristics and neuropathological findings accounting for a relatively modest proportion of the variance in clinical outcome. Furthermore, premorbid personality traits and psychological characteristics may moderate psychosocial recovery. Constructs from the field of positive psychology have been examined in multiple illness populations and are increasingly gaining attention as factors that may influence recovery from TBI. Positive affect, hope, optimism, adaptive coping style, and resilience have all been examined in the context of TBI...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Pedro A Valdés-Sosa, Janina R Galler, Cyralene P Bryce, Arielle G Rabinowitz, María L Bringas-Vega, Nibaldo Hernández-Mesa, Alberto Taboada-Crispi
Protein-energy malnutrition affects one in nine people worldwide and is most prevalent among children aged less than five years in low-income countries. Early childhood malnutrition can have damaging neurodevelopmental effects, with significant increases in cognitive, neurological and mental health problems over the lifespan, outcomes which can also extend to the next generation. This article describes a research collaboration involving scientists from five centers in Barbados, China, Cuba and the USA. It builds on longer-term joint work between the Barbados Nutrition Study (which, over a 45-year span, has extensively documented nutritional, health, behavioral, social and economic outcomes of individuals who experienced protein-energy malnutrition in the first year of life and healthy controls from the same classrooms and neighborhoods) and the Cuban Neuroscience Center (which has developed low-cost brain imaging methods that can be readily used in low income settings to identify biomarkers for early detection and treatment of adverse consequences of childhood malnutrition)...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
Michel Nofal, Joshua D Rabinowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Science
Adriana I Iglesias, Aniket Mishra, Veronique Vitart, Yelena Bykhovskaya, René Höhn, Henriët Springelkamp, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Puya Gharahkhani, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Colin E Willoughby, Xiaohui Li, Seyhan Yazar, Abhishek Nag, Anthony P Khawaja, Ozren Polašek, David Siscovick, Paul Mitchell, Yih Chung Tham, Jonathan L Haines, Lisa S Kearns, Caroline Hayward, Yuan Shi, Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Kent D Taylor, Pieter Bonnemaijer, Jerome I Rotter, Nicholas G Martin, Tanja Zeller, Richard A Mills, Sandra E Staffieri, Jost B Jonas, Irene Schmidtmann, Thibaud Boutin, Jae H Kang, Sionne E M Lucas, Tien Yin Wong, Manfred E Beutel, James F Wilson, André G Uitterlinden, Eranga N Vithana, Paul J Foster, Pirro G Hysi, Alex W Hewitt, Chiea Chuen Khor, Louis R Pasquale, Grant W Montgomery, Caroline C W Klaver, Tin Aung, Norbert Pfeiffer, David A Mackey, Christopher J Hammond, Ching-Yu Cheng, Jamie E Craig, Yaron S Rabinowitz, Janey L Wiggs, Kathryn P Burdon, Cornelia M van Duijn, Stuart MacGregor
Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait associated with complex eye diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma. We perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis of CCT and identify 19 novel regions. In addition to adding support for known connective tissue-related pathways, pathway analyses uncover previously unreported gene sets. Remarkably, >20% of the CCT-loci are near or within Mendelian disorder genes. These included FBN1, ADAMTS2 and TGFB2 which associate with connective tissue disorders (Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos and Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and the LUM-DCN-KERA gene complex involved in myopia, corneal dystrophies and cornea plana...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Janan Mohamad, Ofer Sarig, Lisa M Godsel, Alon Peled, Natalia Malchin, Ron Bochner, Dan Vodo, Tom Rabinowitz, Mor Pavlovsky, Shahar Taiber, Maya Fried, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Siwar Assi, Noam Shomron, Jouni Uitto, Jennifer L Koetsier, Reuven Bergman, Kathleen J Green, Eli Sprecher
Peeling skin syndromes form a large and heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by superficial detachment of the epidermal cornified cell layers, often associated with inflammatory features. Here we report on a consanguineous family featuring non-inflammatory peeling of the skin exacerbated by exposure to heat and mechanical stress. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in FLG2, encoding filaggrin 2, which co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. The mutation was found to result in decreased FLG2 RNA levels as well almost total absence of filaggrin 2 in the patient epidermis...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Andrea Banino, Caswell Barry, Benigno Uria, Charles Blundell, Timothy Lillicrap, Piotr Mirowski, Alexander Pritzel, Martin J Chadwick, Thomas Degris, Joseph Modayil, Greg Wayne, Hubert Soyer, Fabio Viola, Brian Zhang, Ross Goroshin, Neil Rabinowitz, Razvan Pascanu, Charlie Beattie, Stig Petersen, Amir Sadik, Stephen Gaffney, Helen King, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis, Raia Hadsell, Dharshan Kumaran
Deep neural networks have achieved impressive successes in fields ranging from object recognition to complex games such as Go1,2 . Navigation, however, remains a substantial challenge for artificial agents, with deep neural networks trained by reinforcement learning3-5 failing to rival the proficiency of mammalian spatial behaviour, which is underpinned by grid cells in the entorhinal cortex 6 . Grid cells are thought to provide a multi-scale periodic representation that functions as a metric for coding space7,8 and is critical for integrating self-motion (path integration)6,7,9 and planning direct trajectories to goals (vector-based navigation)7,10,11 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
Tridib Ganguly, Jessica K Kajfasz, James H Miller, Eric Rabinowitz, Lívia C C Galvão, Pedro L Rosalen, Jacqueline Abranches, José A Lemos
The Dps-like peroxide resistance protein (Dpr) is essential for H2 O2 stress tolerance and aerobic growth of the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans Dpr accumulates during oxidative stress, protecting the cell by sequestering iron ions, thereby preventing the generation of toxic hydroxyl radicals that result from the interaction of iron with H2 O2 Previously, we reported that the SpxA1 and SpxA2 regulators positively regulate expression of dpr in S. mutans Using an antibody raised against S. mutans Dpr, we confirmed at the protein level the central and cooperative nature of SpxA1 and SpxA2 regulation in Dpr production...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Chantel I Nicolas, Kamel Mansouri, Katherine A Phillips, Christopher M Grulke, Ann M Richard, Antony J Williams, James Rabinowitz, Kristin K Isaacs, Alice Yau, John F Wambaugh
The structures and physicochemical properties of chemicals are important for determining their potential toxicological effects, toxicokinetics, and route(s) of exposure. These data are needed to prioritize the risk for thousands of environmental chemicals, but experimental values are often lacking. In an attempt to efficiently fill data gaps in physicochemical property information, we generated new data for 200 structurally diverse compounds, which were rigorously selected from the USEPA ToxCast chemical library, and whose structures are available within the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database (DSSTox)...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cholsoon Jang, Li Chen, Joshua D Rabinowitz
Great strides have been made over the past decade toward comprehensive study of metabolism. Mass spectrometry (MS) has played a central role by enabling measurement of many metabolites simultaneously. Tracking metabolite labeling from stable isotope tracers can in addition reveal pathway activities. Here, we describe the basics of metabolite measurement by MS, including sample preparation, metabolomic analysis, and data interpretation. In addition, drawing on examples of successful experiments, we highlight the ways in which metabolomics and isotope tracing can illuminate biology...
May 3, 2018: Cell
Corina Monagin, Blanca Paccha, Ning Liang, Sally Trufan, Huiqiong Zhou, De Wu, Bradley S Schneider, Aleksei Chmura, Jonathan H Epstein, Peter Daszak, Changwen Ke, Peter M Rabinowitz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194647.].
2018: PloS One
Gregory P Brown, Lynn A Stewart, Terry Rabinowitz, Harold Boudreau, Angela J Wright
OBJECTIVE: To examine psychotropic medication prescription practices in federal Canadian penitentiaries. METHOD: 468 files were drawn from a purposive sample of thirteen Canadian federal institutions representing the five regions, different security levels, and male and female designated facilities. Information on the names of all psychotropic medications prescribed, indications for use, dosage, frequency, and route of administration was retrieved. Designation of approved or off-label use of medications was determined by consulting: (1) the Health Canada (2016) Drug Product Database, (2) the Canadian Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties 2016, and (3) the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information 2016...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Sadaf Saghier, Steven M Schwarz, Virginia Anderson, Raavi Gupta, Amin Heidarian, Simon S Rabinowitz
OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) are the most common agents causing gastric mucosal injury worldwide. Foveolar hyperplasia is a key component of the stomach's reaction to injury. This study examines histopathologic characteristics associated with Helicobacter pylori and with non- Helicobacter pylori-associated gastropathy in children and adolescents, and compares the prevalence of foveolar hyperplasia among these disease subgroups and normal control subjects. METHODS: Eighty-one gastric antral and corpus biopsies from subjects 2-19 years of age were studied...
April 25, 2018: Helicobacter
Honora Englander, Devin Collins, Sylvia Peterson Perry, Molly Rabinowitz, Elena Phoutrides, Christina Nicolaidis
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUD) represent a national epidemic with increasing rates of SUD-related hospitalizations. However, most hospitals lack expertise or systems to directly address SUD. Healthcare professionals feel underprepared and commonly hold negative views toward patients with SUD. Little is known about how hospital interventions may affect providers' attitudes and experiences toward patients with SUD. OBJECTIVE: To explore interprofessional hospital providers' perspectives on how integrating SUD treatment and care systems affect providers' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
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