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Paul Dean, Robert P Hirt, T Martin Embley
Microsporidia are strict obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of eukaryotes including humans and economically important fish and insects. Surviving and flourishing inside another eukaryotic cell is a very specialised lifestyle that requires evolutionary innovation. Genome sequence analyses show that microsporidia have lost most of the genes needed for making primary metabolites, such as amino acids and nucleotides, and also that they have only a limited capacity for making adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
B Branchiccela, D Arredondo, M Higes, C Invernizzi, R Martín-Hernández, I Tomasco, P Zunino, K Antúnez
In recent years, large-scale colony losses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been reported and the infection with the microsporidia Nosema ceranae has been involved. However, the effect of N. ceranae at the colony level and its role in colony losses vary in different geographic areas. This difference may be related to the presence of multiple N. ceranae genetic variants resulting in different biological consequences. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 75 N. ceranae samples obtained from 13 countries and Hawaii through inter-sequence single repetition (ISSR) and evaluated if two of these genetic variants triggered different immune responses when infecting Apis mellifera iberiensis...
November 12, 2016: Microbial Ecology
S Khoury, T Graczyk, G Burnham, M Jurdi, L Goldman
Drinking water at Shatila Palestinian Refugee Camp in Beirut, Lebanon is of poor quality and unpredictably intermittent quantity. We aimed to characterize drinking water sources and contamination at Shatila and determine how drinking water can be managed to reduce community health burdens. We interviewed the Popular Committee, well owners, water vendors, water shopkeepers and preschool administrators about drinking water sources, treatment methods and the population served. Water samples from the sources and intermediaries were analysed for thermotolerant faecal coliforms (FCs), Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, using immunofluorescent antibody detection for G...
November 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Pattana Jaroenlak, Piyachat Sanguanrut, Bryony A P Williams, Grant D Stentiford, Timothy W Flegel, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn
Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease of cultivated shrimp. Heavy infections may lead to retarded growth and unprofitable harvests. Existing PCR detection methods target the EHP small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (SSU-PCR). However, we discovered that they can give false positive test results due to cross reactivity of the SSU-PCR primers with DNA from closely related microsporidia that infect other aquatic organisms. This is problematic for investigating and monitoring EHP infection pathways...
2016: PloS One
Meng Qi, Bo Jing, Fuchun Jian, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidia species in humans and has a variety of animal hosts. To assess the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. bieneusi in dairy calves in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, 514 fecal samples were collected from 15 farms and examined by polymerase chain reaction based on the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in calves was 16.5% (85/514). No significant difference in prevalence was observed between pre- and post-weaned calves...
October 26, 2016: Parasitology International
Keir M Balla, Robert J Luallen, Malina A Bakowski, Emily R Troemel
The growth of pathogens is dictated by their interactions with the host environment(1). Obligate intracellular pathogens undergo several cellular decisions as they progress through their life cycles inside host cells(2). We have studied this process for microsporidian species in the genus Nematocida as they grew and developed inside their co-evolved animal host, Caenorhabditis elegans(3-5). We found that microsporidia can restructure multicellular host tissues into a single contiguous multinucleate cell. In particular, we found that all three Nematocida species we studied were able to spread across the cells of C...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Emily R Troemel
Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi that infect virtually all animals. Recently, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed as a convenient model for studying microsporidia infection in a whole-animal host through the identification and characterization of a natural microsporidian pathogen of this commonly studied laboratory organism. The C. elegans natural microsporidian pathogen is named Nematocida parisii, and it causes a lethal intestinal infection in C...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Soledad Sagastume, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes, Nuno Henriques-Gil
BACKGROUND: There is great controversy as to whether Microsporidia undergo a sexual cycle. In the paradigmatic case of Nosema ceranae, although there is no morphological evidence of sex, some meiosis-specific genes are present in its reduced genome and there is also high intraspecific variability, with incongruent phylogenies having been systematically obtained. The possibility of sexual recombination is important from an epidemiological standpoint, particularly as N. ceranae is considered to be a major factor in the current disquieting epidemic of widespread bee colony losses...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
G D Stentiford, A Ramilo, E Abollo, R Kerr, K S Bateman, S W Feist, D Bass, A Villalba
The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Vincent Doublet, Robert J Paxton, Cynthia M McDonnell, Emeric Dubois, Sabine Nidelet, Robin F A Moritz, Cédric Alaux, Yves Le Conte
Regulation of gene expression in the brain plays an important role in behavioral plasticity and decision making in response to external stimuli. However, both can be severely affected by environmental factors, such as parasites and pathogens. In honey bees, the emergence and re-emergence of pathogens and potential for pathogen co-infection and interaction have been suggested as major components that significantly impaired social behavior and survival. To understand how the honey bee is affected and responds to interacting pathogens, we co-infected workers with two prevalent pathogens of different nature, the positive single strand RNA virus Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and the Microsporidia Nosema ceranae, and explored gene expression changes in brains upon single infections and co-infections...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Han Liu, Bosheng Chen, Sirui Hu, Xili Liang, Xingmeng Lu, Yongqi Shao
The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lidiana Flora Vidoto da Costa, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Elizabeth Cristina Perez, Mario Mariano, Maria Anete Lallo
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an opportunist intracellular pathogen of mammals. The adaptive immune response is essential to eliminate E. cuniculi, but evidence is mounting that the response initiated by the innate immune response may ultimately define whether or not the parasite can survive. B-1 cells may act as antigen-presenting cells or differentiate into phagocytes, playing different roles in many infection models. However, the role of these cells in the dynamics of Encephalitozoon sp. infections is still unknown...
September 28, 2016: Immunobiology
Kirill V Mikhailov, Timur G Simdyanov, Vladimir V Aleoshin
Metchnikovellidae are a group of unusual microsporidians that lack some of the defining ultrastructural features characteristic of derived Microsporidia and are thought to be one of their earliest-branching lineages. The basal position of metchnikovellids was never confirmed by molecular phylogeny in published research, and thus far no genomic data for this group were available. In this work we obtain a partial genome of metchnikovellid Amphiamblys sp. using multiple displacement amplification, next-generation sequencing, and metagenomic binning approaches...
September 30, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Heiko Vogel, Henrike Schmidtberg, Andreas Vilcinskas
The spread of the invasive harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) in Europe is accompanied by the decline of the native and non-invasive two-spotted ladybird (Adalia bipunctata). Here we show that microsporidia carried by H. axyridis can kill A. bipunctata following the oral uptake of spores, suggesting that their horizontal transmission via intraguild predation may help the invader to outcompete its native competitor. The native seven-spotted ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) is thought to be less susceptible both to the spread of H...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Manal El-Garhy, Ann Cali, Kareem Morsy, Abdel-Rahman Bashtar, Saleh Al Quraishy
Pleistophora macrozoarcidis a microsporidian parasite infecting the muscle tissue of the ocean pout Macrozoarces americanus collected from the Gulf of Maine of the Atlantic Ocean, MA, USA, was morphologically described on the basis of ultrastructural features. Infection was detected as opaque white or rusty brown lesions scattered throughout the musculature of the fish mainly in the region anterior to anus. Transmission electron microscopy showed that in individual parasitized muscle cells, the infection progresses within parasite formed vesicles which are in direct contact with muscle cell elements...
September 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Simon Jones, Hanna Ahonen, Lars Granlund, Tiina Arsiola, Jouni Taskinen
Two new species of Microsporidia were recognized in skeletal muscle of freshwater fishes from Finland. Myosporidium spraguei n. sp. from pike-perch Sander lucioperca occurred as mature spores within sporophorous vesicles (SPVs) within a xenoma. The ovoid spores were 3.8 µm long and 2.4 µm wide, based on transmission electron micrographs (TEM). The exospore and endospore were equally thick, the nucleus was monokaryotic and the polar filament was isofilar with 12 coils in a single rank, entirely adjacent to the prominent posterior vacuole...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Han Liu, Mingqian Li, Shunfeng Cai, Xinyi He, Yongqi Shao, Xingmeng Lu
Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular parasitic fungus that utilizes a distinctive mechanism to infect Bombyx mori Spore germination can be used for host cell invasion; however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. The ricin-B-lectin (RBL) gene is significantly differentially regulated after N. bombycis spore germination, and NbRBL might play roles in spore germination and infection. In this study, the biological function of NbRBL was examined. Protein sequence analysis showed that NbRBL is a secreted protein that attaches to carbohydrates...
September 20, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Kinga Leśniańska, Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak, Joanna Hildebrand, Katarzyna Buńkowska-Gawlik, Agnieszka Piróg, Marcin Popiołek
The raccoon (Procyon lotor) carnivore native to North America is a fast spreading, invasive species in the Europe now. At the moment, the highest population occupies areas near the German-Polish border. The data on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and microsporidia in raccoons is limited to North America's territory and is totally lacking in the case of their introduction to Europe. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of microparasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium spp. and microsporidia in the introduced raccoons obtained from localities in Poland and Germany...
December 2016: Parasitology Research
Ren Ren, Yazhou Sun, Yue Zhao, David Geiser, Hong Ma, Xiaofan Zhou
A comprehensive and reliable eukaryotic tree of life is important for many aspects of biological studies from comparative developmental and physiological analyses to translational medicine and agriculture. Both gene-rich and taxon-rich approaches are effective strategies to improve phylogenetic accuracy and are greatly facilitated by marker genes that are universally distributed, well conserved, and orthologous among divergent eukaryotes. In this article, we report the identification of 943 low-copy eukaryotic genes and we show that many of these genes are promising tools in resolving eukaryotic phylogenies, despite the challenges of determining deep eukaryotic relationships...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Jinshan Xu, Qiang He, Zhenggang Ma, Tian Li, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bettina A Debrunner-Vossbrinck, Zeyang Zhou, Charles R Vossbrinck
The microsporidian parasite designated here as Nosema sp. Isolate YNPr was isolated from the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae collected in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The genome was sequenced by Illumina sequencing and compared to those of two related members of the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade, Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis. Based upon assembly statistics, the Nosema sp. YNPr genome is 3.36 x 106bp with a G+C content of 23.18% and 2,075 protein coding sequences. An "ACCCTT" motif is present approximately 50-bp upstream of the start codon, as reported from other members of the clade and from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a sister taxon...
2016: PloS One
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