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Mykola Ovcharenko, Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli, Giuseppe Castaldelli, Mattia Lanzoni, Luisa Giari
This paper provides histological and ultrastructural data on Myxobolus mugchelo (Myxozoa), a parasite of the intestinal wall of thinlip mullet Liza ramada from the Comacchio lagoons (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy). About 80% of the examined mullets were infected with this myxozoan. In histological sections, the plasmodia appeared rounded to ovoid and spindle shaped, measured 181.61 ± 97 × 122.79 ± 53.16 μm (mean ± standard deviation, SD) in size. Early sporogenic plasmodia were located primarily in the muscle layer where no pronounced inflammatory response was detected...
April 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
Ahmed Abd-Elfattah, Mansour El-Matbouli, Gokhlesh Kumar
Fredericella sultana is an invertebrate host of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. The bryozoan produces seed-like statoblasts to facilitate its persistence during unfavourable conditions. Statoblasts from infected bryozoans can harbor T. bryosalmonae and give rise to infected bryozoan colonies when conditions improve. We aimed in the present study to evaluate the integrity and viability of T. bryosalmonae-infected statoblasts after a range of harsh treatment conditions...
April 5, 2017: Veterinary Research
Dayana Yahalomi, Michal Haddas-Sasson, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Tamar Feldstein, Arik Diamant, Dorothée Huchon
Myxozoans are a large group of poorly characterized cnidarian parasites. To gain further insight into their evolution, we sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Enteromyxum leei and reevaluate the mt genome structure of Kudoa iwatai. While the typical animal mt genome is a compact, 13-25 kb, circular chromosome, the mt genome of E. leei was found to be fragmented into eight circular chromosomes of ∼23 kb, making it the largest described animal mt genome. Each chromosome was found to harbor a large non-coding region (∼15 kb), nearly identical between chromosomes...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Letícia Poblete Vidal, José Luis Luque
The myxozoan Henneguya friderici is a parasite of the gills, intestine, kidney and liver of Leporinus friderici, a characiform fish belonging to the family Anostomidae. Forty-two specimens of L. friderici that had been caught in the Mogi Guaçú River, state of São Paulo, were studied. Elongated white plasmodia were found in the gill filaments of 10 host specimens (24%). The mature spores had an ellipsoidal body with polar capsules of equal size and caudal length greater than body length. This study also described 18S rDNA sequencing of H...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Meejung Ahn, Seunghwan Won, Bongjo Kang, Po Gong, Eunho Yoo, Subramanian Dharaneedharan, Yeounghwan Jang
Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) myxospores infect the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, two popular commercially formulated anti-coccidial drugs (amprolium hydrochloride and toltrazuril) were serially diluted and incubated with purified mature Kudoa septempunctata myxospores. The viability of K. septempunctata spores was determined after a 2-day incubation followed by Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining, and scanning electron microscopy. Amprolium hydrochloride significantly decreased spore viability (18% of control) at a concentration of 920 μg/mL, whereas toltrazuril showed almost no effect (83% of control)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Subarna Ghosh, P K Bandyopadhyay
Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida, Myxobolidae) is an important parasitic protozoan of freshwater fishes reported from almost all over the world. The severity of infection may lead to mortality of the host fish. The present paper deals with the description of three new species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882, Myxobolus sonarpurensis sp. nov., Myxobolus elongatum sp. nov. and Myxobolus petalum sp. nov. from a freshwater minor carp Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) and major carp Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) respectively from West Bengal, India...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Subarna Ghosh, P K Bandyopadhyay
Three new species of Myxobolus are described from the mucous membrane around gill lamellae of carps of West Bengal. The new species have been named as M. muralidharani sp. n., M. nilimae sp. n. from Labeo rohita, and M. harpreetae sp. n. from Labeo bata respectively. Spores of M. muralidharani sp. n. measured 13.84 ± 0.049 (13-14) × 4.95-6 (5.35) µm, with two elongated equal sized polar capsules. Spores of M. nilimae sp. n. measured 15.9-17.1 (16.65) µm × 6.2-7.5 (6.9) µm, with two equal petal shaped polar capsules, 9...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Miroslava Palikova, Ivana Papezikova, Zdenka Markova, Stanislav Navratil, Jan Mares, Lukas Mares, Libor Vojtek, Pavel Hyrsl, Eva Jelinkova, Heike Schmidt-Posthaus
Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an endoparasitic disease of salmonid fish caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea). This study presents a comprehensive view on PKD development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at an intensive fish breeding facility, with focus on mortality, pathology/histopathology, haematological findings and immune functions. Diseased and reference fish were sampled monthly and time course of natural infection was followed up from the onset of clinical signs (September 2014) to full recovery (January 2015)...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Sónia Rocha, Graça Casal, Carlos Azevedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
Xinhua Liu, Congjie Hua, Qianqian Zhang, Yuanli Zhao, Dong Zhang, Jinyong Zhang
Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10...
January 10, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Chan-Hyeok Jeon, Jeung-Wan Do, U-Hwa Nam, Wi-Sik Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim
We developed a PCR assay targeting the 28S rDNA of Kudoa iwatai (Multivalvulida: Myxozoa) and investigated the prevalence of infection in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus, which is commercially an important aquaculture species in Korea, with this assay. Detection limit of the PCR assay was 2.5 fg/μl with plasmid DNA and 8.6 × 10(3) spores/ml with purified spores, respectively. This PCR assay did not amplify DNA of other Kudoa species (Kudoa septempunctata, Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) tested. Sliced muscles of whole body from 318 rock bream (wild and cultured) were examined by this PCR assay and also with the naked eyes...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
A Hartigan, I Estensoro, M Vancová, T Bílý, S Patra, E Eszterbauer, A S Holzer
Cellular motility is essential for microscopic parasites, it is used to reach the host, migrate through tissues, or evade host immune reactions. Many cells employ an evolutionary conserved motor protein- actin, to crawl or glide along a substrate. We describe the peculiar movement of Sphaerospora molnari, a myxozoan parasite with proliferating blood stages in its host, common carp. Myxozoa are highly adapted parasitic cnidarians alternately infecting vertebrates and invertebrates. S. molnari blood stages (SMBS) have developed a unique "dancing" behaviour, using the external membrane as a motility effector to rotate and move the cell...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Akihiro Kasai, Aogu Setsuda, Hiroshi Sato
Molecular genetic characterization using the ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene accrues a wealth of knowledge regarding the true nature of species diversity of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) and the biogeographical relationships of isolates from different host fish and sea areas. In the present study, we characterized morphologically and genetically three Kudoa spp. with four shell valves and polar capsules (SV/PC), forming pseudocysts in the myofiber of trunk muscles of Cheilodactylus zonatus or Acanthogobius hasta in the natural seawater around Japan...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
Sneha Patra, Ashlie Hartigan, David J Morris, Alena Kodádková, Astrid S Holzer
This paper provides the first detailed description of a Tetracapsuloides species, Tetracapsuloides vermiformis n. sp., with vermiform stages in the bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, and its experimental transmission from F. sultana to Cyprinus carpio. The suitability of morphological, biological and 18S rDNA sequence data for discrimination between malacosporean species is reviewed and recommendations are given for future descriptions. Presently, malacosporean species cannot be differentiated morphologically due to their cryptic nature and the lack of differential characters of spores and spore-forming stages in both hosts...
April 2017: Parasitology
E A Adriano, B Okamura
The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level...
February 2017: Parasitology
Mandira Saha, P K Bandyopadhyay
Severe infections by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genera Myxozoa are causing serious problems in ornamental fish reared in breeding farms. Histopathological study is being used for diagnosis of the severity of diseases. Myxozoan infections result in large scale histopathological damages in different fish tissues. No information is available regarding the histopathological changes of goldfish due to infection with myxozoans. The present study deals with the histopathological changes of the gill, fin, and skin of goldfish, infected with myxozoan parasites along with an ultrastructural study using scanning electron microscope...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
Xin-Hua Liu, Marina-D Batueva, Yuan-Li Zhao, Jin-Yong Zhang, Qian-Qian Zhang, Tong-Tong Li, Ai-Hua Li
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a well-known economically and ecologically important group of metazoan parasites, phylogenetically related to Cnidaria. High diversity of myxosporeans has been recorded in Russia and China; however, most of the species were solely morphologically characterised. Here, we identified a new gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus species and morphologically and molecularly compared the Russian and Chinese isolates of this new myxosporean. RESULTS: Myxobolus pronini n...
October 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jonathan Ben-David, Stephen D Atkinson, Yulia Pollak, Gilad Yossifon, Uri Shavit, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a speciose group of endoparasitic cnidarians that can cause severe ecological and economic effects. Although highly reduced compared to free-living cnidarians, myxozoans have retained the phylum-defining stinging organelles, known as cnidae or polar capsules, which are essential to initiating host infection. To explore the adaptations of myxozoan polar capsules, we compared the structure, firing process and content release mechanism of polar tubules in myxospores of three Myxobolus species including M...
October 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jorge Costa Eiras, Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto, Rubens Riscala Madi, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo, Cláudia Moura de Melo, Jônatas Dos Santos de Souza, José Antonio Picanço Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro Diniz
This study reports on Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the fish species Lutjanus analis, Bagre marinus, Aspistor luniscutis and Lutjanus jocu, which were caught in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil. The parasites formed oval plasmodia around the esophagus of L. analis, and elongated plasmodia inside the skeletal muscle of B. marinus, A. luniscutis and L. jocu. Host myoliquefaction was not observed in all the cases studied. The current study provides a morphological and morphometric description of each parasite as well as a comparison with all the species described worldwide...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Hannah Wünnemann, Astrid Sybille Holzer, Hana Pecková, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Ulrich Eskens, Michael Lierz
BACKGROUND: Wildlife repatriation represents an opportunity for parasites. Reintroduced hosts are expected to accumulate generalist parasites via spillover from reservoir hosts, whereas colonization with specialist parasites is unlikely. We address the question of how myxozoan parasites, which are characterized by a complex life-cycle alternating between annelids and fish, can invade a reintroduced fish species and determine the impact of a de novo invasion on parasite diversity. We investigated the case of the anadromous allis shad, Alosa alosa (L...
September 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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