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Jonathan Ben-David, Stephen D Atkinson, Yulia Pollak, Gilad Yossifon, Uri Shavit, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a speciose group of endoparasitic cnidarians that can cause severe ecological and economic effects. Although highly reduced compared to free-living cnidarians, myxozoans have retained the phylum-defining stinging organelles, known as cnidae or polar capsules, which are essential to initiating host infection. To explore the adaptations of myxozoan polar capsules, we compared the structure, firing process and content release mechanism of polar tubules in myxospores of three Myxobolus species including M...
October 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jorge Costa Eiras, Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto, Rubens Riscala Madi, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo, Cláudia Moura de Melo, Jônatas Dos Santos de Souza, José Antonio Picanço Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro Diniz
This study reports on Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the fish species Lutjanus analis, Bagre marinus, Aspistor luniscutis and Lutjanus jocu, which were caught in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil. The parasites formed oval plasmodia around the esophagus of L. analis, and elongated plasmodia inside the skeletal muscle of B. marinus, A. luniscutis and L. jocu. Host myoliquefaction was not observed in all the cases studied. The current study provides a morphological and morphometric description of each parasite as well as a comparison with all the species described worldwide...
October 10, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Hannah Wünnemann, Astrid Sybille Holzer, Hana Pecková, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Ulrich Eskens, Michael Lierz
BACKGROUND: Wildlife repatriation represents an opportunity for parasites. Reintroduced hosts are expected to accumulate generalist parasites via spillover from reservoir hosts, whereas colonization with specialist parasites is unlikely. We address the question of how myxozoan parasites, which are characterized by a complex life-cycle alternating between annelids and fish, can invade a reintroduced fish species and determine the impact of a de novo invasion on parasite diversity. We investigated the case of the anadromous allis shad, Alosa alosa (L...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Chiraz Yemmen, Yann Quilichini, Bernard Marchand, Sihem Bahri
Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa aegyptiaca Yemmen, Marton, Eszterbauer and Bahri, 2012 infecting the gallbladder of Solea aegyptiaca Chabanaud, 1927 from a tunisian north-east costal lagoon, was presented in this study. The primary cell was attached to the gallbladder epithelium and presented at one side cytoplasmic projections corresponding to pinocytotic invaginations. Netherless, early sporogonic stages development was carried with contact to the epithelial cells of gallbladder. Immature spores were identified in early sporoblasts by their valvogenic, capsulogenic and binucleated sporoplasmic cells...
2016: Zootaxa
T A Mo, A Jørgensen
The malacosporean Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae was detected in kidneys from Atlantic salmon parr in 64 of 91 sampled Norwegian rivers. Using real-time PCR, this parasite was found to be present in Atlantic salmon parr in rivers along the whole coast, from the northernmost and southernmost areas of the country. In addition, T. bryosalmonae was found in kidneys from brown trout parr in 17 of 19 sampled rivers in south-east Norway, and in Arctic charr sampled in the River Risfjordelva, located at the northernmost edge of the European mainland...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Dandan Zhao, Muhammad Hafiz Borkhanuddin, Weimin Wang, Yang Liu, Gábor Cech, Yanhua Zhai, Csaba Székely
Thelohanellus kitauei is a freshwater myxosporean parasite causing intestinal giant cystic disease of common carp. To clarify the life cycle of T. kitauei, we investigated the oligochaete populations in China and Hungary. This study confirms two distinct aurantiactinomyxon morphotypes (Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 and Aurantiactinomyxon type 2) from Branchiura sowerbyi as developmental stages of the life cycle of T. kitauei. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these two types are described here...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Ramla Azizi, Luis F Rangel, Ricardo Castro, Maria J Santos, Sihem Bahri
We describe a new myxosporean species, Zschokkella trachini n. sp., infecting the gallbladder of greater weever Trachinus draco Linnaeus 1758 from Tunisia. This is the first record of Zschokkella species in T. draco. Plasmodia were polysporic producing six to eight mature spores; they were attached to the gallbladder epithelium or free floating in the bile. Mature spores were sub-ovoid in the frontal view, measured 15.2 ± 0.6 (14.4-16.0) μm in length and 9.8 ± 0.7 (9.0-10.8) μm in width. Two equal spherical polar capsules 4...
July 8, 2016: Parasitology Research
Csaba Szekely, Stephen D Atkinson, Kalman Molnar, Laszlo Egyed, Andras Gubanyi, Gabor Cech
Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S...
2016: Folia Parasitologica
Barbara Forro, Edit Eszterbauer
Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 (Myxozoa) is capable of infecting and developing mature myxospores in several cyprinid species. However, M. pseudodispar isolates from different fish show up to 5% differences in the SSU rDNA sequences. This is an unusually large intraspecific difference for myxozoans and only some of the muscle-dwelling myxozoan species possess such a high genetic variability. We intended to study the correlation between the host specificity and the phylogenetic relationship of the parasite isolates, and to find experimental proof for the putatively wide host range of M...
2016: Folia Parasitologica
A Özer, C T Gürkanlı, H Özkan, G Acar, Y Çiftçi, V Yurakhno
Members of the phylum Myxozoa are among the most cosmopolitan parasites of fish, and the genus Myxobolus is the largest within the class Myxosporea in freshwater and marine environment from all over the world. Myxobolus parvus has been reported from mainly mugilid fishes from different localities including the Black Sea. Leaping mullet Liza saliens collected by fishermen off Sinop coasts of the Black Sea in the period between September 2014 and December 2015 was investigated for myxosporean parasites using conventional methods...
September 2016: Parasitology Research
José Ledamir Sindeaux, Michele Velasco, José Mauro Vianna da Silva, Patricia de Fátima Saco Dos Santos, Osimar Sanches, Patricia Matos, Edilson Matos
The genus Myxobolus, parasites that infect fishes, which cause myxobolosis, includes spore organisms belonging to the phylum Myxozoa and represents approximately 36% of all species described for the entire phylum. This study describes lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Myxobolus sp. infection in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system, CNS) of Eigenmannia sp., from the Amazon estuary region, in the Administrative District of Outeiro (DAOUT), Belém, Pará, Brazil. In May and June 2015, 40 Eigenmannia sp...
April 12, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Kareem Morsy, Margit Semmler, Ebtsam Al-Olayan, Heinz Mehlhorn
The phylum Myxozoa comprises more than 2180 species, almost all of which are considered to be obligate parasites of aquatic fishes. In the present study, Henneguya collaris sp. nov. is the first described histozoic myxozoan species of the genus Henneguya infecting the kidney of the greenband parrotfish Scarus collana (Actinopterygii, Scaridae). One hundred and eighty specimens of fish were collected randomly during the period from September 2014 to October 2015 from boat landing sites and the market places at Hurghada City along the Red Sea in Egypt...
June 2016: Parasitology Research
Luis F Rangel, Ricardo Castro, Sónia Rocha, Ricardo Severino, Graça Casal, Carlos Azevedo, Francisca Cavaleiro, Maria J Santos
Known life cycles of myxosporean parasites have two hosts, but very few life cycles have been disclosed, especially in the marine environment. Sphaerospora dicentrarchi Sitjà-Bobadilla and Álvarez-Pellitero, 1992 is a systemic parasite from the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758), a highly valuable commercial fish. It affects its health, leading to aquaculture production losses. During 2013 and 2014, an actinospore survey was conducted in a total of 5942 annelids collected from a fish farm in Algarve and from the Aveiro Estuary, in Portugal...
July 2016: Parasitology
A Özer, H Özkan, C T Gürkanlı, V Yurakhno, Y Çiftçi
Myxosporeans of the genus Henneguya have a global distribution and infect organs and tissues of both marine and freshwater fishes. Here we describe the morphological, histological and molecular characteristics of Henneguya sinova sp. nov. parasitizing the gill arches of tentacled blenny Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes: Blenniidae) collected from the coast of Sinop on the Black Sea in Turkey. Several oval whitish plasmodia of different sizes in the gill arches of fish were found. The mature spores were rounded oval in frontal view, with a mean (range) total length 57...
March 30, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Patrick D Mathews, Antônio A M Maia, Edson A Adriano
Myxobolus niger n. sp. (Myxozoa) is described in the connective tissue of the serosa layer of the gill arch of Corydoras melini (Callichthyidae) captured from the Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil. The prevalence of the parasite was 20% and the range intensity was 1-2 cysts per fish. The plasmodia were white and spherical to ellipsoidal, measuring 175 μm in diameter and were surrounded by a well-defined capsule of host connective tissue, with distinct delicate and interlaced collagen fibers. The myxospores body was ellipsoidal in frontal view and biconvex in sutural view...
June 2016: Acta Tropica
Luis F Rangel, Ricardo Castro, Sónia Rocha, Gábor Cech, Graça Casal, Carlos Azevedo, Csaba Székely, Francisca Cavaleiro, Maria J Santos
Ten new types of sphaeractinomyxon actinospores are morphologically and molecularly described from the coelomic cavity of two marine oligochaete hosts, Limnodriloides agnes (Hrabě, 1967) and Tubificoides pseudogaster (Dahl, 1960), from Aveiro estuary, Portugal. The smallest sphaeractinomyxon type measured 17 μm (length) × 19 μm (width) × 19 μm (apical diameter), whereas the largest type measured 61 μm × 76 μm × 80 μm. While considering the 10 types of sphaeractinomyxon, it was found that the number of spores developing inside pansporocysts varied between 1, 2, 4, and 8...
June 2016: Parasitology Research
Sang Phil Shin, Sho Shirakashi, Shogo Hamano, Keitaro Kato, Lissette Trejos Lasso, Hiroshi Yokoyama
Kudoa rayformis n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) was observed in the trunk muscle of Pacific sierra Scomberomorus sierra caught off the coast of Tonosi, Panama. The species formed pseudocysts in myofibers and infection was subclinical. The myxospores possessed four polar capsules and spore valves, one of which had a distinct filamentous extension. This unique morphological characteristic of the myxospore validated this as a new species of Kudoa. Genetically, K. rayformis n. sp. is closest to K. inornata, with 98% and 91% similarity in 18S and 28S rDNA, respectively, but its spore shape was clearly distinct...
May 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ekaterina V Raikova, Olga I Raikova
Polypodium hydriforme, the only species in Polypodiozoa, which is currently considered a class of Cnidaria, and likely a sister group to Medusozoa (together with Myxozoa), is a cnidarian adapted to intracellular parasitism inside sturgeon oocytes. Free-living P. hydriforme lives on river bottoms; it walks on supporting tentacles and uses sensory tentacles to capture food and bring it to the mouth. The nervous system of free-living P. hydriforme was studied by confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies to FMRF-amide and α-tubulin combined with phalloidin-staining of F-actin fibres...
April 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Lamjed Mansour, Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Ahmad F Tamihi, Saleh Al-Quraishy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Folia Parasitologica
Michele Velasco, Marcela Videira, Luciana de Cássia Silva do Nascimento, Patrícia Matos, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves, Edilson Matos
The present study describes light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular analyses of a myxosporid found parasitizing the gill region of the teleost fish Cichla temensis, collected from the Tocantins River, near Cametá, Pará State, Brazil. The prevalence of infection was 60 %. The spore-containing cysts that were located in the gill lamellae were oval and whitish. The spores had a mean length of 42.3 ± 0.65 μm; fusiform body, 12.8 ± 0.42-μm long and 8.6 ± 0.32-μm wide; each of the two valves exhibited a tapering tail of 29...
May 2016: Parasitology Research
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