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Xinhua Liu, Congjie Hua, Qianqian Zhang, Yuanli Zhao, Dong Zhang, Jinyong Zhang
Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10...
January 10, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Chan-Hyeok Jeon, Jeung-Wan Do, U-Hwa Nam, Wi-Sik Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim
We developed a PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of Kudoa iwatai (Multivalvulida: Myxozoa) and investigated the prevalence of infection in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus, which is commercially an important aquaculture species in Korea, with this assay. Detection limit of the PCR assay was 2.5 fg/μl with plasmid DNA and 8.6 × 10(3) spores/ml with purified spores, respectively. This PCR assay did not amplify DNA of other Kudoa species (Kudoa septempunctata, Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) tested. Sliced muscles of whole body from 318 rock bream (wild and cultured) were examined by this PCR assay and also with the naked eyes...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
A Hartigan, I Estensoro, M Vancová, T Bílý, S Patra, E Eszterbauer, A S Holzer
Cellular motility is essential for microscopic parasites, it is used to reach the host, migrate through tissues, or evade host immune reactions. Many cells employ an evolutionary conserved motor protein- actin, to crawl or glide along a substrate. We describe the peculiar movement of Sphaerospora molnari, a myxozoan parasite with proliferating blood stages in its host, common carp. Myxozoa are highly adapted parasitic cnidarians alternately infecting vertebrates and invertebrates. S. molnari blood stages (SMBS) have developed a unique "dancing" behaviour, using the external membrane as a motility effector to rotate and move the cell...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Akihiro Kasai, Aogu Setsuda, Hiroshi Sato
Molecular genetic characterization using the ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene accrues a wealth of knowledge regarding the true nature of species diversity of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) and the biogeographical relationships of isolates from different host fish and sea areas. In the present study, we characterized morphologically and genetically three Kudoa spp. with four shell valves and polar capsules (SV/PC), forming pseudocysts in the myofiber of trunk muscles of Cheilodactylus zonatus or Acanthogobius hasta in the natural seawater around Japan...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
Sneha Patra, Ashlie Hartigan, David J Morris, Alena Kodádková, Astrid S Holzer
This paper provides the first detailed description of a Tetracapsuloides species, Tetracapsuloides vermiformis n. sp., with vermiform stages in the bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, and its experimental transmission from F. sultana to Cyprinus carpio. The suitability of morphological, biological and 18S rDNA sequence data for discrimination between malacosporean species is reviewed and recommendations are given for future descriptions. Presently, malacosporean species cannot be differentiated morphologically due to their cryptic nature and the lack of differential characters of spores and spore-forming stages in both hosts...
November 15, 2016: Parasitology
E A Adriano, B Okamura
The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level...
February 2017: Parasitology
Mandira Saha, P K Bandyopadhyay
Severe infections by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genera Myxozoa are causing serious problems in ornamental fish reared in breeding farms. Histopathological study is being used for diagnosis of the severity of diseases. Myxozoan infections result in large scale histopathological damages in different fish tissues. No information is available regarding the histopathological changes of goldfish due to infection with myxozoans. The present study deals with the histopathological changes of the gill, fin, and skin of goldfish, infected with myxozoan parasites along with an ultrastructural study using scanning electron microscope...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
Xin-Hua Liu, Marina-D Batueva, Yuan-Li Zhao, Jin-Yong Zhang, Qian-Qian Zhang, Tong-Tong Li, Ai-Hua Li
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a well-known economically and ecologically important group of metazoan parasites, phylogenetically related to Cnidaria. High diversity of myxosporeans has been recorded in Russia and China; however, most of the species were solely morphologically characterised. Here, we identified a new gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus species and morphologically and molecularly compared the Russian and Chinese isolates of this new myxosporean. RESULTS: Myxobolus pronini n...
October 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jonathan Ben-David, Stephen D Atkinson, Yulia Pollak, Gilad Yossifon, Uri Shavit, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a speciose group of endoparasitic cnidarians that can cause severe ecological and economic effects. Although highly reduced compared to free-living cnidarians, myxozoans have retained the phylum-defining stinging organelles, known as cnidae or polar capsules, which are essential to initiating host infection. To explore the adaptations of myxozoan polar capsules, we compared the structure, firing process and content release mechanism of polar tubules in myxospores of three Myxobolus species including M...
October 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jorge Costa Eiras, Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto, Rubens Riscala Madi, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo, Cláudia Moura de Melo, Jônatas Dos Santos de Souza, José Antonio Picanço Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro Diniz
This study reports on Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the fish species Lutjanus analis, Bagre marinus, Aspistor luniscutis and Lutjanus jocu, which were caught in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil. The parasites formed oval plasmodia around the esophagus of L. analis, and elongated plasmodia inside the skeletal muscle of B. marinus, A. luniscutis and L. jocu. Host myoliquefaction was not observed in all the cases studied. The current study provides a morphological and morphometric description of each parasite as well as a comparison with all the species described worldwide...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Hannah Wünnemann, Astrid Sybille Holzer, Hana Pecková, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Ulrich Eskens, Michael Lierz
BACKGROUND: Wildlife repatriation represents an opportunity for parasites. Reintroduced hosts are expected to accumulate generalist parasites via spillover from reservoir hosts, whereas colonization with specialist parasites is unlikely. We address the question of how myxozoan parasites, which are characterized by a complex life-cycle alternating between annelids and fish, can invade a reintroduced fish species and determine the impact of a de novo invasion on parasite diversity. We investigated the case of the anadromous allis shad, Alosa alosa (L...
September 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Chiraz Yemmen, Yann Quilichini, Bernard Marchand, Sihem Bahri
Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa aegyptiaca Yemmen, Marton, Eszterbauer and Bahri, 2012 infecting the gallbladder of Solea aegyptiaca Chabanaud, 1927 from a tunisian north-east costal lagoon, was presented in this study. The primary cell was attached to the gallbladder epithelium and presented at one side cytoplasmic projections corresponding to pinocytotic invaginations. Netherless, early sporogonic stages development was carried with contact to the epithelial cells of gallbladder. Immature spores were identified in early sporoblasts by their valvogenic, capsulogenic and binucleated sporoplasmic cells...
September 5, 2016: Zootaxa
T A Mo, A Jørgensen
The malacosporean Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae was detected in kidneys from Atlantic salmon parr in 64 of 91 sampled Norwegian rivers. Using real-time PCR, this parasite was found to be present in Atlantic salmon parr in rivers along the whole coast, from the northernmost and southernmost areas of the country. In addition, T. bryosalmonae was found in kidneys from brown trout parr in 17 of 19 sampled rivers in south-east Norway, and in Arctic charr sampled in the River Risfjordelva, located at the northernmost edge of the European mainland...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Dandan Zhao, Muhammad Hafiz Borkhanuddin, Weimin Wang, Yang Liu, Gábor Cech, Yanhua Zhai, Csaba Székely
Thelohanellus kitauei is a freshwater myxosporean parasite causing intestinal giant cystic disease of common carp. To clarify the life cycle of T. kitauei, we investigated the oligochaete populations in China and Hungary. This study confirms two distinct aurantiactinomyxon morphotypes (Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 and Aurantiactinomyxon type 2) from Branchiura sowerbyi as developmental stages of the life cycle of T. kitauei. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these two types are described here...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Ramla Azizi, Luis F Rangel, Ricardo Castro, Maria J Santos, Sihem Bahri
We describe a new myxosporean species, Zschokkella trachini n. sp., infecting the gallbladder of greater weever Trachinus draco Linnaeus 1758 from Tunisia. This is the first record of Zschokkella species in T. draco. Plasmodia were polysporic producing six to eight mature spores; they were attached to the gallbladder epithelium or free floating in the bile. Mature spores were sub-ovoid in the frontal view, measured 15.2 ± 0.6 (14.4-16.0) μm in length and 9.8 ± 0.7 (9.0-10.8) μm in width. Two equal spherical polar capsules 4...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Csaba Szekely, Stephen D Atkinson, Kalman Molnar, Laszlo Egyed, Andras Gubanyi, Gabor Cech
Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S...
June 13, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
Barbara Forro, Edit Eszterbauer
Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 (Myxozoa) is capable of infecting and developing mature myxospores in several cyprinid species. However, M. pseudodispar isolates from different fish show up to 5% differences in the SSU rDNA sequences. This is an unusually large intraspecific difference for myxozoans and only some of the muscle-dwelling myxozoan species possess such a high genetic variability. We intended to study the correlation between the host specificity and the phylogenetic relationship of the parasite isolates, and to find experimental proof for the putatively wide host range of M...
June 2, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
A Özer, C T Gürkanlı, H Özkan, G Acar, Y Çiftçi, V Yurakhno
Members of the phylum Myxozoa are among the most cosmopolitan parasites of fish, and the genus Myxobolus is the largest within the class Myxosporea in freshwater and marine environment from all over the world. Myxobolus parvus has been reported from mainly mugilid fishes from different localities including the Black Sea. Leaping mullet Liza saliens collected by fishermen off Sinop coasts of the Black Sea in the period between September 2014 and December 2015 was investigated for myxosporean parasites using conventional methods...
September 2016: Parasitology Research
José Ledamir Sindeaux, Michele Velasco, José Mauro Vianna da Silva, Patricia de Fátima Saco Dos Santos, Osimar Sanches, Patricia Matos, Edilson Matos
The genus Myxobolus, parasites that infect fishes, which cause myxobolosis, includes spore organisms belonging to the phylum Myxozoa and represents approximately 36% of all species described for the entire phylum. This study describes lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Myxobolus sp. infection in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system, CNS) of Eigenmannia sp., from the Amazon estuary region, in the Administrative District of Outeiro (DAOUT), Belém, Pará, Brazil. In May and June 2015, 40 Eigenmannia sp...
April 12, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Kareem Morsy, Margit Semmler, Ebtsam Al-Olayan, Heinz Mehlhorn
The phylum Myxozoa comprises more than 2180 species, almost all of which are considered to be obligate parasites of aquatic fishes. In the present study, Henneguya collaris sp. nov. is the first described histozoic myxozoan species of the genus Henneguya infecting the kidney of the greenband parrotfish Scarus collana (Actinopterygii, Scaridae). One hundred and eighty specimens of fish were collected randomly during the period from September 2014 to October 2015 from boat landing sites and the market places at Hurghada City along the Red Sea in Egypt...
June 2016: Parasitology Research
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