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Viviana Izzo, Bruno Charlier, Elena Bloise, Marine Pingeon, Marianna Romano, Antonietta Finelli, Alfonso Vietri, Valeria Conti, Valentina Manzo, Maria Alfieri, Amelia Filippelli, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
Exposure of healthcare workers to anticancer drugs requires the combined action of environmental and biological monitoring to assess the effective level of exposure to these chemicals, to improve awareness and to avoid adverse health effects on this category of workers. Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs show different mechanisms of action due to diverse chemical structures; consequently, they differ in hydrophobicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therefore, the appearance, accumulation and elimination of each of these molecules in body fluids and tissues might be extremely variable; this prompts the need for a rapid and versatile analytical protocol for the biological monitoring of possible exposure of workers involved in the manipulation, administration and disposal of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sumandeep Rana, Sarah Kerrigan
PURPOSE: Synthetic cathinones are encountered in a variety of antemortem and postmortem forensic toxicology investigations. Earlier experimental studies using fortified urine have evaluated analyte, temperature and pH-dependent variables associated with their stability. The purpose of this study was to compare experimental findings with those obtained using authentic urine from cathinone users. METHODS: In this report we compare cathinone concentrations in 180 authentic unpreserved urine specimens, following known periods of refrigerated storage...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Mohd Faizal Ahmad, Muhammad Azrai Abu, Kah Teik Chew, Kun Leng Sheng, Mohd Asyraf Zakaria
A positive urine pregnancy test (UPT) with adnexal mass in ectopic pregnancy is not the ultimate diagnosis. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is about 27 per 1000 pregnancies [1]. On average, about 6-16% will present to an emergency department with first-trimester bleeding and abdominal pain [2]. On presenting with these symptoms with the simultaneous presence of an adnexal mass and an empty uterus, a UPT is of paramount importance to determine whether the symptoms are pregnancy related or not. When the UPT is positive, an ectopic pregnancy is not the only diagnosis as the rare entity of non-gestational ovarian choriocarcinoma (NGOC) should be considered...
March 20, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Michelle Hershman, Raymond Carmody, Unni K Udayasankar
History A 19-year-old woman with no pertinent medical history was brought to the emergency department after being found unconscious on her bathroom floor by her roommate. In the preceding weeks, she had reported intractable nausea and vomiting, for which she had been taking ondansetron. No other medications had been prescribed. The day prior to presentation, she had contacted her mother and described increasing confusion. Glasgow coma scale score on arrival in the emergency department was 4. Intravenous naloxone was administered, without immediate response...
April 2018: Radiology
Hitoshi Ono, Yasunari Kojima, Hiroshi Harada, Yoshikazu Abe, Takuro Endo, Mamoru Kobayashi
1. The pharmacokinetic and metabolite profiles of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 inhibitor designed to act only in the intestine, were investigated in rats. 2. Mizagliflozin administrated intravenously (0.3 mg/kg) and orally (3 mg/kg) declined with a short half-life (0.23 and 1.14 h, respectively). The absolute bioavailability was only 0.02%. Following intravenous administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (0.3 mg/kg), radioactivity in plasma was also rapidly declined. Up to 24 h after oral administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (1 mg/kg), radioactivity was recovered in the faeces (98...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Gislene Mitsue Namiyama, Gabriela Bastos Cabral, João Leandro Ferreira, Noemi Taniwaki, Ana Maria Sardinha Afonso, Isabella Rillo Lima, Luís Fernando Macedo de Brigido
A great variety of viruses which cause exanthema share other clinical manifestations, making the etiologic identification a very difficult task, relying exclusively on the clinical examination. Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In the present report, we described the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) particles in urine samples and also ZIKV isolation in SIRC cells from the urine of a patient in acute phase of suspected rubella disease...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Simeon U Springer, Chung-Hsin Chen, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Lu Li, Christopher Douville, Yuxuan Wang, Joshua David Cohen, Diana Taheri, Natalie Silliman, Joy Schaefer, Janine Ptak, Lisa Dobbyn, Maria Papoli, Isaac Kinde, Bahman Afsari, Aline C Tregnago, Stephania M Bezerra, Christopher VandenBussche, Kazutoshi Fujita, Dilek Ertoy, Isabela W Cunha, Lijia Yu, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Arthur P Grollman, Luis A Diaz, Rachel Karchin, Ludmila Danilova, Chao-Yuan Huang, Chia-Tung Shun, Robert J Turesky, Byeong Hwa Yun, Thomas A Rosenquist, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Ralph H Hruban, Cristian Tomasetti, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Ken W Kinzler, Bert Vogelstein, Kathleen G Dickman, George J Netto
Current non-invasive approaches for detection of urothelial cancers are suboptimal. We developed a test to detect urothelial neoplasms using DNA recovered from cells shed into urine. UroSEEK incorporates massive parallel sequencing assays for mutations in 11 genes and copy number changes on 39 chromosome arms. In 570 patients at risk for bladder cancer (BC), UroSEEK was positive in 83% of those who developed BC. Combined with cytology, UroSEEK detected 95% of patients who developed BC. Of 56 patients with upper tract urothelial cancer, 75% tested positive by UroSEEK, including 79% of those with non-invasive tumors...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Dae Young Lee, Ju-Hyun Kim, Hyun Joo Shim, Hyeon-Uk Jeong, Hye Suk Lee
The objective of this study was to determine the absorption, excretion, and metabolism of a novel, oral antihyperglycemic drug, evogliptin, in male rats and dogs. Plasma, urine, feces, and expired air samples were collected after a single oral dose administration of [14 C]evogliptin, samples were analyzed by measuring overall radioactivity levels using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and radioactivity levels were measured by utilizing LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total amounts of radioactivity excreted in urine, feces, and expired air up to 168 h after administration of [14 C]evogliptin tartrate to rats (30 mg evogliptin/kg) and dogs (10 mg evogliptin/kg) were 96...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Ji Su Kim, Ji Yeon Son, Kyeong Seok Kim, Hyun Jung Lim, Mee-Young Ahn, Seung Jun Kwack, Young-Mi Kim, Kwang Youl Lee, Jaewon Lee, Byung Mu Lee, Hyung Sik Kim
The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of hepatic damage on cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Thioacetamide (TAA, 150 mg/kg), a hepatotoxicant, was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 3 d prior to CDDP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. All animals were sacrificed 5 d after CDDP treatment, and urine or blood was obtained to measure various parameters. No significant changes in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were observed after CDDP treatment...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
M Angeles Tejero Hernández, Elena García Martínez, M José Arroyo Marin, Elena Gómez Guzmán
The cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as a situation in which therapy to relieve congestive symptoms of heart failure is limited by a decreased renal function. The resistance to conventional diuretic treatment makes difficult managing these patients. Tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist, has been used successfully in adults with this pathology but the experience with children is very limited. A five-year-old girl with renal failure waiting for a heart transplant is presented. Tolvaptan (0...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Zuzana Čadková, Jiřina Száková, Jana Tremlová, Oldřich Kopecký, Ondřej Žíla, Pavel Tlustoš
Se-Enriched defatted rapeseed (Se-DRS), a by-product of rapeseed oil production, is high in Se. This study aimed to detect possible changes in Se-metabolism after Se-DRS consumption and to assess its suitability as a Se supplement in monogaster feed. In this experiment, rats were fed three types of diets differing in Se-form: soybean meal, Se-salt and Se-DRS. Potential differences in Se-metabolism were evaluated based on the total Se concentrations along with non-protein Se speciation patterns in the urine and blood serum of the rats...
March 20, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Alina M Suciu, Dana A Crisan, Bogdan D Procopet, Corina I Radu, Carmen Socaciu, Marcel V Tantau, Horia O Stefanescu, Mircea Grigorescu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current management of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), especially for alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is still driven by liver biopsy. Therefore, the identification of novel and accurate noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of severity is important. Metabolomics, because it unravels changes closest to the phenotype, may represent the key for novel biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize potential metabolomic biomarkers for diagnosis, staging and severity assessment of ALD...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Ivana Mareković, Zrinka Bošnjak, Karla Jurić, Mario Ćorić, Sanja Popović-Grle
Nitroxoline (NTX), 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline is an oral antibiotic with mechanism of bacteriostatic activity that is based on chelation of divalent cations required for bacterial RNA polymerase. Susceptibility to NTX of 100 Escherichia coli urine isolates was determined at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb during September and October 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and the results were interpreted according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Xiangfen Cui, Hongguang Cheng, Xuelian Liu, Elisa Giubilato, Andrea Critto, Haixu Sun, Lei Zhang
Adverse health effects related to accumulative cadmium (Cd) exposure have aroused widespread attention from the public in China. Knowledge on the relationships between Cd exposure and early renal effects is particularly limited for children, who are more susceptible to absorbing metals than adults. A typical Cd-polluted area of South China was selected to determine the Cd exposure and related early renal effects of the general population, including children. In total, 211 children and 806 adults were enrolled in the study...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Antonella Sorrentino, Silvia Trotta, Anna Pia Colucci, Lucia Aventaggiato, Andrea Marzullo, Biagio Solarino
"Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia...
March 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Hiroki Nishiwaki, Takeshi Hasegawa, Megumi Shinji, Fujio Matsuo, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Hirofumi Makino, Fumihiko Koiwa, Akira Hishida
BACKGROUND: The practice patterns of exercise restrictions for patients with chronic kidney disease have not been adequately evaluated yet; thus, we examined them using a cross-sectional design and explored the factors related with those restrictions. METHODS: The Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort study was a multicentre cohort study of Japanese patients (age 20-75 years) living in Japan. We used the information in the questionnaire on the restriction of physical activities offered by physicians to the patients during enrolment...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Tomotaka Ando, Yoshitaka Okuhara, Yoshiyuki Orihara, Koichi Nishimura, Kyoko Yamamoto, Tohru Masuyama, Shinichi Hirotani
Recently, we and other group have reported that furosemide administration along with hypertonic saline solution enhanced diuretic efficiency of furosemide. However, little is known about factors which associated with high diuretic efficiency by hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy. To identify predictors of diuretic efficiency in the hypertonic saline solution with furosemide therapy, we recruited 30 consecutive hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients with volume overload (77 ± 10 years, systolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 15 ml/min/1...
March 19, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Sheela Swamy, William Barcella, Maria De Iorio, Kiren Gill, Rajvinder Khasriya, Anthony S Kupelian, Jennifer L Rohn, James Malone-Lee
PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may be associated with chronic urinary tract infection (UTI) undetected by routine diagnostic tests. Antimicrobial therapy might confer benefit for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 10 years, we treated patients with chronic LUTS. Pyuria was adopted as the principal biomarker of infection. Urinary leucocyte counts were recorded from microscopy of fresh midstream urine (MSU) samples. Antibiotics were prescribed and the prescription adjusted to achieve a measurable clinical response and a reduction in pyuria...
March 20, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Chun-Yuan Chen, Shan-Shan Rao, Lu Ren, Xiong-Ke Hu, Yi-Juan Tan, Yin Hu, Juan Luo, Yi-Wei Liu, Hao Yin, Jie Huang, Jia Cao, Zhen-Xing Wang, Zheng-Zhao Liu, Hao-Ming Liu, Si-Yuan Tang, Ran Xu, Hui Xie
Chronic non-healing wounds represent one of the most common complications of diabetes and need advanced treatment strategies. Exosomes are key mediators of cell paracrine action and can be directly utilized as therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. Here, we explored the effects of exosomes from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-Exos) on diabetic wound healing and the underlying mechanism. Methods: USCs were characterized by flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation potential analyses...
2018: Theranostics
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