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Non invasive ventilation children

Başak Yıldız-Atıkan, Bülent Karapınar, Şöhret Aydemir, Fadıl Vardar
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia occuring in any period of mechanical ventilation. There is no optimal diagnostic method in current use and in this study we aimed to compare two non-invasive diagnostic methods used in diagnosis of VAP in children. This prospective study was conducted in 8 bedded Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Ege University Children´s Hospital. Endotracheal aspiration (ETA) and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in case of developing VIP after 48 hours of ventilation...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
William J Parkes, Sharon L Cushing, Blake C Papsin, Susan I Blaser, Adrian L James
OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the extent of mastoid opacification after canal wall up (CWU) cholesteatoma surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five children in whom post-operative MRI had been obtained after CWU surgery. Cholesteatoma confined to the meso- and/or epi-tympanum was removed using a transcanal approach (n=18). More extensive disease required a combined approach tympanomastoidectomy (CAT, n=17). Mastoid opacification was assessed in both ears by a neuroradiologist blind to surgical details using an ordinal scale from 0 (no opacification) to 6 (completely opacified)...
August 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Camilla R S Silva, Lívia B Andrade, Danielle A S X Maux, Andreza L Bezerra, Maria C M B Duarte
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on respiratory function in seven- to 16-year-old children in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery. Method: A randomized, controlled trial with 50 children who had undergone cardiac surgery with median sternotomy. After extubation, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group (n=26), which received instructions regarding posture, early ambulation, and cough stimulation, and CPAP group (continuous positive airway pressure; n=24), which received the same instructions as the control group and CPAP=10 cmH20 twice daily for 30 minutes from the 1st to the 5th post-operative day (POD)...
September 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Steven Kwasi Korang, Joshua Feinberg, Jørn Wetterslev, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the intervention has been considered weak and clinical guidelines do not recommend the intervention. NPPV might be an effective intervention for acute asthma, but no systematic review has been conducted to assess the effects of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care in children with acute asthma...
September 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maryam Oskoui, Pamela Ng, Stephen Liben, David Zielinski
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of families are requesting active supportive management for their child with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), leading to longer survival and greater prevalence of affected children. Strong opinions exist among physicians for and against the provision of care measures prolonging life. OBJECTIVE: To describe current practice in the care of SMA1 in Canada, and explore the factors underlying inter-physician variability. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of Canadian hospital-based pediatric neurologists and pediatric respirologists was performed in 2015...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Margaret J Trost, Melissa Cowell, Jennifer Cannon, Kendra Mitchell, Kevin Waloff, Humberto Avila, Sanjay Chand, Christopher J Russell
PURPOSE: Children with sleep apnea may be at increased risk for overnight respiratory events (ORE) following anesthesia. We sought to identify ORE risk factors in sleep apnea patients sedated for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: One thousand four hundred seven hospitalizations for children with sleep apnea (by ICD-9 code) occurred at our institution from 5/1/2011 to 2/1/2015. One hundred twenty-seven (9 %) encounters were solely for post-MRI observation representing 96 unique patients...
September 28, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Marcus A Mall, Mirjam Stahl, Simon Y Graeber, Olaf Sommerburg, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark O Wielpütz
Recent imaging studies using chest computed tomography (CT) in presymptomatic infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed by newborn screening presented compelling evidence of early onset and progression of structural lung damage in CF. These data argue persuasively that non-invasive outcome measures for early detection and sensitive monitoring of lung disease applicable in the clinical setting will be instrumental for further improvement of clinical care and the development of early intervention therapies that have the potential to prevent irreversible lung damage...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Constanza Galleguillos, Bárbara Galleguillos, Guillermo Larios, Gonzalo Menchaca, Louis Bont, Jose A Castro-Rodriguez
AIM: Previous studies have suggested that Down's syndrome is an independent risk factor for severe respiratory infection due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We compared the clinical characteristics of children with and without Down's syndrome hospitalised due to RSV. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared data from hospitalisations due to RSV lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children under 14 years of age with (n = 58) and without (n = 58) Down's syndrome...
November 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Diana Reppucci, Jill Hamilton, E Ann Yeh, Sherri Katz, Suhail Al-Saleh, Indra Narang
BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Although nocturnal hypoventilation (NH) is central to ROHHAD, the evolution of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is not well studied. The aim of the study was to assess early manifestations of SDB and their evolution in ROHHAD syndrome. METHODS: Retrospective study of children with ROHHAD at two Canadian centers...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Alessandro Amaddeo, Annick Frapin, Brigitte Fauroux
Use of long-term non-invasive ventilation is increasing exponentially worldwide in children of all ages. The treatment entails delivery of ventilatory assistance through a non-invasive interface. Indications for use of non-invasive ventilation include conditions that affect normal respiratory balance (eg, those associated with dysfunction of the central drive or respiratory muscles) and disorders characterised by an increase in respiratory load (eg, obstructive airway or lung diseases). The type of non-invasive ventilation used depends on the pathophysiological features of the respiratory failure...
July 13, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Ingvild Bruun Mikalsen, Peter Davis, Knut Øymar
High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a relatively new non-invasive ventilation therapy that seems to be well tolerated in children. Recently a marked increase in the use of HFNC has been seen both in paediatric and adult care settings. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of HFNC regarding mechanisms of action, safety, clinical effects and tolerance in children beyond the newborn period.We performed a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane up to 12th of May 2016...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Marcos Silva-Feistner, Elena Ortiz, María Jesús Rojas-Lechuga, Daniel Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, potentially life-threatening, drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that includes skin eruption, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. OBJECTIVE: Presenting a rare condition in children, to facilitate a rapid diagnostic suspicion and recognition by doctors CASE REPORT: An 9 months old infant admitted due to a severe viral pneumonia, managed with non-invasive ventilation and ceftriaxone...
July 1, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Rachel Joffe, Jonathan Duff, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Jodie Pugh, Ari R Joffe
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of arterial lines (AL) using the flush test or stopcock test has not been described in children, nor has the difference between invasive arterial blood pressure (IABP) versus non-invasive cuff (NIBP) blood pressure. METHODS: After ethics approval and consent, we performed the flush test and stopcock test on AL (to determine over damping, under damping, and optimal damping), and determined the difference (NIBP-IABP) in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (ΔSBP, ΔDBP, and ΔMAP)...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
John J Hawkshead, Russell B Van Dyke, Susan E Hassig, Larry S Webber, Rodolfo E Begue
BACKGROUND: Pediatric Candida infections are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased costs. Yet, it is not definitively known if particular species are associated with more severe illness. Differential risk factor exposures among the species group may also exist. We aimed to determine whether certain Candida species are more strongly associated with worse outcomes, and whether certain risk factors more strongly predispose patients to infection with certain species. METHODS: Microbiology lab records from patients seen from 2003 to 2010 at an urban children's hospital were reviewed for invasive or disseminated Candida infections...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Brittany Pardue Jones, Geoffrey M Fleming, Jaime Kaye Otillio, Ishan Asokan, Donald H Arnold
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this report is to review available modalities for assessing and managing acute asthma exacerbations in pediatric patients, including some that are not included in current expert panel guidelines. While it is not our purpose to provide a comprehensive review of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines, we review NAEPP-recommended treatments to provide the full range of treatments available for managing exacerbations with an emphasis on the continuum of care between the ER and ICU...
August 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Laura Whitla, Paul Lennon
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea is common in children and, if untreated, can lead to multiple medical sequelae. The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial demonstrated benefit from early surgical intervention, but rapid access to such treatment is not always available. AIMS: To examine the recent literature on non-surgical aspects of the management of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). METHODS: The English language literature was searched for articles on the conservative management of OSA...
April 14, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Andreas Schibler, Donna Franklin
Respiratory support in paediatric emergency settings ranges from oxygen delivery with subnasal oxygen to invasive mechanical ventilation. Recent data suggest that oxygen can cause reperfusion injuries and should be delivered with caution within well-defined clinical target ranges. Most mild to moderate respiratory distress conditions with an oxygen requirement may benefit from early use of continuous positive airway pressure. High-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) is an emerging alternative way to support the inspiratory effort combined with oxygen delivery and positive expiratory pressures without the need of complicated equipment or good compliance from the child...
February 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Yong Li, Guangmin Nong, Min Jiang, Jing Liu, Xiuan Liang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in children. METHOD: The clinical data of 16 cases of proven or probable IPA who had been in our Hospital from January 2006 to June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULT: Among the 16 patients, 11 were males and 5 were females. One child had proven IPA and 15 children had probable IPA. Host risk included long duration use of multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics in 16 cases, neutropenia in 9 cases, invasive mechanical ventilation in 3 cases, primary immunodeficiency disease in 2 cases, long-term use of glucocorticoids in 2 cases, measles in 2 cases, and congenital pulmonary hypoplasia in 1 case...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Peter Schenk, Ernst Eber, Georg-Christian Funk, Wilfried Fritz, Sylvia Hartl, Peter Heininger, Eveline Kink, Gernot Kühteubl, Beatrice Oberwaldner, Ulrike Pachernigg, Andreas Pfleger, Petra Schandl, Ingrid Schmidt, Markus Stein
The current consensus report was compiled under the patronage of the Austrian Society of Pneumology (Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie, ÖGP) with the intention of providing practical guidelines for out-of-hospital ventilation that are in accordance with specific Austrian framework parameters and legal foundations. The guidelines are oriented toward a 2004 consensus ÖGP recommendation concerning the setup of long-term ventilated patients and the 2010 German Respiratory Society S2 guidelines on noninvasive and invasive ventilation of chronic respiratory insufficiency, adapted to national experiences and updated according to recent literature...
February 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Xia Han, Qing Tian, Feng Chen, Yang Wang, Han Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pulmonary ultrasound in children with congenital heart disease postoperative invasive ventilator time, non-invasive ventilator use the guide. METHODS: Using prospective clinical observation research methods, Randomly divide 100 cases ranged from 6 months to 3 years old in cardiopulmonary bypass after congenital heart disease surgery patients into ultrasound group and control group, 50 cases in each group. All postoperative give positive cardiac function maintenance, diuresis, etc...
November 3, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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