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Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy, Mahmoud A Gad
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to investigate the prevalence and species of intestinal microsporidiosis among animals in Giza, Egypt. METHODS: A total of 869 animal fecal samples were collected from domesticated animals (dogs, cats, rabbits, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, donkeys and pigs) living in Giza, Egypt. Spores of microsporidia were concentrated from collected samples by centrifugation and finally stained with modified trichrome (MT) stain to detect microsporidial spores...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Aaron W Reinke, Keir M Balla, Eric J Bennett, Emily R Troemel
Pathogens use a variety of secreted and surface proteins to interact with and manipulate their hosts, but a systematic approach for identifying such proteins has been lacking. To identify these 'host-exposed' proteins, we used spatially restricted enzymatic tagging followed by mass spectrometry analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with two species of Nematocida microsporidia. We identified 82 microsporidia proteins inside of intestinal cells, including several pathogen proteins in the nucleus. These microsporidia proteins are enriched in targeting signals, are rapidly evolving and belong to large Nematocida-specific gene families...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
Donglin Yang, Lixia Pan, Pai Peng, Xiaoqun Dang, Chunfeng Li, Tian Li, Mengxian Long, Jie Chen, Yujiao Wu, Huihui Du, Bo Luo, Yue Song, Rui Tian, Jie Luo, Zeyang Zhou, Guoqing Pan
All the members of microsporidia possess a unique, highly specialized invasion mechanism that involves the polar tube and spore wall. The interaction between spore wall proteins (SWPs) and polar tube proteins (PTPs) in the formation, arrangement, orderly orientation and function of the polar tube and spore wall remain to be determined. This study was undertaken to examine the protein interactions of the Nosema bombycis SWP7, SWP9 and PTPs. Co-immunoprecipitation, LC-MS/MS and yeast two hybrid data demonstrated that NbSWP9, but not NbSWP7, interacts with NbPTP1 and NbPTP2...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Sonali Khanduja, Ujjala Ghoshal, Uday C Ghoshal
Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi), infecting renal transplant (RT) recipients may be transmitted anthroponotically or zoonotically. Accordingly, we aimed to, a) evaluate genotypes of E. bieneusi ínfecting RT recipients, and b) infer phylogenetic interpretation on transmission of different genotypes among infected hosts. Stool samples of 22 RT recipients infected with microsporidia (identified using modified trichrome staining) were subjected to species identification. All E. bieneusi positive samples were subjected to genotyping...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
Joseph A Moss, Richard A Snyder
The development of molecular methodologies for targeting pathogens such as the Microsporidia has greatly improved our monitoring capabilities and initiatives. This study analyzed samples collected from 5 locations in Pensacola, Florida, USA for the presence of Microsporidian pathogens. To circumvent various impediments associated with water collection and filtration, we utilized biofilms as sentinels for detection of Microsporidia. We implemented membrane-dissolution and sample purification in a single confined step followed by real-time PCR to confirm pathogen presence...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jamie Bojko, Fraser Clark, David Bass, Alison M Dunn, Sarah Stewart-Clark, Paul D Stebbing, Grant D Stentiford
Parahepatospora carcini n. gen. n. sp., is a novel microsporidian parasite discovered infecting the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas of a single Carcinus maenas specimen. The crab was sampled from within its invasive range in Atlantic Canada (Nova Scotia). Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy were used to show the development of the parasite within a simple interfacial membrane, culminating in the formation of unikaryotic spores with 5-6 turns of an isofilar polar filament...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sergey A Timofeev, Igor V Senderskiy, Alexander A Tsarev, Yuri S Tokarev, Viacheslav V Dolgikh
Paranosema (Nosema, Antonospora) locustae is the only microsporidium produced as a commercial product for biological control. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of this pathogen and other invertebrate microsporidia on host cells remain uncharacterized. Previously, we immunolocalized P. locustae hexokinase in nuclei of Locusta migratoria infected adipocytes. Here, the microsporidian protein was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and in lepidopteran Sf9 cells. During heterologous expression, P. locustae hexokinase was accumulated in the nuclei of insect cells but not in yeast cell nuclei...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
George Kyei-Poku, Yuliya Y Sokolova
A microsporidium Nosema disstriae (Thomson) is a parasite of the forest tent caterpillar Malacasoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), a notable defoliator of deciduous trees in North America. The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of N. disstriae and to determine the position of this microsporidium within the N. bombycis clade (NBC) using comparative morphology and multiple molecular phylogenetic markers: RPB1, LSU-, ITS- and SSU-rDNA. As a part of this goal, the revision of the described members of the NBC has been performed...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sergey A Karpov, Guifré Torruella, David Moreira, Maria A Mamkaeva, Purificación López-García
Aphelids remain poorly known parasitoids of algae and have recently raised considerable interest due to their phylogenetic position at the base of Holomycota. Together with Cryptomycota (Rozellosporidia) and Microsporidia, they have been recently re-classified as the Opisthosporidia, which constitutes the sister group to the fungi within the Holomycota. Molecular environmental studies have revealed a huge diversity of aphelids, but only four genera have been described: Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, Paraphelidium and Pseudaphelidium...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Çağrı Bekircan, Ufuk Bülbül, Halil I Güler, James J Becnel
This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Giemsa-stained mature spores are oval in shape and measured 3.40 ± 0.37 μm in length and 1.63 ± 0.20 μm in width. These uninucleate spores have an isofilar polar filament with 11 turns...
December 16, 2016: Parasitology Research
Gaotian Zhang, Martin Sachse, Marie-Christine Prevost, Robert J Luallen, Emily R Troemel, Marie-Anne Félix
Microsporidia are fungi-related intracellular pathogens that may infect virtually all animals, but are poorly understood. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has recently become a model host for studying microsporidia through the identification of its natural microsporidian pathogen Nematocida parisii. However, it was unclear how widespread and diverse microsporidia infections are in C. elegans or other related nematodes in the wild. Here we describe the isolation and culture of 47 nematodes with microsporidian infections...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Pooja Yadav, Shehla Khalil, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Paul Dean, Robert P Hirt, T Martin Embley
Microsporidia are strict obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of eukaryotes including humans and economically important fish and insects. Surviving and flourishing inside another eukaryotic cell is a very specialised lifestyle that requires evolutionary innovation. Genome sequence analyses show that microsporidia have lost most of the genes needed for making primary metabolites, such as amino acids and nucleotides, and also that they have only a limited capacity for making adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
B Branchiccela, D Arredondo, M Higes, C Invernizzi, R Martín-Hernández, I Tomasco, P Zunino, K Antúnez
In recent years, large-scale colony losses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been reported and the infection with the microsporidia Nosema ceranae has been involved. However, the effect of N. ceranae at the colony level and its role in colony losses vary in different geographic areas. This difference may be related to the presence of multiple N. ceranae genetic variants resulting in different biological consequences. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 75 N. ceranae samples obtained from 13 countries and Hawaii through inter-sequence single repetition (ISSR) and evaluated if two of these genetic variants triggered different immune responses when infecting Apis mellifera iberiensis...
November 12, 2016: Microbial Ecology
S Khoury, T Graczyk, G Burnham, M Jurdi, L Goldman
Drinking water at Shatila Palestinian Refugee Camp in Beirut, Lebanon is of poor quality and unpredictably intermittent quantity. We aimed to characterize drinking water sources and contamination at Shatila and determine how drinking water can be managed to reduce community health burdens. We interviewed the Popular Committee, well owners, water vendors, water shopkeepers and preschool administrators about drinking water sources, treatment methods and the population served. Water samples from the sources and intermediaries were analysed for thermotolerant faecal coliforms (FCs), Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, using immunofluorescent antibody detection for G...
November 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Pattana Jaroenlak, Piyachat Sanguanrut, Bryony A P Williams, Grant D Stentiford, Timothy W Flegel, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn
Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease of cultivated shrimp. Heavy infections may lead to retarded growth and unprofitable harvests. Existing PCR detection methods target the EHP small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (SSU-PCR). However, we discovered that they can give false positive test results due to cross reactivity of the SSU-PCR primers with DNA from closely related microsporidia that infect other aquatic organisms. This is problematic for investigating and monitoring EHP infection pathways...
2016: PloS One
Meng Qi, Bo Jing, Fuchun Jian, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidia species in humans and has a variety of animal hosts. To assess the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. bieneusi in dairy calves in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, 514 fecal samples were collected from 15 farms and examined by polymerase chain reaction based on the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in calves was 16.5% (85/514). No significant difference in prevalence was observed between pre- and post-weaned calves...
February 2017: Parasitology International
Keir M Balla, Robert J Luallen, Malina A Bakowski, Emily R Troemel
The growth of pathogens is dictated by their interactions with the host environment(1). Obligate intracellular pathogens undergo several cellular decisions as they progress through their life cycles inside host cells(2). We have studied this process for microsporidian species in the genus Nematocida as they grew and developed inside their co-evolved animal host, Caenorhabditis elegans(3-5). We found that microsporidia can restructure multicellular host tissues into a single contiguous multinucleate cell. In particular, we found that all three Nematocida species we studied were able to spread across the cells of C...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Emily R Troemel
Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi that infect virtually all animals. Recently, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed as a convenient model for studying microsporidia infection in a whole-animal host through the identification and characterization of a natural microsporidian pathogen of this commonly studied laboratory organism. The C. elegans natural microsporidian pathogen is named Nematocida parisii, and it causes a lethal intestinal infection in C...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Soledad Sagastume, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes, Nuno Henriques-Gil
BACKGROUND: There is great controversy as to whether Microsporidia undergo a sexual cycle. In the paradigmatic case of Nosema ceranae, although there is no morphological evidence of sex, some meiosis-specific genes are present in its reduced genome and there is also high intraspecific variability, with incongruent phylogenies having been systematically obtained. The possibility of sexual recombination is important from an epidemiological standpoint, particularly as N. ceranae is considered to be a major factor in the current disquieting epidemic of widespread bee colony losses...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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