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Sergey V Melnikov, Keith D Rivera, Denis Ostapenko, Arthur Makarenko, Neil D Sanscrainte, James J Becnel, Mark J Solomon, Catherine Texier, Darryl J Pappin, Dieter Söll
Microsporidia are parasitic fungi-like organisms that invade the interior of living cells and cause chronic disorders in a broad range of animals, including humans. These pathogens have the tiniest known genomes among eukaryotic species, for which they serve as a model for exploring the phenomenon of genome reduction in obligate intracellular parasites. Here we report a case study to show an apparent effect of overall genome reduction on the primary structure and activity of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, indispensable cellular proteins required for protein synthesis...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Karolina Bacela-Spychalska, Piotr Wróblewski, Tomasz Mamos, Michał Grabowski, Thierry Rigaud, Remi Wattier, Tomasz Rewicz, Alicja Konopacka, Mykola Ovcharenko
Microsporidia are common parasites infecting animals and protists. They are specifically common pathogens of amphipods (Crustacea, Malacostraca), with Dictyocoela spp. being particularly frequent and highly prevalent, exhibiting a range of phenotypic and ecological effects. Until now, seven species of Dictyocoela were defined, predominantly based on the genetic distance. However, neither the taxonomic status of this provisionally erected genus (based on eight novel sequences and one micrograph of the spore), nor its internal phylogenetic relationships have been clearly revealed...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael J MacLeod, Nguyen T K Vo, Michael S Mikhaeil, S Richelle Monaghan, J Andrew N Alexander, Mandeep K Saran, Lucy E J Lee
In vitro cell culture methods are crucial for the isolation, purification and mass propagation of intracellular pathogens of aquatic organisms. Cell culture infection models can yield insights into infection mechanisms, aid in developing methods for disease mitigation and prevention, and inform commercial-scale cultivation approaches. This study details the establishment of a larval cell line (GML-5) from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and its use in the study of microsporidia. GML-5 has survived over 100 passages in 8 years of culture...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Itzhel García-Torres, Ignacio De la Mora-De la Mora, Gloria Hernández-Alcántara, Dora Molina-Ortiz, Silvia Caballero-Salazar, Alfonso Olivos-García, Gabriela Nava, Gabriel López-Velázquez, Sergio Enríquez-Flores
The microsporidia are a large group of intracellular parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is the second microsporidia species most frequently associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans, especially immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals, including children and the elderly. The prevalence reported worldwide in these groups ranges from 0 to 60%. Currently, albendazole is most commonly used to treat microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon species...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Valentin Greigert, Alexander W Pfaff, Ahmed Abou-Bacar, Ermanno Candolfi, Julie Brunet
Microsporidia cause opportunistic infections in highly immunodeficient individuals. Few studies on the epidemiology of these infections have been conducted in France. Between 2014 and 2016, we undertook a study to estimate the prevalence and circulating genotypes of this fungus-related micro-organism among the population of Strasbourg University Hospital. Samples were collected from hospitalized patients and analyzed using microscopy and molecular assays. Strains from positive subjects were sequenced for genotyping...
June 6, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Michał Rachalewski, Jarosław Kobak, Eliza Szczerkowska-Majchrzak, Karolina Bącela-Spychalska
Temperature is a crucial factor determining biology and ecology of poikilothermic animals. It often constitutes an important barrier for invasive species originating from different climate zones but, on the other hand, may facilitate the invasion process of animals with wide thermal preferences and high resistance to extreme temperatures. In our experimental study, we investigated the thermal behaviour of two Ponto-Caspian amphipod crustaceans- Dikerogammarus villosus and Dikerogammarus haemobaphes . Both species are known to live under a wide range of thermal conditions which may promote their invasion...
2018: PeerJ
Kok Joo Chan, Sik Yong Ong, Binti Mahmud Rohela, Way Seah Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Yuliya Y Sokolova, Robin M Overstreet
We report a new microsporidium from a key species of the estuarine communities of the Gulf States, the Riverine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes paludosus. A milky-white shrimp was found in the Mobile Bay Delta, a large, oligohaline-freshwater wetland in Alabama, USA. Light microscopy of smears and thick sections of the abdominal tissues demonstrated infection with microsporidian spores enclosed in sporophorous vesicles (SVs) in sets of eight. Broadly oval spores measured 2.9 ± 0.06 x 1.7 ± 0.03 µm (2.5-3.3 x 1...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Roman Peschke, Carolina Le-Bert, Vanessa Fravel, Jeny Soto, Eric D Jensen, Jennifer E Flower, Randall Wells, Anja Joachim, Carolyn Cray
Little is known about microsporidiosis pathogenicity in cetaceans. Here we report seroprevalence of 76% for microsporidia in blood samples from common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus), from animals managed under human care ( n=108) or captured for health assessments ( n=13) and released.
May 9, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Melanie T Cushion, Andrew H Limper, Aleksey Porollo, Vivian E Saper, Anthony P Sinai, Louis M Weiss
The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-14) was held August 10-12, 2017 in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The IWOP meetings focus on opportunistic protists (OIs); for example, free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. The highlights of Pneumocystis spp. research included the reports of primary homothallism for mating; a potential requirement for sexual replication in its life cycle; a new antigen on the surface of small asci; roles for CLRs, Dectin-1, and Mincle in host responses; and identification of MSG families and mechanisms used for surface variation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jung-Sheng Chen, Bing-Mu Hsu, Hsin-Chi Tsai, Yu-Pin Chen, Tung-Yi Huang, Kuan-Ying Li, Dar-Der Ji, Herng-Sheng Lee
Vittaforma corneae belongs to microsporidia, which include over 1500 species of opportunistic obligate intracellular fungi infecting almost all known animal taxa. Although outbreaks of ocular infections caused by waterborne V. corneae have been reported in recent years, little is known about the occurrence of this pathogen in aquatic environments. In this study, 50 water samples from rivers and reservoirs around Taiwan in two seasons were analyzed to explore the presence of this pathogen in natural aquatic environments...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P Dean, K M Sendra, T A Williams, A K Watson, P Major, S Nakjang, E Kozhevnikova, A V Goldberg, E R S Kunji, R P Hirt, T M Embley
The acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer can impart entirely new biological functions and provide an important route to major evolutionary innovation. Here we have used ancient gene reconstruction and functional assays to investigate the impact of a single horizontally transferred nucleotide transporter into the common ancestor of the Microsporidia, a major radiation of intracellular parasites of animals and humans. We show that this transporter provided early microsporidians with the ability to steal host ATP and to become energy parasites...
April 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Jay D Evans, Qiang Huang
We previously identified microRNA (miRNA) from Nosema ceranae and found that knockdowns of transcripts for the parasite protein Dicer greatly reduce parasite reproduction. In order to study parasitic miRNA functions and identify candidate target genes, we fed honey bees infected with N. ceranae with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the N. ceranae gene Dicer . We then deep-sequenced honey bee and N. ceranae miRNAs daily across a full 6-day proliferation cycle. We found seven honey bee and five N. ceranae miRNAs that were significantly differently expressed between the infection and siRNA-Dicer groups...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jordan Leroy, Marjorie Cornu, Anne-Sophie Deleplancque, Aldert Bart, Séverine Loridant, Emilie Fréalle, Emmanuel Dutoit, Olivier Gaillot, Tom van Gool, François Puisieux, Pierre Labalette, Boualem Sendid
Microsporidia are protists close to the kingdom of fungi that may cause eye infections. Most cases are reported in Asia and affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Here, we report a rare case of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in an immunocompetent French patient 3 weeks after returning from India. In our patient, Weber trichrome staining of conjunctival scrapings revealed rounded elements approximately 1-3 μm in size. Conventional PCR analysis by ribosomal RNA subunit sequencing showed 100% identity with Vittaforma corneae ...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Shi Wang-Peng, Xuan Zheng, Wan-Tong Jia, Ao-Mei Li, Ibrahima Camara, Hong-Xing Chen, Shu-Qian Tan, Yi-Qing Liu, Rong Ji
BACKGROUND: Paranosema locustae Canning, 1953 (Microsporidia) provides effective control of grasshoppers. Horizontal transmission of P. locustae is known to occur, and evidence for the mechanism of this transmission via predatory natural enemies has been found. We conducted a 3-year laboratory and field study to assess the potential impact of feces from both grasshoppers Locusta migratoria L. and their natural enemies on the persistence of P. locustae. RESULTS: We found that P...
April 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
Kenji Nishikori, Davin H E Setiamarga, Takahiro Tanji, Eisuke Kuroda, Hirohisa Shiraishi, Ayako Ohashi-Kobayashi
Here, we describe a new microsporidium Percutemincola moriokae gen. nov., sp. nov., which was discovered in the intestinal and hypodermal cells of a wild strain of the nematode Oscheius tipulae that inhabits in the soil of Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The spores of Pe. moriokae had an average size of 1.0 × 3.8 µm and 1.3 × 3.2 µm in the intestine and hypodermis, respectively, and electron microscopy revealed that they exhibited distinguishing features with morphological diversity in the hypodermis...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Zaneta Kopacz, Martin Kvác, Bohumil Sak, Magdalena Sokulska, Kamil Cebulski, Andrzej B Hendrich, Andrzej Pozowski
Background: Among patients with hip joint endoprosthesis, periprosthetic osteolysis is the most common complication following primary arthroplasty, and subsequent implant loosening is the leading cause of arthroplasty revision. Causes of stability loss, though not always evident, can be mechanical, allergic, or infectious (bacterial and fungal agents) in nature. Microsporidia, widespread opportunistic fungal pathogens that infect most human tissues, are a potential infectious cause of stability loss...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ehsan Javanmard, Hamed Mirjalali, Maryam Niyyati, Esfandiar Jalilzadeh, Seyed Javad Seyed Tabaei, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: Human-infecting microsporidia are a group of spore-forming eukaryotic microorganisms that can infect both animals and humans. Recent evidences indicate waterborne transmission of microsporidia spores to human via either drinking water or irrigation of vegetable farms with contaminated water resources. The current study aimed to evaluate the presence of human-infecting microsporidia in treated wastewater (TW) and vegetable farms irrigated with treated wastewater during a year...
May 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Aneta A Ptaszyńska, Mariusz Trytek, Grzegorz Borsuk, Katarzyna Buczek, Katarzyna Rybicka-Jasińska, Dorota Gryko
The study of organic/inorganic molecules with activity against intracellular fungi of the phylum Microsporidia is of critical importance. Here, for the first time, the inactivation of these parasitic fungi by porphyrins is reported. The biological effects of porphyrins (10 µM and 100 µM) on the microsporidian Nosema ceranae was investigated in honeybee hosts using cage experiments. A significant reduction in the number of spores (from 2.6 to 5 fold) was observed in Nosema-infected honeybees with a sucrose-protoporphyrin amide [PP(Asp)2 ] syrup diet compared to the control honeybees...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
David Bass, Lucas Czech, Bryony A P Williams, Cédric Berney, Micah Dunthorn, Frederic Mahé, Guifré Torruella, Grant D Stentiford, Tom A Williams
Some protists with microsporidian-like cell biological characters, including Mitosporidium, Paramicrosporidium, and Nucleophaga, have SSU rRNA gene sequences that are much less divergent than canonical Microsporidia. We analysed the phylogenetic placement and environmental diversity of microsporidian-like lineages that group near the base of the fungal radiation and show that they group in a clade with metchnikovellids and canonical microsporidians, to the exclusion of the clade including Rozella, in line with what is currently known of their morphology and cell biology...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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