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Raphael Rabinowitz, Jeanne Farnan, Oliver Hulland, Lisa Kearns, Michele Long, Bradley Monash, Priti Bhansali, H Barrett Fromme
BACKGROUND : Attending rounds is a key component of patient care and education at teaching hospitals, yet there is an absence of studies addressing trainees' perceptions of rounds. OBJECTIVE : To determine perceptions of pediatrics and internal medicine residents about the current and ideal purposes of inpatient rounds on hospitalist services. METHODS : In this multi-institutional qualitative study, the authors conducted focus groups with a purposive sample of internal medicine and pediatrics residents at 4 teaching hospitals...
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Gregory S Ducker, Li Chen, Raphael J Morscher, Jonathan M Ghergurovich, Mark Esposito, Xin Teng, Yibin Kang, Joshua D Rabinowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Ronald N Gaster, J Ben Margines, David N Gaster, Xiaohui Li, Yaron S Rabinowitz
PURPOSE: To compare the visual, refractive, keratometric, topographic, and pachymetric outcomes of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus following epithelial removal by transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) or manual debridement. METHODS: In this analysis, 339 eyes (78% male, 22% female) that had undergone CXL following manual epithelial debridement (n = 180) or ablation via PTK (n = 159) were evaluated preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively for uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), maximum corneal keratometry, pachymetry, and spherical equivalent...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Jill A Rabinowitz, Ijeoma Osigwe, Deborah A G Drabick, Maureen D Reynolds
Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Adolescence
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Bau-Lin Huang, Anna Trofka, Aki Furusawa, Jacqueline L Norrie, Adam H Rabinowitz, Steven A Vokes, M Mark Taketo, Jozsef Zakany, Susan Mackem
The number of phalanges and joints are key features of digit 'identity' and are central to limb functionality and evolutionary adaptation. Prior chick work indicated that digit phalanges and their associated joints arise in a different manner than the more sparsely jointed long bones, and their identity is regulated by differential signalling from adjacent interdigits. Currently, there is no genetic evidence for this model, and the molecular mechanisms governing digit joint specification remain poorly understood...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Davy Vanhoutte, Tobias G Schips, Jennifer Q Kwong, Jennifer Davis, Andoria Tjondrokoesoemo, Matthew J Brody, Michelle A Sargent, Onur Kanisicak, Hong Yi, Quan Q Gao, Joseph E Rabinowitz, Talila Volk, Elizabeth M McNally, Jeffery D Molkentin
Skeletal muscle is highly sensitive to mutations in genes that participate in membrane stability and cellular attachment, which often leads to muscular dystrophy. Here we show that Thrombospondin-4 (Thbs4) regulates skeletal muscle integrity and its susceptibility to muscular dystrophy through organization of membrane attachment complexes. Loss of the Thbs4 gene causes spontaneous dystrophic changes with aging and accelerates disease in 2 mouse models of muscular dystrophy, while overexpression of mouse Thbs4 is protective and mitigates dystrophic disease...
September 26, 2016: ELife
Zhongjian Cheng, Venkata Garikipati, Emily Nickoloff, Chunlin Wang, David J Polhemus, Jibin Zhou, Cynthia Benedict, Mohsin Khan, Suresh K Verma, Joseph E Rabinowitz, David Lefer, Raj Kishore
BACKGROUND: -Bone marrow cell-based treatment for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic patients yielded a modest therapeutic effect due to cell dysfunction. Therefore, approaches that improve diabetic stem/progenitor cell functions may provide therapeutic benefits. Here, we tested the hypotheses that restoration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production in diabetic bone marrow cells (BMCs) improves their reparative capacities. METHODS: -Mouse BMCs were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation...
September 22, 2016: Circulation
Gregory S Ducker, Joshua D Rabinowitz
One-carbon (1C) metabolism, mediated by the folate cofactor, supports multiple physiological processes. These include biosynthesis (purines and thymidine), amino acid homeostasis (glycine, serine, and methionine), epigenetic maintenance, and redox defense. Both within eukaryotic cells and across organs, 1C metabolic reactions are compartmentalized. Here we review the fundamentals of mammalian 1C metabolism, including the pathways active in different compartments, cell types, and biological states. Emphasis is given to recent discoveries enabled by modern genetics, analytical chemistry, and isotope tracing...
September 8, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
We report here a novel approach for the extraction, isolation and culturing of intact ectodermal tissue layers from a model marine invertebrate, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. A methodology is described in which a brief exposure of the animal to the mucolytic agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) solution triggers the dislodging of the ectodermis from its underlying basement membrane and mesoglea. These extracted fragments of cell sheets adherent to culture-dish substrates, initially form 2D monolayers that are transformed within 24 h post-isolation into 3D structures...
September 13, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Emily Mosites, Richard Neitzel, Deron Galusha, Sally Trufan, Christine Dixon-Ernst, Peter Rabinowitz
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the reliability of a hearing risk factor screening survey used by hearing conservation programmes for noise-exposed workers. DESIGN: We compared workers' answers from the screening survey to their answers to a confidential research questionnaire regarding hearing loss risk factors. We calculated kappa statistics to test the correlation between yes/no questions in the research questionnaire compared to answers from 1 and 5 years of screening surveys...
December 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Joseph G Moloughney, Peter K Kim, Nicole M Vega-Cotto, Chang-Chih Wu, Sisi Zhang, Matthew Adlam, Thomas Lynch, Po-Chien Chou, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Guy Werlen, Estela Jacinto
Highly proliferating cells are particularly dependent on glucose and glutamine for bioenergetics and macromolecule biosynthesis. The signals that respond to nutrient fluctuations to maintain metabolic homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we found that mTORC2 is activated by nutrient deprivation due to decreasing glutamine catabolites. We elucidate how mTORC2 modulates a glutamine-requiring biosynthetic pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) via regulation of expression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1), the rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP...
September 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
Alison B Huggins, James J Evans, Adam E Flanders, Michael P Rabinowitz
This is a case description of a male patient found to have orbital and intracranial emphysema, specifically with air in his cavernous sinuses bilaterally following penetrating trauma to the medial orbit from a goat's horn. There were no orbital or skull base fractures. Although the presence of traumatic intracranial emphysema is not uncommon, it is typically the result of direct communication of the cranial vault with the paranasal sinuses in the setting of associated fracture or, alternatively, from direct penetration and inoculation...
August 25, 2016: Orbit
Eva Ramos-Fernández, Marta Tajes, Gerard Ill-Raga, Lina Vargas, Arnau Busquets-García, Mònica Bosch-Morató, Biuse Guivernau, Victòria Valls-Comamala, Maria Gomis, Cristina Grau, César Fandos, Mark D Rosen, Michael H Rabinowitz, Nibaldo Inestrosa, Rafael Maldonado, Xavier Altafaj, Andrés Ozaita, Alejandra Alvarez, Rubén Vicente, Miguel A Valverde, Francisco J Muñoz
The activation of N-Methyl D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) by glutamate is crucial in the nervous system function, particularly in memory and learning. NMDAR is composed by two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits. GluN2B has been reported to participate in the prevalent NMDAR subtype at synapses, the GluN1/2A/2B. Here we studied the regulation of GluN2B expression in cortical neurons finding that glutamate up-regulates GluN2B translation through the action of nitric oxide (NO), which induces the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α (eIF2α)...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Peppi Koivunen, Stuart M Fell, Wenyun Lu, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Andrew L Kung, Susanne Schlisio
The cellular response to hypoxia is primarily regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF-1α is also a major mediator of tumor physiology, and its abundance is correlated with therapeutic resistance in a broad range of cancers. Accumulation of HIF-1α under hypoxia is mainly controlled by the oxygen-sensing HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (EGLNs, also known as PHDs). Here, we identified a high level of normoxic HIF-1α protein in various cancer cell lines. EGLNs require oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate for enzymatic activity...
2016: Hypoxia
Randolf Pohl, François Nez, Luis M P Fernandes, Fernando D Amaro, François Biraben, João M R Cardoso, Daniel S Covita, Andreas Dax, Satish Dhawan, Marc Diepold, Adolf Giesen, Andrea L Gouvea, Thomas Graf, Theodor W Hänsch, Paul Indelicato, Lucile Julien, Paul Knowles, Franz Kottmann, Eric-Olivier Le Bigot, Yi-Wei Liu, José A M Lopes, Livia Ludhova, Cristina M B Monteiro, Françoise Mulhauser, Tobias Nebel, Paul Rabinowitz, Joaquim M F dos Santos, Lukas A Schaller, Karsten Schuhmann, Catherine Schwob, David Taqqu, João F C A Veloso, Aldo Antognini
The deuteron is the simplest compound nucleus, composed of one proton and one neutron. Deuteron properties such as the root-mean-square charge radius rd and the polarizability serve as important benchmarks for understanding the nuclear forces and structure. Muonic deuterium μd is the exotic atom formed by a deuteron and a negative muon μ(-). We measured three 2S-2P transitions in μd and obtain r(d) = 2.12562(78) fm, which is 2.7 times more accurate but 7.5σ smaller than the CODATA-2010 value r(d) = 2.1424(21) fm...
August 12, 2016: Science
Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Xin Teng, Saurabh V Laddha, Sirui Ma, Stephen C Van Nostrand, Yang Yang, Sinan Khor, Chang S Chan, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Eileen White
Autophagy degrades and is thought to recycle proteins, other macromolecules, and organelles. In genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) for Kras-driven lung cancer, autophagy prevents the accumulation of defective mitochondria and promotes malignancy. Autophagy-deficient tumor-derived cell lines are respiration-impaired and starvation-sensitive. However, to what extent their sensitivity to starvation arises from defective mitochondria or an impaired supply of metabolic substrates remains unclear. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of wild-type or autophagy-deficient (Atg7(-/-)) Kras-driven lung tumors...
August 1, 2016: Genes & Development
Daniel Thornton, Kathy Zeller, Carlo Rondinini, Luigi Boitani, Kevin Crooks, Christopher Burdeh, Alan Rabinowitz, Howard Quigley
Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel, large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and fragmentation indices of ~1500 co-occurring mammal species, we show that jaguar populations and corridors overlap a substantial amount and percentage of high-quality habitat for co-occurring mammals and that the jaguar network performs better than random networks in protecting high-quality, interior habitat...
June 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
David W Frederick, Emanuele Loro, Ling Liu, Antonio Davila, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Ian M Silverman, William J Quinn, Sager J Gosai, Elisia D Tichy, James G Davis, Foteini Mourkioti, Brian D Gregory, Ryan W Dellinger, Philip Redpath, Marie E Migaud, Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Tejvir S Khurana, Joseph A Baur
NAD is an obligate co-factor for the catabolism of metabolic fuels in all cell types. However, the availability of NAD in several tissues can become limited during genotoxic stress and the course of natural aging. The point at which NAD restriction imposes functional limitations on tissue physiology remains unknown. We examined this question in murine skeletal muscle by specifically depleting Nampt, an essential enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway. Knockout mice exhibited a dramatic 85% decline in intramuscular NAD content, accompanied by fiber degeneration and progressive loss of both muscle strength and treadmill endurance...
August 9, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Wei Diao, Jinali Patel, Melanie Snitzer, Michael Pond, Michael P Rabinowitz, Guadalupe Ceron, Krystal Bagley, Korinne Dennis, Rachel Weiner, Sarah Martinez-Helfman, Kathleen Santa Maria, Brian Burke, William B Aultman, Alex V Levin
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of a mobile ophthalmic unit in the schoolyard to improve the follow-up rate for children who have failed an optometric in-school screening program. Previously, the optometric program made referrals to the center and only 53% of students attended the desired ophthalmology consultation. METHODS: This was a cohort study of students conducted in elementary school lots in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. The mobile ophthalmic unit visited schools where students with parental consent who needed examination had been identified by an in-school optometric vision care program...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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