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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627322/orienting-to-see-what-s-important-learn-to-ignore-the-irrelevant
#1
Mitchell Rabinowitz, Jaclin Gerstel-Friedman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The current study used a triad judgment task to assess whether blocking by comparison type in a triad judgment task could lead people to pay less attention to surface level (irrelevant) features and pay more attention to deep (structural) features of information. SAMPLE: A sample of 313 participants recruited through Mechanical Turk participated in this study. METHOD: On each triad, participants were asked to evaluate which of two source scenarios went best with the target scenario...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618000/in-vivo-analysis-of-synaptic-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-unravels-the-efficacy-of-excitatory-inputs
#2
Yasmin Yarden-Rabinowitz, Yosef Yarom
It is commonly agreed that the main function of the cerebellar system is to provide well-timed signals used for the execution of motor commands or prediction of sensory inputs. This function is manifested as a temporal sequence of spiking that should be expressed in the cerebellar nuclei projection neurons (CN). Whether spiking activity is generated by excitation or release from inhibition is still a hotly debated issue. In an attempt to resolve this debate, we recorded intracellularly from CN neurons in anaesthetized mice and performed an analysis of synaptic activity that yielded a number of important observations...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616831/invasive-prenatal-diagnostic-testing-recommendations-are-influenced-by-maternal-age-statistical-misconception-and-perceived-liability
#3
Talya Miron-Shatz, Sivan R Rapaport, Naama Srebnik, Yaniv Hanoch, Jonina Rabinowitz, Glen M Doniger, Linda Levi, Jonathan J Rolison, Avi Tsafrir
Funding policy and medico-legal climate are part of physicians' reality and might permeate clinical decisions. This study evaluates the influence of maternal age and government funding on obstetrician/gynecologist recommendation for invasive prenatal testing (i.e. amniocentesis) for Down syndrome (DS), and its association with the physician's assessment of the risk of liability for medical malpractice unless they recommend amniocentesis. Israeli physicians (N = 171) completed a questionnaire and provided amniocentesis recommendations for women at 18 weeks gestation with normal preliminary screening results, identical except aged 28 and 37...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616494/community-based-surveillance-of-zoonotic-parasites-in-a-one-health-world-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
J M Schurer, E Mosites, C Li, S Meschke, P Rabinowitz
The One Health (OH) concept provides an integrated framework for observing and improving health issues involving human, animal, and environmental factors, and has been applied in particular to zoonotic disease problems. We conducted a systematic review of English and Chinese language peer-reviewed and grey literature databases to identify zoonotic endoparasite research utilizing an OH approach in community-based settings. Our review identified 32 articles where specimens collected simultaneously from all three OH domains (people, animals, and the environment) were assessed for endoparasite infection or exposure...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611197/treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer-patient-derived-xenograft-panel-with-metabolic-inhibitors-reveals-efficacy-of-phenformin
#5
N V Rajeshkumar, Shinichi Yabuuchi, Shweta Pai, Elizabeth De Oliveira, Jurre J Kamphorst, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Héctor Tejero, Fatima Al-Shahrour, Manuel Hidalgo, Anirban Maitra, Chi V Dang
Purpose: To identify effective metabolic inhibitors to suppress the aggressive growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we explored the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of metabolic inhibitors in a panel of patient-derived PDAC xenograft models (PDXs), and investigated whether genomic alterations of tumors correlate with the sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors. <p>Experimental Design: Mice with PDAC tumors from six to thirteen individual PDXs were randomized and treated, once daily for 4 weeks, with either PBS (vehicle) or the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES, transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA), autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ), mitochondrial complex I inhibitor phenformin/metformin...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554803/integrated-omics-approaches-to-characterize-a-nuclear-receptor-corepressor-associated-histone-deacetylase-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#6
REVIEW
Yingyun Gong, Rui Cao, Guolian Ding, Sungguan Hong, Wenjun Zhou, Wenyun Lu, Manashree Damle, Bin Fang, Chuhan C Wang, Justin Qian, Natasha Lie, Cristina Lanzillotta, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Zheng Sun
Nuclear receptors regulate gene expression by differentially binding to coactivators or corepressors in a ligand-dependent manner, which further recruits a set of epigenome-modifying enzymes that remodel chromatin conformation. Histone acetylation is a major epigenomic change controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDAC3 is the only HDAC that confers the enzymatic activity to the complexes nucleated by nuclear receptor corepressors NCoR and SMRT. To address the metabolic function of HDAC3, we have deleted it specifically in mouse skeletal muscles...
May 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551285/insights-into-the-unique-torpor-of-botrylloides-leachi-a-colonial-urochordate
#7
Yosef Hyams, Guy Paz, Claudette Rabinowitz, Baruch Rinkevich
Rough environmental conditions make the survival of many multi-cellular organisms almost impossible, enforcing behavioral, morphological, physiological and reproductive rejoinders that can cope with harsh times and hostile environments, frequently through down-regulation of metabolism into basal states of dormancy, or torpor. This study examines one of the most unique torpor strategies seen within the phylum Chordata, exhibited by the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi, which enters a state of hibernation or aestivation in response to thermal stress, during which all of its functional colonial units (zooids) are entirely absorbed and the colony survives as small remnants of the vasculature, lacking both feeding and reproduction organs...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541413/the-influence-of-the-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-gene-on-subacute-post-concussion-neurocognitive-performance-in-college-athletes
#8
Victoria C Merritt, Amanda R Rabinowitz, Peter A Arnett
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neurocognitive outcome following sports-related concussion. It was hypothesized that participants with an ε4 allele would show poorer neurocognitive performance and greater neurocognitive variability than those without an ε4 allele. Method: Participants included 57 concussed collegiate athletes (77.2% male) who participated in a concussion management program at a large university...
May 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538648/less-is-more-antibiotic-duration-and-outcomes-in-fournier-s-gangrene
#9
Margaret Lauerman, Olga Kolesnik, Kinjal Sethuraman, Ronald Rabinowitz, Manjari Joshi, Emily Clark, Deborah Stein, Thomas Scalea, Sharon Henry
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic management of Fournier's gangrene (FG) is without evidence-based guidelines, and is based on expert opinion. The effect of duration of antibiotic therapy on outcomes in FG is unknown. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of FG patients from 2012-2015 at a single institution. Patients were managed by our institutional practice of complete primary wound closure as possible, with antibiotic duration according to physician judgement. Patients were stratified into multiple durations of antibiotic administration...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531808/prenatal-diagnosis-of-biliary-atresia-a-case-series
#10
O Shen, H Y Sela, H Nagar, R Rabinowitz, E Jacobovich, D Chen, E Granot
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia is a progressive disease presenting with jaundice, and is the most common indication for liver transplantation in the pediatric population. Prenatal series have yielded conflicting results concerning a possible association between BA and prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder. AIMS: This retrospective case series was performed to assess the association between biliary atresia, prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder and other sonographic signs...
May 19, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521775/genome-wide-association-study-of-subclinical-interstitial-lung-disease-in-mesa
#11
Ani Manichaikul, Xin-Qun Wang, Li Sun, Josée Dupuis, Alain C Borczuk, Jennifer N Nguyen, Ganesh Raghu, Eric A Hoffman, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Emily A Farber, Joel D Kaufman, Dan Rabinowitz, Karen D Hinckley Stukovsky, Steven M Kawut, Gary M Hunninghake, George R Washko, George T O'Connor, Stephen S Rich, R Graham Barr, David J Lederer
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD), defined as high attenuation areas (HAA) on CT, in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Study. METHODS: We measured the percentage of high attenuation areas (HAA) in the lung fields on cardiac CT scan defined as voxels with CT attenuation values between -600 and -250 HU. Genetic analyses were performed in MESA combined across race/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 2,434), African American (n = 2,470), Hispanic (n = 2,065) and Chinese (n = 702), as well as stratified by race/ethnicity...
May 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520786/a-systematic-genetic-screen-for-genes-involved-in-sensing-inorganic-phosphate-availability-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Joonhyuk Choi, Abbhirami Rajagopal, Yi-Fan Xu, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Erin K O'Shea
Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to changes in extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability by regulating the activity of the phosphate-responsive (PHO) signaling pathway, enabling cells to maintain intracellular levels of the essential nutrient Pi. Pi-limitation induces upregulation of inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) synthesized by the inositol hexakisphosphate kinase Vip1, triggering inhibition of the Pho80/Pho85 cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) complex by the CDK inhibitor Pho81, which upregulates the PHO regulon through the CDK target and transcription factor Pho4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497978/extraction-and-quantitation-of-nad-p-h
#13
Wenyun Lu, Lin Wang, Li Chen, Sheng Hui, Joshua D Rabinowitz
AIMS: Accurate analysis of dinucleotide redox cofactors NADPH, NADP+, NADH, and NAD+ from biological samples is important to understanding cellular redox homeostasis. Here we aim to develop a simple protocol for quenching metabolism and extracting NADPH that avoids interconversion among the reduced forms and the oxidized forms. RESULTS: We compared seven different solvents for quenching and extraction of cultured mammalian cells and mouse tissues. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
May 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486016/population-health-management-information-technology-the-view-from-the-trenches
#14
Betty Rabinowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471646/metabolite-spectral-accuracy-on-orbitraps
#15
Xiaoyang Su, Wenyun Lu, Joshua D Rabinowitz
Orbitraps are high-resolution ion-trap mass spectrometers that are widely used in metabolomics. While the mass accuracy and resolving power of orbitraps have been extensively documented, their spectral accuracy, i.e., accuracy in measuring the abundances of isotopic peaks, remains less studied. In analyzing spectra of unlabeled metabolites, we discovered a systematic under representation of heavier natural isotopic species, especially for high molecular weight metabolites (∼20% under-measurement of [M + 1]/[M + 0] ratio at m/z 600)...
June 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467769/fear-of-vaginal-penetration-in-the-absence-of-pain-as-a-separate-category-of-female-sexual-dysfunction-a-conceptual-overview
#16
David Rabinowitz, Lior Lowenstein, Ilan Gruenwald
Functional sexual pain disorders in women are a particular challenge to the gynecologist, inasmuch as phobic avoidance and guarding on the part of the patient lead to difficulties in the gynecological examination and diagnosis. In some such cases examination may even be impossible. Vaginismus is the commonly diagnosed etiology of such cases. This article offers an overview of vaginismus and approaches to its treatment but also examines a subset of penetration-avoidant patients who do not appear to have a pain component...
April 28, 2017: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454495/prediction-value-of-anti-mullerian-hormone-amh-serum-levels-and-antral-follicle-count-afc-in-hormonal-contraceptive-hc-users-and-non-hc-users-undergoing-ivf-pgd-treatment
#17
Maayan Bas-Lando, Ron Rabinowitz, Rivka Farkash, Nurit Algur, Esther Rubinstein, Oshrat Schonberger, Talia Eldar-Geva
Use of hormone contraceptives (HC) is very popular in the reproductive age and, therefore, evaluation of ovarian reserve would be a useful tool to accurately evaluate the reproductive potential in HC users. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 41 HC users compared to 57 non-HC users undergoing IVF-preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) aiming to evaluate the effect of HC on the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), small (2-5 mm), large (6-10 mm) and total antral follicle count (AFC) and the ability of these markers to predict IVF outcome...
April 28, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445469/phylogenetic-ctdna-analysis-depicts-early-stage-lung-cancer-evolution
#18
Christopher Abbosh, Nicolai J Birkbak, Gareth A Wilson, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, Tudor Constantin, Raheleh Salari, John Le Quesne, David A Moore, Selvaraju Veeriah, Rachel Rosenthal, Teresa Marafioti, Eser Kirkizlar, Thomas B K Watkins, Nicholas McGranahan, Sophia Ward, Luke Martinson, Joan Riley, Francesco Fraioli, Maise Al Bakir, Eva Grönroos, Francisco Zambrana, Raymondo Endozo, Wenya Linda Bi, Fiona M Fennessy, Nicole Sponer, Diana Johnson, Joanne Laycock, Seema Shafi, Justyna Czyzewska-Khan, Andrew Rowan, Tim Chambers, Nik Matthews, Samra Turajlic, Crispin Hiley, Siow Ming Lee, Martin D Forster, Tanya Ahmad, Mary Falzon, Elaine Borg, David Lawrence, Martin Hayward, Shyam Kolvekar, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, Sam M Janes, Ricky Thakrar, Asia Ahmed, Fiona Blackhall, Yvonne Summers, Dina Hafez, Ashwini Naik, Apratim Ganguly, Stephanie Kareht, Rajesh Shah, Leena Joseph, Anne Marie Quinn, Phil A Crosbie, Babu Naidu, Gary Middleton, Gerald Langman, Simon Trotter, Marianne Nicolson, Hardy Remmen, Keith Kerr, Mahendran Chetty, Lesley Gomersall, Dean A Fennell, Apostolos Nakas, Sridhar Rathinam, Girija Anand, Sajid Khan, Peter Russell, Veni Ezhil, Babikir Ismail, Melanie Irvin-Sellers, Vineet Prakash, Jason F Lester, Malgorzata Kornaszewska, Richard Attanoos, Haydn Adams, Helen Davies, Dahmane Oukrif, Ayse U Akarca, John A Hartley, Helen L Lowe, Sara Lock, Natasha Iles, Harriet Bell, Yenting Ngai, Greg Elgar, Zoltan Szallasi, Roland F Schwarz, Javier Herrero, Aengus Stewart, Sergio A Quezada, Karl S Peggs, Peter Van Loo, Caroline Dive, C Jimmy Lin, Matthew Rabinowitz, Hugo J W L Aerts, Allan Hackshaw, Jacqui A Shaw, Bernhard G Zimmermann, Charles Swanton
The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones, which seed metastatic sites, might offer new therapeutic approaches for limiting tumour recurrence. The ability to track the evolutionary dynamics of early-stage lung cancer non-invasively in circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has not yet been demonstrated. Here we use a tumour-specific phylogenetic approach to profile the ctDNA of the first 100 TRACERx (Tracking Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Evolution Through Therapy (Rx)) study participants, including one patient who was also recruited to the PEACE (Posthumous Evaluation of Advanced Cancer Environment) post-mortem study...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423326/rapid-molecular-profiling-of-defined-cell-types-using-viral-trap
#19
Alexander R Nectow, Maria V Moya, Mats I Ekstrand, Awni Mousa, Kelly L McGuire, Caroline E Sferrazza, Bianca C Field, Gabrielle S Rabinowitz, Kirsty Sawicka, Yupu Liang, Jeffrey M Friedman, Nathaniel Heintz, Eric F Schmidt
Translational profiling methodologies enable the systematic characterization of cell types in complex tissues, such as the mammalian brain, where neuronal isolation is exceptionally difficult. Here, we report a versatile strategy for profiling CNS cell types in a spatiotemporally restricted fashion by engineering a Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus expressing an EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein (AAV-FLEX-EGFPL10a) to access translating mRNAs by translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP). We demonstrate the utility of this AAV to target a variety of genetically and anatomically defined neural populations expressing Cre recombinase and illustrate the ability of this viral TRAP (vTRAP) approach to recapitulate the molecular profiles obtained by bacTRAP in corticothalamic neurons across multiple serotypes...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422919/the-lung-rescue-unit-lru-does-a-dedicated-intensive-care-unit-for-veno-venous-extra-corporeal-membrane-oxygenation-vv-ecmo-improve-survival-to-discharge
#20
Jay Menaker, Katelyn Dolly, Raymond Rector, Joseph Kufera, Eugenia E Lee, Ali Tabatabai, Ronald P Rabinowitz, Zachary Kon, Pablo Sanchez, Si Pham, Daniel L Herr, James V O'Connor, Deborah M Stein, Thomas M Scalea
BACKGROUND: The use of veno-venous extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) for acute respiratory failure/distress syndrome (ARF/ARDS) has increased since 2009. Specialized units for patients requiring VV ECMO are not standard and patients are often cohorted with other critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of adult patients admitted in 2015 to the LRU, which, to our knowledge, is the first intensive care unit in the United States that has been specifically created to provide care for patients requiring VV ECMO...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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