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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163938/understanding-biological-mechanisms-underlying-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-developing-countries-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-amanhi-bio-banking-study
#1
Abdullah H Baqui, Rasheda Khanam, Mohammad Sayedur Rahman, Aziz Ahmed, Hasna Hena Rahman, Mamun Ibne Moin, Salahuddin Ahmed, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Nisar, Atiya Hussain, Muhammad Ilyas, Aneeta Hotwani, Muhammad Sajid, Shahida Qureshi, Anita Zaidi, Sunil Sazawal, Said M Ali, Saikat Deb, Mohammed Hamad Juma, Usha Dhingra, Arup Dutta, Shaali Makame Ame, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Mike Zangenberg, Donna Russell, Sachiyo Yoshida, Ozren Polašek, Alexander Manu, Rajiv Bahl
Objectives: The AMANHI study aims to seek for biomarkers as predictors of important pregnancy-related outcomes, and establish a biobank in developing countries for future research as new methods and technologies become available. Methods: AMANHI is using harmonised protocols to enrol 3000 women in early pregnancies (8-19 weeks of gestation) for population-based follow-up in pregnancy up to 42 days postpartum in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania, with collection taking place between August 2014 and June 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072380/-comparison-of-clinical-and-demographic-characteristics-of-arab-and-jewish-children-living-in-the-galilee-who-have-suffered-from-an-intestinal-infection-caused-by-campylobacter
#2
Ali Arian, Said Abozaid, Avi On, Wael Nasser, Nina Pastukh, Avi Peretz
INTRODUCTION: Among all infectious agents that cause gastrointestinal infection in children, the most common is the Campylobacter bacterium. The bacterium has multiple virulence factors such as motility, adhesion and invasion of the human intestinal lining, and enzyme secretion. In recent years, there has been a worldwide increase in Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics. AIMS: To examine the frequency of Campylobacter among children who were hospitalized at the Poriya Medical Center during 2012-2014 and suffered from an intestinal infection caused by Campylobacter; to compare the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of Jewish and Arab children; to examine the resistance rate of the bacterium to antibiotics...
October 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958859/direct-comparison-of-diagnostic-performance-of-9-quantitative-fecal-immunochemical-tests-for-colorectal-cancer-screening
#3
Anton Gies, Katarina Cuk, Petra Schrotz-King, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A variety of fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin (Hb) are used in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. It is unclear to what extent differences in reported sensitivities and specificities reflect true heterogeneity in test performance or differences in study populations or varying pre-analytical conditions. We directly compared the sensitivity and specificity values with which 9 quantitative (laboratory-based and point of care) FITs detected advanced neoplasms (AN) in a single CRC screening study...
September 25, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916375/bacterial-community-in-ancient-permafrost-alluvium-at-the-mammoth-mountain-eastern-siberia
#4
Anatoli Brouchkov, Marsel Kabilov, Svetlana Filippova, Olga Baturina, Victor Rogov, Valery Galchenko, Andrey Mulyukin, Oksana Fursova, Gennady Pogorelko
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa...
December 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870234/collection-of-non-meconium-stool-on-fecal-occult-blood-cards-is-an-effective-method-for-fecal-microbiota-studies-in-infants
#5
Wendy S W Wong, Nicole Clemency, Elisabeth Klein, Marina Provenzano, Ramaswamy Iyer, John E Niederhuber, Suchitra K Hourigan
BACKGROUND: Effective methods are needed to collect fecal samples from children for large-scale microbiota studies. Stool collected on fecal occult blood test (FOBT) cards that can be mailed provides an effective solution; however, the quality of sequencing resulting from this method is unknown. The aim of this study is to compare microbiota metrics of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing from stool and meconium collected on FOBT cards with stool collected in an Eppendorf tube (ET) under different conditions...
September 5, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869008/-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-bowel-disease
#6
Anne A Rode, Mahtab Chehri, Andreas Munk Petersen, Peter Bytzer
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the transferral of faeces from a healthy donor to a patient with a disease linked to disturbances in the gut microbiota. The treatment has been implemented at several hospitals in Denmark, and banks with frozen donor stool material have been established. The effect of FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is well-documented. FMT cannot be recommended for routine clinical use for inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome because of lack of data from clinical trials...
July 31, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843021/the-nasal-and-gut-microbiome-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#7
Anna Heintz-Buschart, Urvashi Pandey, Tamara Wicke, Friederike Sixel-Döring, Annette Janzen, Elisabeth Sittig-Wiegand, Claudia Trenkwalder, Wolfgang H Oertel, Brit Mollenhauer, Paul Wilmes
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence connects the gut microbiota and the onset and/or phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD). Differences in the abundances of specific bacterial taxa have been reported in PD patients. It is, however, unknown whether these differences can be observed in individuals at high risk, for example, with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, a prodromal condition of α-synuclein aggregation disorders including PD. OBJECTIVES: To compare microbiota in carefully preserved nasal wash and stool samples of subjects with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, manifest PD, and healthy individuals...
August 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814204/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-em-clostridium-difficile-em-associated-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
Paul Moayyedi, Yuhong Yuan, Harith Baharith, Alexander C Ford
OBJECTIVES: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a useful approach for treating Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have recently evaluated its effectiveness, but systematic reviews have focused on evidence from case series. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of FMT for treating CDAD. STUDY DESIGN: We included RCTs that primarily recruited adults with CDAD and compared the effectiveness of FMT with that of placebo, antibiotic therapy, or autologous stool transplantation, or compared different preparations or modes of delivery of FMT...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531908/methods-and-reporting-studies-assessing-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Aïda Bafeta, Amelie Yavchitz, Carolina Riveros, Rui Batista, Philippe Ravaud
Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be a novel treatment option for several chronic diseases associated with altered gut microbiota. Purpose: To examine the conduct and reporting of studies assessing FMT. Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to 31 January 2017. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently examined titles and abstracts to identify all English-language reports of human clinical studies assessing the safety or efficacy of FMT...
July 4, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529025/how-to-establish-and-run-a-stool-bank
#10
REVIEW
E M Terveer, Y H van Beurden, A Goorhuis, J F M L Seegers, M P Bauer, E van Nood, M G W Dijkgraaf, C J J Mulder, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, H W Verspaget, J J Keller, E J Kuijper
BACKGROUND: Since 2013, several stool banks have been developed following publications reporting on clinical success of 'faecal microbiota transplantation' (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). However, protocols for donor screening, faecal suspension preparation, and transfer of the faecal suspension differ between countries and institutions. Moreover, no European consensus exists regarding the legislative aspects of the faecal suspension product. Internationally standardized recommendations about the above mentioned aspects have not yet been established...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513974/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-outcomes-in-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-patients-a-single-center-experience
#11
Sally Alrabaa, Ripal Jariwala, Kristen Zeitler, Jose Montero
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major infectious disease focus for which fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used with success in various patient populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of FMT in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients to review outcomes at our center, with a focus on identifying risk factors for FMT failure in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. FMT was conducted using universal banked frozen stool via naso-duodenal tube in patients with recurrent CDI of 3 or more episodes per our institutional protocol...
August 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471618/a-retrospective-comparison-of-fecal-microbial-transplantation-methods-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Nathaniel A Cohen, Dan M Livovsky, Shir Yaakobovitch, Merav Ben Yehoyada, Ronen Ben Ami, Amos Adler, Hanan Guzner-Gur, Eran Goldin, Moshe E Santo, Zamir Halpern, Kalman Paz, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has a high failure rate. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has proven very effective in treating these recurrences. OBJECTIVES: To determine which method of fecal microbiota transplantation (upper or lower gastrointestinal) and which type of donor (a relative or unrelated) is superior. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of treatment protocols and outcomes in 22 patients with refractory or recurrent CDI who underwent FMT at two Israeli facilities...
October 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412936/-1-h-nmr-analysis-of-feces-new-possibilities-in-the-helminthes-infections-research
#13
Sarantos Kostidis, Daria Kokova, Natalia Dementeva, Irina V Saltykova, Hye Kyong Kim, Young Hae Choi, Oleg A Mayboroda
BACKGROUND: Analysis of the stool samples is an essential part of routine diagnostics of the helminthes infections. However, the standard methods such Kato and Kato-Katz utilize only a fraction of the information available. Here we present a method based on the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) which could be auxiliary to the standard procedures by evaluating the complex metabolic profiles (or phenotypes) of the samples. METHOD: The samples were collected over the period of June-July 2015, frozen at -20 °C at the site of collection and transferred within four hours for the permanent storage at -80 °C...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359329/comparison-of-stool-versus-rectal-swab-samples-and-storage-conditions-on-bacterial-community-profiles
#14
Christine M Bassis, Nicholas M Moore, Karen Lolans, Anna M Seekatz, Robert A Weinstein, Vincent B Young, Mary K Hayden
BACKGROUND: Sample collection for gut microbiota analysis from in-patients can be challenging. Collection method and storage conditions are potential sources of variability. In this study, we compared the bacterial microbiota from stool stored under different conditions, as well as stool and swab samples, to assess differences due to sample storage conditions and collection method. METHODS: Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we compared the microbiota profiles of stool samples stored and collected under various conditions...
March 31, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290266/improved-diagnosis-of-trichuris-trichiura-by-using-a-bead-beating-procedure-on-ethanol-preserved-stool-samples-prior-to-dna-isolation-and-the-performance-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-intestinal-parasites
#15
Maria M M Kaisar, Eric A T Brienen, Yenny Djuardi, Erliyani Sartono, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Jaco J Verweij, Taniawati Supali, Lisette VAN Lieshout
For the majority of intestinal parasites, real-time PCR-based diagnosis outperforms microscopy. However, the data for Trichuris trichiura have been less convincing and most comparative studies have been performed in populations with low prevalence. This study aims to improve detection of T. trichuria DNA in human stool by evaluating four sample preparation methods. Faecal samples (n = 60) were collected at Flores island, Indonesia and examined by microscopy. Aliquots were taken and a bead-beating procedure was used both on directly frozen stool and on material preserved with 96% ethanol...
June 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260999/gut-microbiota-analysis-results-are-highly-dependent-on-the-16s-rrna-gene-target-region-whereas-the-impact-of-dna-extraction-is-minor
#16
Anniina Rintala, Sami Pietilä, Eveliina Munukka, Erkki Eerola, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Asta Laiho, Satu Pekkala, Pentti Huovinen
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the method of choice for analyzing gut microbiota composition. As gut microbiota composition is a potential future target for clinical diagnostics, it is of utmost importance to enhance and optimize the NGS analysis procedures. Here, we have analyzed the impact of DNA extraction and selected 16S rDNA primers on the gut microbiota NGS results. Bacterial DNA from frozen stool specimens was extracted with 5 commercially available DNA extraction kits. Special attention was paid to the semiautomated DNA extraction methods that could expedite the analysis procedure, thus being especially suitable for clinical settings...
April 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220514/randomised-clinical-trial-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridum-difficile-infection-fresh-or-frozen-or-lyophilised-microbiota-from-a-small-pool-of-healthy-donors-delivered-by-colonoscopy
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Z D Jiang, N J Ajami, J F Petrosino, G Jun, C L Hanis, M Shah, L Hochman, V Ankoma-Sey, A W DuPont, M C Wong, A Alexander, S Ke, H L DuPont
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become routine in managing recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) refractory to antibiotics. AIM: To compare clinical response and improvements in colonic microbiota diversity in subjects with recurrent CDI using different donor product. METHODS: Seventy-two subjects with ≥3 bouts of CDI were randomised in a double-blind study to receive fresh, frozen or lyophilised FMT product via colonoscopy from 50 g of stool per treatment from eight healthy donors...
April 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121648/changes-in-the-gut-microbiota-after-early-administration-of-oral-synbiotics-to-young-infants-in-india
#18
Dinesh S Chandel, Maria E Perez-Munoz, Fang Yu, Robert Boissy, Radhanath Satpathy, Pravas R Misra, Nidhi Sharma, Rama Chaudhry, Sailajanandan Parida, Daniel A Peterson, Ira H Gewolb, Pinaki Panigrahi
OBJECTIVES: The authors examined the changes in the developing gut microbiota of Indian infants enrolled in a colonization study of an oral synbiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum and fructo-oligosaccharides) preparation. METHODS: Frozen stool samples were available from a previously published clinical study of the synbiotic preparation administered daily for 7 days to full-term Indian infants delivered by C-section. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal bacterial community-DNA was done in 11 infants sampled on day 7 and day 60 of life...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103236/impact-of-cd4-t-cell-responses-on-clinical-outcome-following-oral-administration-of-wild-type-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-humans
#19
Monica A McArthur, Wilbur H Chen, Laurence Magder, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a non-invasive enteric pathogen of considerable public health importance, being one of the most common attributable causes of diarrheal illness in infants and young children in developing countries and the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. To enhance study-to-study consistency of our experimental challenge model of ETEC in volunteers, and to allow concomitant multi-site trials to evaluate anti-ETEC immunoprophylactic products, hundreds of vials, each containing a standardized inoculum of virulent wild-type (wt) ETEC strain H10407 (serotype O78:H11 expressing colonization factor antigen I and heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins), were prepared under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and frozen...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000190/-short-term-efficacy-on-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-combined-with-soluble-dietary-fiber-and-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-slow-transit-constipation
#20
Xiaolong Ge, Chao Ding, Jianfeng Gong, Hongliang Tian, Yao Wei, Qiyi Chen, Lili Gu, Ning Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) combined with soluble dietary fiber and probiotics for slow transit constipation(STC). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with STC from Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University were prospectively enrolled between April 2015 and January 2016. STC patients received FMT combined with soluble dietary fiber and probiotics. Fresh stool(100 g) was immediately mixed in a blender with 500 ml of 0...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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