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Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Andreas Mitschke, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Gerrit Joop
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are obligate parasites that possess some of the smallest eukaryotic genomes. Several insect species are susceptible to infections by microsporidian parasites. Paranosema whitei frequently infects young larvae of Tribolium castaneum and obligately kills the host whereupon transmission to subsequent hosts is accomplished via spores. P. whitei infection results in developmental arrest of T. castaneum, preventing larvae from pupation. The mechanisms underlying P...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Guoqing Pan, Jialing Bao, Zhengang Ma, Yue Song, Bing Han, Maoshuang Ran, Chunfeng Li, Zeyang Zhou
Microsporidia are a group of fungi-like intracellular and unicellular parasites, which infect nearly all animals. As the "master parasites", more than 1400 microsporidian species were described. Microsporidia infections in economical invertebrates (e.g., silkworm, shrimp) caused huge losses, while other microsporidia infections in daphnia, nematode, locust, honeybee and mosquito play important roles in the regulation of their population size. Researches on the invertebrate host responses to Microsporidia infections obtained plenty of interesting results, especially in the innate immune response to these pathogens...
February 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
A Fletcher, S Bjørnson
In North America, more than 70 species of natural enemies are available for pest control, including the aphid predators, Adalia bipunctata L. (two-spotted lady beetle) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (convergent lady beetle), and the generalist predator Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (green lacewing). The two lady beetle species are known to host microsporidian pathogens: Nosema adaliae was originally described from Adalia bipunctata and Tubulinosema hippodamiae from H. convergens. Microsporidia are spore-forming pathogens that typically produce chronic, debilitating disease...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ibrahim Hamad, Rita Abou Abdallah, Isabelle Ravaux, Saadia Mokhtari, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Caroline Michelle, Andreas Stein, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult, Fadi Bittar
Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have not yet been conducted in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, eukaryotic community profiling is influenced by the use of different methodologies at each step of culture-independent techniques. Herein, initially, four DNA extraction protocols were compared to test the efficiency of each method in recovering eukaryotic DNA from fecal samples...
2018: PloS One
Anastasia V Simakova, Yuri S Tokarev, Irma V Issi
Infection with a new microsporidium, Fibrillaspora daphniae g. n. sp. n., was found in a local Daphnia magna population in Tomsk region (Western Siberia, Russia) at the prevalence rate of 52%. Histological sections showed parasite cells entirely encompassing the host haemocoel. Methanol-fixed spores were elongate, oval, 4.8 ± 0.3 μm × 2.3 ± 0.2 μm in size. All developmental stages were in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm, with single nuclei, and division by binary fission. The sporont surface was covered with an additional outer layer composed of fine tubules...
January 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ze-Dong Wang, Quan Liu, Huan-Huan Liu, Shuang Li, Li Zhang, Yong-Kun Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea caused by opportunistic intestinal protozoa is a common problem in HIV infection. We aimed to establish the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, misrosporidia, and Isospora in HIV-infected people using a systematic review and meta-analysis, which is central to developing public policy and clinical services. METHODS: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP databases for studies reporting Cryptosporidium, microsporidia, or Isospora infection in HIV-infected people...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
M Nooshadokht, I Sharifi, M A Mohammadi, M Pirestani, A Afgar, A Mahootchi, S Salari
Background and Purpose: Gastroenteritis and the clinical profile caused by Microsporidia, an opportunistic pathogen, may be severe in immunocompromised individuals, especially in AIDS patients. Conventionally, it is necessary to detect the small infective spores in stained smears. However, due to the limitations of the microscopy-based methods, several DNA-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have recently been developed to enhance diagnosis sensitivity. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the rate of infection in immunocompromised patients as compared with immunocompetent patients in Kerman, Iran...
March 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
Elise E B LaDouceur, Brian G Murphy
Microsporidia are a diverse, parasitic phylum closely related to fungi. They infect a broad range of host species and tissues. This report describes microsporidiosis infection in a captive, wild-caught peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata spp.). The animal was found dead in its enclosure approximately 5 days after molting. Grossly, the skeletal musculature was diffusely swollen, opaque, and pale tan to white. Histologically, skeletal myofibers were replaced by large aggregates of sporophorous vesicles containing up to eight spores and earlier stages of sporogony...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Kangkang Chen, Zhiqiang Lu
The silkworm Bombyx mori, an economically important insect that is usually reared indoors, is susceptible to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and microsporidia. As with other insects, the silkworm lacks an adaptive immune system and relies solely on innate immunity to defend itself against infection. Compared to other intensively studied insects, such as the fruit fly and tobacco hornworm, the principal immune pathways in the silkworm remain unclear. In this article, we review the literature concerning silkworm immune responses to bacteria and fungi and present our perspectives on future research into silkworm immunity...
December 28, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Chainarong Sinpoo, Robert J Paxton, Terd Disayathanoowat, Sasiprapa Krongdang, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting midgut epithelial cells of host adult honey bees, originally Apis mellifera and Apis cerana respectively. Each microsporidia cross-infects the other host and both microsporidia nowadays have a worldwide distribution. In this study, cross-infection experiments using both N. apis and N. ceranae in both A. mellifera and A. cerana were carried out to compare pathogen proliferation and impact on hosts, including host immune response...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Joseph E Ironside, Toby J Wilkinson
In the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, amphipod crustaceans have undergone a spectacular adaptive radiation, resulting in a diverse community of species. A survey of microsporidian parasites inhabiting endemic and non-endemic amphipod host species at the margins of Lake Baikal indicates that the endemic amphipods harbour many microsporidian parasite groups associated with amphipods elsewhere in Eurasia. While these parasites may have undergone a degree of adaptive radiation within the lake, there is little evidence of host specificity...
December 20, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Masoomeh Ghaderipour, Khadijeh Khanaliha, Mehdi Mohebali, Saeedeh Shojaee, Maryam Barkhori, Hamed Mirjalali, Mostafa Rezaeian
Background: Microsporidia have been reported as the cause of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients in Iran and other countries. There is no data on prevalence of intestinal microsporidia in healthy population of Iran. This study aimed to provide preliminary data on the present status of microsporidia infection in the local healthy population in Jiroft, Kerman Province from southeastern Iran in 2013-2014. Methods: Fresh stool samples were randomly collected from 418 residents in rural 209 (50%) and urban 209 (50%) areas of Jiroft...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Xian-Zhi Meng, Bo Luo, Xiang-You Tang, Qiang He, Ting-Rong Xiong, Zhuo-Ya Fang, Guoqing Pan, Tian Li, Ze-Yang Zhou
Microsporidia Nosema bombycis CQ1 can be vertically transmitted in silkworm Bombyx mori but Vairimorpha necatrix BM cannot. Therefore, the pathological differences in silkworm infected with these two microsporidia required clarification. Here, we compared the virulence of N. bombycis CQ1 and V. necatrix BM against silkworm. The pathological characteristics in intestine, testis and ovary were surveyed using paraffin sections, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Our data firstly showed that the virulence of V...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Hilal Baki, Çağrı Bekircan
A new microsporidium was isolated from Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a pest of Galega officinalis L. in Turkey. Infection in larval and adult stages was systemic with mature spores produced in the midgut, gonads, Malpighian tubules and, most extensively, fat body tissues. The microsporidium was polymorphic with two sporulation sequences producing two types of spores, binucleate spores with 13-15 coils of the polar tube, and uninucleate spores with 7 coils of the polar tube that developed within a sporophorous vesicle (SPV) to form meiospores...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
G D Stentiford, S Ross, D Minardi, S W Feist, K S Bateman, P A Gainey, C Troman, D Bass
Within aquatic habitats, the hyper-abundant Order Crustacea appear to be the predominant host group for members of the Phylum Microsporidia. The musculature, a common site of infection, provides access to biochemical (carbohydrate-rich) and physiological (mitochondria-rich) conditions conducive to prolific parasite replication and maturation. The significant proportion of body plan devoted to skeletal musculature in Crustacea provides the location for a highly efficient intracellular parasite factory. In this study, we utilize histological, ultrastructural and phylogenetic evidence to describe a previously known (Inodosporus octospora) and novel (Ovipleistophora arlo n...
December 18, 2017: Parasitology
Martin F Heyworth
With the transformation of HIV infection from an acutely life-threatening disease into a chronic condition (as a consequence of the development of effective antiretroviral medication), the perceived clinical importance of diagnosing and treating microsporidian infections diminished, at least in industrialized countries. In locales where effective antiretroviral therapy is not available, as well as in patients with immunodeficiency for reasons other than HIV infection (e.g., following organ transplantation), and in individuals with suspected ocular microsporidiosis, diagnosing microsporidian infections remains a clinical priority...
December 13, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mónica Santín, Rafael Calero-Bernal, David Carmena, Marta Mateo, Ana Balseiro, Marta Barral, José Francisco Lima Barbero, Miguel Ángel Habela
Microsporidia comprises a diverse group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of invertebrates and vertebrates. Among Microsporidia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently detected species in humans and animals worldwide bringing into question the possible role of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen. Although E. bieneusi is an emerging zoonotic pathogen able to infect many domestic and wild mammals that could act as reservoir of infection for humans and other animals, only few studies have documented its occurrence in wild carnivores...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Martin Kvac, Lada Hofmannova, Ynes Ortega, Nikola Holubova, Michaela Horcickova, Marta Kicia, Lenka Hlaskova, Dana Kvetonova, Bohumil Sak, John McEvoy
Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C...
December 6, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Denise Langanke Dos Santos, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, José Guilherme Xavier, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Giovani Bravin Peres, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Elizabeth Cristina Perez, Maria Anete Lallo
Microsporidia are intracellular pathogens that cause severe disease in immunocompromised humans and animals. We recently demonstrated that XID mice are more susceptible to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection by intraperitoneal route, evidencing the role of B-1 cells in resistance against infection. The present study investigated the resistance and susceptibility against E. cuniculi oral infection, including the role of B-1 cells. BALB/c and BALB/c XID (B-1 cells deficient) mice were orally infected with E...
December 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
C Alisha Quandt, Denis Beaudet, Daniele Corsaro, Julia Walochnik, Rolf Michel, Nicolas Corradi, Timothy Y James
Intracellular parasitism often results in gene loss, genome reduction, and dependence upon the host for cellular functioning. Rozellomycota is a clade comprising many such parasites and is related to the diverse, highly reduced, animal parasites, Microsporidia. We sequenced the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Paramicrosporidium saccamoebae [Rozellomycota], an intranuclear parasite of amoebae. A canonical fungal mitochondrial genome was recovered from P. saccamoebae that encodes genes necessary for the complete oxidative phosphorylation pathway including Complex I, differentiating it from most endoparasites including its sequenced relatives in Rozellomycota and Microsporidia...
November 24, 2017: ELife
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