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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423326/rapid-molecular-profiling-of-defined-cell-types-using-viral-trap
#1
Alexander R Nectow, Maria V Moya, Mats I Ekstrand, Awni Mousa, Kelly L McGuire, Caroline E Sferrazza, Bianca C Field, Gabrielle S Rabinowitz, Kirsty Sawicka, Yupu Liang, Jeffrey M Friedman, Nathaniel Heintz, Eric F Schmidt
Translational profiling methodologies enable the systematic characterization of cell types in complex tissues, such as the mammalian brain, where neuronal isolation is exceptionally difficult. Here, we report a versatile strategy for profiling CNS cell types in a spatiotemporally restricted fashion by engineering a Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus expressing an EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein (AAV-FLEX-EGFPL10a) to access translating mRNAs by translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP). We demonstrate the utility of this AAV to target a variety of genetically and anatomically defined neural populations expressing Cre recombinase and illustrate the ability of this viral TRAP (vTRAP) approach to recapitulate the molecular profiles obtained by bacTRAP in corticothalamic neurons across multiple serotypes...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422919/the-lung-rescue-unit-lru-does-a-dedicated-intensive-care-unit-for-veno-venous-extra-corporeal-membrane-oxygenation-vv-ecmo-improve-survival-to-discharge
#2
Jay Menaker, Katelyn Dolly, Raymond Rector, Joseph Kufera, Eugenia E Lee, Ali Tabatabai, Ronald P Rabinowitz, Zachary Kon, Pablo Sanchez, Si Pham, Daniel L Herr, James V O'Connor, Deborah M Stein, Thomas M Scalea
BACKGROUND: The use of veno-venous extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) for acute respiratory failure/distress syndrome (ARF/ARDS) has increased since 2009. Specialized units for patients requiring VV ECMO are not standard and patients are often cohorted with other critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of adult patients admitted in 2015 to the LRU, which, to our knowledge, is the first intensive care unit in the United States that has been specifically created to provide care for patients requiring VV ECMO...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339134/paranasal-sinus-lymphoma-retrospective-review-with-focus-on-clinical-features-histopathology-prognosis-and-relationship-to-systemic-lymphoma
#3
Brynn N Wajda, Mindy R Rabinowitz, Gurston G Nyquist, Stacey K Mardekian, Marc R Rosen, Michael P Rabinowitz
BACKGROUND: Paranasal sinus lymphoma is a rare clinical entity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of 68 patients with biopsy-confirmed paranasal sinus lymphoma with attention on systemic disease association. RESULTS: Of 63 patients with paranasal sinus lymphoma, 35 (56%) had systemic involvement. Four patient groups were identified: (1) primary paranasal sinus lymphoma (44%); (2) systemic disease occurring concurrently with paranasal sinus lymphoma (25%); (3) paranasal sinus lymphoma with relapse of preexisting systemic lymphoma (22%); and (4) progression to systemic disease after primary paranasal sinus lymphoma (8%)...
March 24, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328183/seroprevalence-of-bartonella-species-coxiella-burnetii-and-toxoplasma-gondii-among-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-pilot-study-in-romania
#4
C J Messinger, E S Gurzau, E B Breitschwerdt, C I Tomuleasa, S J Trufan, M M Flonta, R G Maggi, I Berindan-Neagoe, P M Rabinowitz
Patients receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments in settings where there is a high degree of human-animal interaction may be at increased risk for opportunistic zoonotic infections or reactivation of latent infections. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens among patients diagnosed with haematologic malignancies and undergoing chemotherapeutic treatments in Romania, where much of the general population lives and/or works in contact with livestock. A convenience sample of 51 patients with haematologic cancer undergoing chemotherapy at a referral clinic in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, was surveyed regarding animal exposures...
March 22, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314375/inter-subject-variability-of-axonal-injury-in-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Jeffrey B Ware, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Amanda Rabinowitz, John A Detre, Junghoon Kim
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of cognitive morbidity worldwide, for which reliable biomarkers are needed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising biomarker of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), however existing studies have been limited by a primary reliance upon group-level analytic methods not well-suited to account for inter-subject variability. In this study, 42 adults with TBI of at least moderate severity were examined 3 months following injury and compared to 35 healthy controls. DTI data was used for both traditional group-level comparison as well as subject-specific analysis using the distribution-corrected Z-score (DisCo-Z) approach...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294464/assessing-connectivity-related-injury-burden-in-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Berkan Solmaz, Birkan Tunç, Drew Parker, John Whyte, Tessa Hart, Amanda Rabinowitz, Morgan Rohrbach, Junghoon Kim, Ragini Verma
Many of the clinical and behavioral manifestations of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are thought to arise from disruption to the structural network of the brain due to diffuse axonal injury (DAI). However, a principled way of summarizing diffuse connectivity alterations to quantify injury burden is lacking. In this study, we developed a connectome injury score, Disruption Index of the Structural Connectome (DISC), which summarizes the cumulative effects of TBI-induced connectivity abnormalities across the entire brain...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292907/overcoming-catastrophic-forgetting-in-neural-networks
#7
James Kirkpatrick, Razvan Pascanu, Neil Rabinowitz, Joel Veness, Guillaume Desjardins, Andrei A Rusu, Kieran Milan, John Quan, Tiago Ramalho, Agnieszka Grabska-Barwinska, Demis Hassabis, Claudia Clopath, Dharshan Kumaran, Raia Hadsell
The ability to learn tasks in a sequential fashion is crucial to the development of artificial intelligence. Until now neural networks have not been capable of this and it has been widely thought that catastrophic forgetting is an inevitable feature of connectionist models. We show that it is possible to overcome this limitation and train networks that can maintain expertise on tasks that they have not experienced for a long time. Our approach remembers old tasks by selectively slowing down learning on the weights important for those tasks...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285023/consistency-checks-to-improve-measurement-with-the-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-panss
#8
Jonathan Rabinowitz, Nina R Schooler, Ariana Anderson, Lindsay Ayearst, David Daniel, Michael Davidson, Anzalee Khan, Bruce Kinon, Francois Menard, Lewis Opler, Mark Opler, Joanne B Severe, David Williamson, Christian Yavorsky, Jun Zhao
International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology convened an expert working-group that assembled consistency/inconsistency flags for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Twenty-four flags were identified and divided based on extent to which they represent error (Possibly, Probably, Very probably or definitely). The flags were applied to assessments derived from the NEWMEDS data repository and the CATIE clinical trial data. Almost 40% of ratings had at least one inconsistency flag raised and 10% had two...
March 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278595/father-and-youth-reported-family-affective-expression-differentially-predicts-youth-internalizing-and-externalizing-symptoms
#9
Jill A Rabinowitz, Ijeoma Osigwe, Ashley Byrne, Deborah A G Drabick, Maureen D Reynolds
Temperamental approach is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Negative family affective expression, or problematic communication about emotions, is also associated with youth's risk for symptoms. However, it is unclear whether negative family affective expression differentially predicts symptoms based on (a) youth's temperamental approach and (b) informants' perceptions of negative family affective expression. To address these issues, we explored whether mother-, father-, and youth-reported negative family affective expression moderated the relation between youth temperamental approach and symptoms...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#10
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198716/incidence-of-cannula-associated-deep-vein-thrombosis-after-veno-venous-ecmo
#11
Jay Menaker, Ali Tabatabai, Raymond Rector, Katelyn Dolly, Joseph Kufera, Eugenia Lee, Zachary Kon, Pablo Sanchez, Si Pham, Daniel L Herr, Michael Mazzeffi, Ronald P Rabinowitz, James V OʼConnor, Deborah M Stein, Thomas M Scalea
Limited literature regarding the incidence of cannula associated deep vein thrombosis (CaDVT) following veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of post decannulation CaDVT and identify any associated risk factors. Forty eight patients were admitted between August 2014 and January 2016 to the Lung Rescue Unit were included in the study. Protocolized anticoagulation levels (partial thromboplastin time 45-55 second) and routine post decannulation DVT screening were in place during the study period...
February 13, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176028/occupational-risks-and-exposures-among-wildlife-health-professionals
#12
Gemina Garland-Lewis, Christopher Whittier, Suzan Murray, Sally Trufan, Peter M Rabinowitz
Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, with wildlife a frequent source of zoonotic disease events. Although individuals with extensive wildlife contact may be at the greatest risk of contracting novel infectious agents, the occupational risk of those working closely with wildlife has not been well studied. This study assessed the occupational exposures among wildlife health professionals working in multiple countries worldwide. An occupational risk survey of past and present exposures was developed and administered online in a confidential manner to wildlife workers recruited through an ongoing international wildlife pathogen surveillance project...
February 7, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164169/adeno-associated-virus-serotype-9-driven-expression-of-bag3-improves-left-ventricular-function-in-murine-hearts-with-left-ventricular-dysfunction-secondary-to-a-myocardial-infarction
#13
Tijana Knezevic, Valerie D Myers, Feifei Su, JuFang Wang, Jianliang Song, Xue-Qian Zhang, Erhe Gao, Guofeng Gao, Madesh Muniswamy, Manish K Gupta, Jennifer Gordon, Kristen N Weiner, Joseph Rabinowitz, Frederick V Ramsey, Douglas G Tilley, Kamel Khalili, Joseph Y Cheung, Arthur M Feldman
OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that gene delivery of BCL2-Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3) to the heart of mice with left ventricular dysfunction secondary to a myocardial infarction could enhance cardiac performance. BACKGROUND: BAG3 is a 575 amino acid protein that has pleotropic functions in the cell including pro-autophagy and anti-apoptosis. Mutations in BAG3 have been associated with both skeletal muscle dysfunction and familial dilated cardiomyopathy and BAG3 levels are diminished in non-familial heart failure...
December 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152911/benchmarks-of-quality-breast-care-over-10-years
#14
F Lee Tucker, Barbara Rabinowitz, Teresa Heckel, Jennifer S Gass
272 Background: In 2005, the National Quality Measures for Breast Centers (NQMBC) was initiated as a web-based program to capture breast center performance using process of care measurements. The program participant enters data verified by the breast center director or administrator which was randomly audited. As a center submits data, their results are immediately compared with other similar centers as well as with all submitting centers. METHODS: Of the 31 measures, we focus on six pertinent measures of quality breast care; time from diagnostic mammogram to needle biopsy, time from needle biopsy to initial breast cancer surgery, breast conservation rate, use of radiation therapy for breast conserving patients, use of endocrine therapy, and use of chemotherapy...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152044/microbiome-sharing-between-children-livestock-and-household-surfaces-in-western-kenya
#15
Emily Mosites, Matt Sammons, Elkanah Otiang, Alexander Eng, Cecilia Noecker, Ohad Manor, Sarah Hilton, Samuel M Thumbi, Clayton Onyango, Gemina Garland-Lewis, Douglas R Call, M Kariuki Njenga, Judith N Wasserheit, Jennifer A Zambriski, Judd L Walson, Guy H Palmer, Joel Montgomery, Elhanan Borenstein, Richard Omore, Peter M Rabinowitz
The gut microbiome community structure and development are associated with several health outcomes in young children. To determine the household influences of gut microbiome structure, we assessed microbial sharing within households in western Kenya by sequencing 16S rRNA libraries of fecal samples from children and cattle, cloacal swabs from chickens, and swabs of household surfaces. Among the 156 households studied, children within the same household significantly shared their gut microbiome with each other, although we did not find significant sharing of gut microbiome across host species or household surfaces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096348/transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-landscape-of-positional-memory-in-the-caudal-fin-of-zebrafish
#16
Jeremy S Rabinowitz, Aaron M Robitaille, Yuliang Wang, Catherine A Ray, Ryan Thummel, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Daniel Raftery, Jason D Berndt, Randall T Moon
Regeneration requires cells to regulate proliferation and patterning according to their spatial position. Positional memory is a property that enables regenerating cells to recall spatial information from the uninjured tissue. Positional memory is hypothesized to rely on gradients of molecules, few of which have been identified. Here, we quantified the global abundance of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites along the proximodistal axis of caudal fins of uninjured and regenerating adult zebrafish. Using this approach, we uncovered complex overlapping expression patterns for hundreds of molecules involved in diverse cellular functions, including development, bioelectric signaling, and amino acid and lipid metabolism...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024083/direct-evidence-for-cancer-cell-autonomous-extracellular-protein-catabolism-in-pancreatic-tumors
#17
Shawn M Davidson, Oliver Jonas, Mark A Keibler, Han Wei Hou, Alba Luengo, Jared R Mayers, Jeffrey Wyckoff, Amanda M Del Rosario, Matthew Whitman, Christopher R Chin, Kendall J Condon, Alex Lammers, Katherine A Kellersberger, Brian K Stall, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Dafna Bar-Sagi, Jongyoon Han, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Michael J Cima, Robert Langer, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Mammalian tissues rely on a variety of nutrients to support their physiological functions. It is known that altered metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer, but which nutrients support the inappropriate growth of intact malignant tumors is incompletely understood. Amino acids are essential nutrients for many cancer cells that can be obtained through the scavenging and catabolism of extracellular protein via macropinocytosis. In particular, macropinocytosis can be a nutrient source for pancreatic cancer cells, but it is not fully understood how the tumor environment influences metabolic phenotypes and whether macropinocytosis supports the maintenance of amino acid levels within pancreatic tumors...
February 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991918/dissociation-of-muscle-insulin-sensitivity-from-exercise-endurance-in-mice-by-hdac3-depletion
#18
Sungguan Hong, Wenjun Zhou, Bin Fang, Wenyun Lu, Emanuele Loro, Manashree Damle, Guolian Ding, Jennifer Jager, Sisi Zhang, Yuxiang Zhang, Dan Feng, Qingwei Chu, Brian D Dill, Henrik Molina, Tejvir S Khurana, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Mitchell A Lazar, Zheng Sun
Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance are associated with reduced glucose utilization in the muscle and poor exercise performance. Here we find that depletion of the epigenome modifier histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) specifically in skeletal muscle causes severe systemic insulin resistance in mice but markedly enhances endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue, despite reducing muscle force. This seemingly paradoxical phenotype is due to lower glucose utilization and greater lipid oxidation in HDAC3-depleted muscles, a fuel switch caused by the activation of anaplerotic reactions driven by AMP deaminase 3 (Ampd3) and catabolism of branched-chain amino acids...
February 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888909/topical-therapies-for-refractory-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#19
REVIEW
Akshay Sanan, Mindy Rabinowitz, Marc Rosen, Gurston Nyquist
Topical therapy has become an important tool in the otolaryngologist's armamentarium for refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Daily high-volume sinonasal saline irrigation and standard metered-dose topical nasal steroid therapy are supported by the most evidence. Nonstandard topical sinonasal steroid therapies are a potential option for refractory CRS. Current evidence recommends against the use of topical antifungal therapy and topical antibiotic therapy delivered using spray and nebulized techniques in routine cases of CRS...
February 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887833/the-impact-of-pollutants-from-a-major-northern-highway-on-an-adjacent-hardwood-forest
#20
S A Watmough, T Rabinowitz, S Baker
Emissions of pollutants from highways can exert multiple stresses on adjacent ecosystems. In this study air concentrations of NO2 and throughfall deposition of inorganic N (NO3(-) and NH4(+)), SO4(2-), Cl(-), base cations and several metals were measured in all four seasons along a 1.5km hardwood forest gradient extending away from a major highway (Highway 401) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil and lichen chemistry and herbaceous plant and epiphytic lichen species composition were measured within the hardwood forest to evaluate impacts of these pollutants...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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