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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214976/stray-cats-are-more-frequently-infected-with-zoonotic-protists-than-pet-cats
#1
Martin Kvac, Lada Hofmannova, Ynes Ortega, Nikola Holubova, Michaela Horcickova, Marta Kicia, Lenka Hlaskova, Dana Kvetonova, Bohumil Sak, John McEvoy
Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C...
December 6, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203270/b-1-cells-upregulate-cd8-t-lymphocytes-and-increase-proinflammatory-cytokines-serum-levels-in-oral-encephalitozoonosis
#2
Denise Langanke Dos Santos, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, José Guilherme Xavier, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Giovani Bravin Peres, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elizabeth Christina Perez, Maria Anete Lallo
Microsporidia are intracellular pathogens that cause severe disease in immunocompromised humans and animals. We recently demonstrated that XID mice are more susceptible to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection by intraperitoneal route, evidencing the role of B-1 cells in resistance against infection. The present study investigated the resistance and susceptibility against E. cuniculi oral infection, including the role of B-1 cells. BALB/c and BALB/c XID (B-1 cells deficient) mice were orally infected with E. cuniculi spores...
December 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171834/the-genome-of-an-intranuclear-parasite-paramicrosporidium-saccamoebae-reveals-alternative-adaptations-to-obligate-intracellular-parasitism
#3
C Alisha Quandt, Denis Beaudet, Daniele Corsaro, Julia Walochnik, Rolf Michel, Nicolas Corradi, Timothy Y James
Intracellular parasitism often results in gene loss, genome reduction, and dependence upon the host for cellular functioning. Rozellomycota is a clade comprising many such parasites and is related to the diverse, highly reduced, animal parasites, Microsporidia. We sequenced the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Paramicrosporidium saccamoebae [Rozellomycota], an intranuclear parasite of amoebae. A canonical fungal mitochondrial genome was recovered from P. saccamoebae that encodes genes necessary for the complete oxidative phosphorylation pathway including Complex I, differentiating it from most endoparasites including its sequenced relatives in Rozellomycota and Microsporidia...
November 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171125/a-microsporidian-infection-in-phoronids-phylum-phoronida-microsporidium-phoronidi-n-sp-from-a-phoronis-embryolabi
#4
Elena N Temereva, Yuliya Y Sokolova
Microsporidia-like spores (2.0-3.0 x 1.3-1.5 μm) were discovered upon examination of histological sections taken from Phoronis embryolabi Temereva, Chichvarkhin 2017 found inhabiting burrows of shrimps Nihonotrypeae japonica (Decapoda, Callianassidae) from the Sea of Japan, Russia. Ultrastructural examination of spores revealed one nucleus and a uniform polar filament of 7-11 coils. Representatives of the phylum Phoronida have never been recorded as hosts of microsporidia. Parasites developed in vasoperitoneal tissue and caused formation of multinucleate syncytia...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146449/an-integrated-metabolic-consequence-of-hepatospora-eriocheir-infection-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#5
Zhengfeng Ding, Jing Pan, Hua Huang, Gongcheng Jiang, Jianqin Chen, Xueshen Zhu, Renlei Wang, Guohua Xu
Despite the economic and evolutionary importance of aquatic host-infecting microsporidian species, at present, limited information has been provided about the microsporidia-host interactions. This study focused on Hepatospora eriocheir, an emerging microsporidian pathogen for the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Hypertrophy of hepatopancreas cells was a common feature of H. eriocheir infection. More importantly, mitochondria of the hepatopancreas were drawn around the H. eriocheir, most likely to aid the uptake of ATP directly from the host...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130360/autophagy-and-innate-immunity-insights-from-invertebrate-model-organisms
#6
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Malene Hansen, Emily Troemel
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128528/amblyospora-khaliulini-microsporidia-amblyosporidae-investigations-on-its-life-cycle-and-ecology-in-aedes-communis-diptera-culicidae-and-acanthocyclops-vernalis-copepoda-cyclopidae-with-redescription-of-the-species
#7
Theodore G Andreadis, Michael C Thomas, John J Shepard
A multi-year study was conducted to examine the natural ecology of the microsporidium Amblyospora khaliulini and more fully characterize parasite development and histopathology in all stages of its primary mosquito host, Aedes communis and intermediate copepod host, Acanthocyclops vernalis with redescription of the species. A. khaliulini exhibits polymorphic development, produces three morphologically and functionally distinct spores, and is both horizontally and vertically transmitted. Development in A. vernalis is restricted to females, occurs within the ovaries and results in death of the host...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122615/ultrastructural-and-molecular-characterization-of-vairimorpha-austropotamobii-sp-nov-microsporidia-burenellidae-and-thelohania-contejeani-microsporidia-thelohaniidae-two-parasites-of-the-white-clawed-crayfish-austropotamobius-pallipes-complex-decapoda-astacidae
#8
Tobia Pretto, Francesco Montesi, Daniela Ghia, Valeria Berton, Miriam Abbadi, Michele Gastaldelli, Amedeo Manfrin, Gianluca Fea
The microsporidiosis of the endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex has generally been attributed to only one species, Thelohania contejeani, the agent of porcelain disease. Species identification was mostly assessed by macroscopic examination or microscopic evaluation of muscle samples rather than by molecular or ultrastructural analyses. A survey conducted on A. pallipes complex populations in Northern Italy highlighted the presence of two different microsporidia causing similar muscular lesions, T...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121996/production-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-encephalitozoon-intestinalis-and-encephalitozoon-sp-spores-and-their-developmental-stages
#9
Fernando Izquierdo, Hercules Moura, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, Rama Sriram, Carolina Hurtado, Ángela Magnet, Soledad Fenoy, Govinda Visvesvara, Carmen Del Aguila
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites traditionally associated with immunosuppressed patients; their detection in immunocompetent patients has increased, highlighting their possible importance as emerging pathogens. Detection of spores in stools, urine, body fluids and tissues is difficult and immunological techniques such as immunofluorescence have proved to be a useful and reliable tool in the diagnosis of human microsporidiosis. For this reason, we have produced and characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Encephalitozoon intestinalis (the second most frequent microsporidian infecting humans), and other Encephalitozoon species, that can be used in different diagnostic techniques...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055853/morphology-and-phylogeny-of-ameson-portunus-n-sp-microsporidia-infecting-the-swimming-crab-portunus-trituberculatus-from-china
#10
Yuan Wang, Xin-Cang Li, Guihong Fu, Shu Zhao, Yuange Chen, Hao Wang, Tiantian Chen, Junfang Zhou, Wenhong Fang
Ameson portunus n. sp. is a new microsporidian species that infects the skeletal muscle of Portunus trituberculatus, a pond-reared swimming crab from China. This parasite was characterized using morphological and molecular phylogenetic data. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that this microsporidian experienced disporogonic and polysporogonic (chain-like) life cycles. Mature uninucleate spores appeared ovoid, measured 1.4±0.06×1.0±0.07μm on ultrathin sections, and exhibited no dimorphism...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035867/natural-occurrence-of-microsporidia-infecting-lepidoptera-in-bulgaria
#11
Daniela Pilarska, Danail Takov, Miroslav Hyliš, Renate Radek, Ivan Fiala, Leellen Solter, Andreas Linde
We examined 34 lepidopteran species belonging to 12 families to determine presence and prevalence of microsporidian pathogens. The insects were collected from May 2009 to July 2012 from 44 sites in Bulgaria. Nosema species were isolated from Archips xylosteana, Tortrix viridana, Operophtera brumata, Orthosia cerasi, and Orthosia cruda. Endoreticulatus sp. was isolated from Eilema complana. The prevalence of all isolates in their hosts was low and ranged from 1.0% to 5.3%. Phylogenetic analyses of the new isolates based on SSU rDNA are presented...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032596/limited-effect-of-adaptive-immune-response-to-control-encephalitozoonosis
#12
B Sak, M Kotková, L Hlásková, M Kváč
This study revises our understanding of the effectiveness of cell-mediated adaptive immunity and treatment against microsporidia using molecular detection and quantification of microsporidia in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 and immunodeficient CD4(-/-) and CD8(-/-) mice for the first time. We demonstrate an intense dissemination of microsporidia into most organs within the first weeks post-infection in all strains of mice, followed by a chronic infection characterized by microsporidia persistence in CD4(-/-) and C57Bl/6 mice and a lethal outcome for CD8(-/-) mice...
October 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029610/infection-by-and-genotype-characteristics-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-hiv-aids-patients-from-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-china
#13
Hua Liu, Zhihua Jiang, Zhongying Yuan, Jianhai Yin, Zunfu Wang, Bingxue Yu, Dongsheng Zhou, Yujuan Shen, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been increasingly reported to infect humans and various mammals. Microsporidia cause diarrhea in HIV-infected patients worldwide. PCR amplification and sequencing based on the internal transcribed spacer region have been used to describe the genotypes of E. bieneusi and transmission of microsporidiosis. METHODS: In this study, we examined E. bieneusi infection and genotypes in HIV-positive patients in Guangxi, China. Stool specimens were collected from 285 HIV-positive patients and 303 HIV-negative individuals...
October 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026616/first-report-of-fatal-disseminated-microsporidiosis-in-two-inland-bearded-dragons-pogona-vitticeps-in-japan
#14
Kojiro Shibasaki, Toshihiro Tokiwa, Akihiro Sukegawa, Hirotaka Kondo, Kenichi Tamukai, Yumiko Haga, Kazunori Ike
Introduction.Encephalitozoon pogonae is a newly described pathogen belonging to the phylum Microsporidia. In Austria and the USA, this species has been isolated from fatal and disseminated cases of captive-bred inland bearded dragons. Here, we report the case of fatal disseminated microsporidiosis caused by E. pogonae in two bearded dragons in Japan. Case Presentation. The two lizards from different private households in Tokyo, Japan, had been brought to an animal hospital for examination. In both cases, the animal presented with a history of weight loss for several weeks...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984006/nosema-maddoxi-sp-nov-microsporidia-nosematidae-a-widespread-pathogen-of-the-green-stink-bug-chinavia-hilaris-say-and-the-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-halyomorpha-halys-st%C3%A3-l
#15
Ann E Hajek, Leellen F Solter, Joseph V Maddox, Wei-Fone Huang, Alden S Estep, Grzegorz Krawczyk, Donald C Weber, Kim A Hoelmer, Neil D Sanscrainte, James J Becnel
We describe a unique microsporidian species that infects the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and the dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus. All life stages are unikaryotic, but analysis of the consensus small subunit region of the ribosomal gene places this microsporidium in the genus Nosema, which historically has been characterized by diplokaryotic life stages. It is also characterized by having the reversed arrangement of the ribosomal gene (LSU -ITS- SSU) found in species within the "true Nosema" clade...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969771/zoonotic-microsporidia-in-dogs-and-cats-in-poland
#16
Jolanta Piekarska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesołowska, Żaneta Kopacz, Michał Gorczykowski, Barbara Szczepankiewicz, Martin Kváč, Bohumil Sak
This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Microsporidia were found in 10 (7.9%) out of the 126 examined stool samples. Of the 82 dogs, 4 (4.9%) and 2 (2.4%) were positive for E...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947404/asymptomatic-intestinal-carriage-of-microsporidia-in-hiv-positive-patients-in-tunisia-prevalence-species-and-pathogenesis
#17
S Aissa, N Chabchoub, R Abdelmalek, F Kanoun, A Goubantini, L Ammari, B Kilani, A Bouratbine, H Tiouiri-Ben Aissa, K Aoun
Asymptomatic carriage of microsporidia (ACM) has not been described in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) in Tunisia. To determine the prevalence of ACM in PLHIV followed at Tunis la Rabta hospital, describe its clinical features and course, and identify the species involved. This prospective study (2005-2009) included 71 asymptomatic PLHIV compared with 37 PLHIV with diarrhea. One stool sample per patient was examined by microscopy after Weber staining and by PCR. Species identification was confirmed by specific PCR and sequencing...
August 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944750/microsporidia-obligate-intracellular-pathogens-within-the-fungal-kingdom
#18
Bing Han, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens related to Fungi. These organisms have a unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which upon appropriate environmental stimulation rapidly discharges out of the spore, pierces a host cell's membrane, and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the host cell. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that microsporidia are related to the Fungi, being either a basal branch or sister group. Despite the description of microsporidia over 150 years ago, we still lack an understanding of the mechanism of invasion, including the role of various polar tube proteins, spore wall proteins, and host cell proteins in the formation and function of the invasion synapse...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942752/multiple-origins-of-parasitic-feminization-thelygeny-and-intersexuality-in-beach-hoppers-are-caused-by-paramyxid-parasites-not-microsporidia
#19
James Pickup, Joseph Edward Ironside
Within populations of the amphipod crustaceans Orchestia gammarellus and Orchestia aestuarensis, a proportion of females produce thelygenic (female-only) broods, which often contain intersexual individuals. This phenomenon is associated with the presence of two putative feminizing parasites, the paramyxid Paramarteilia orchestiae and the microsporidian Dictyocoela cavimanum, which frequently co-infect the same host. In order to determine which of the parasites causes feminization, Orchestia were resampled from the type locality of P...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942047/the-course-of-infection-caused-by-encephalitozoon-cuniculi-genotype-iii-in-immunocompetent-and-immunodeficient-mice
#20
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Lenka Hlásková, Martin Kváč
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. cuniculi III had very massive onset in immunocompetent host characterized by the presence of this parasite in all organs and tissues within one week after peroral infection. Encephalitozoonosis caused by E. cuniculi III had very progressive spreading into all organs within first week post inoculation in immunocompromised SCID mice and led to the death of the host...
November 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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