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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915473/urine-proteomics-in-the-era-of-mass-spectrometry
#1
REVIEW
Ashley Beasley-Green
With the technological advances of mass spectrometry (MS)-based platforms, clinical proteomics is one of the most rapidly growing areas in biomedical research. Urine proteomics has become a popular subdiscipline of clinical proteomics because it is an ideal source for the discovery of noninvasive disease biomarkers. The urine proteome offers a comprehensive view of the local and systemic physiology since the proteome is primarily composed of proteins/peptides from the kidneys and plasma. The emergence of MS-based proteomic platforms as prominent bioanalytical tools in clinical applications has enhanced the identification of protein-based urinary biomarkers...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915472/pathomechanism-of-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome-and-mapping-the-heterogeneity-of-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a heterogeneous syndrome which is usually characterized by urinary frequency, nocturia, and bladder pain. Several pathomechanisms have been proposed, including uroepithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation, autoimmunity, and occult urinary tract infections. It is possible that an inflammatory process alters regulation of urothelial homeostasis and results in dysfunction of the bladder epithelium. Different phenotypes of IC/BPS have been explored including Hunner and non-Hunner type IC, hypersensitive bladder, and bladder pain both with and without functional somatic syndrome...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915449/common-variants-in-cldn14-are-associated-with-differential-excretion-of-magnesium-over-calcium-in-urine
#3
REVIEW
Tanguy Corre, Eric Olinger, Sarah E Harris, Michela Traglia, Sheila Ulivi, Stefania Lenarduzzi, Hendrica Belge, Sonia Youhanna, Natsuko Tokonami, Olivier Bonny, Pascal Houillier, Ozren Polasek, Ian J Deary, John M Starr, Daniela Toniolo, Paolo Gasparini, Peter Vollenweider, Caroline Hayward, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
The nature and importance of genetic factors regulating the differential handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) by the renal tubule in the general population are poorly defined. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio to identify associated common genetic variants. We included 9320 adults of European descent from four genetic isolates and three urban cohorts. Urinary magnesium and calcium concentrations were measured centrally in spot urine, and each study conducted linear regression analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio on ~2...
December 3, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915431/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices-application-of-ct-guided-biopsy-sampling
#4
Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Interpretation of postmortem morphine concentrations in forensic toxicology provides several pitfalls such as missing information on tolerance, analyte stability, or postmortem redistribution (PMR). Recently, it had been shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsies using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable strategy for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Using this technique, time-dependent PMR of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in 12 cases. At admission to the institute (t1), femoral and heart blood (right ventricle) as well as biopsies from the right lung, the right kidney, liver, spleen, and muscle tissue were collected...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915394/timelines-of-the-free-particle-and-fixed-particle-models-of-stone-formation-theoretical-and-experimental-investigations
#5
REVIEW
D J Kok, W Boellaard, Y Ridwan, V A Levchenko
Two major theories on renal stone formation will be reviewed, the "free-particle" and "fixed-particle" mechanisms. These theories combine data on intrinsic factors (inborn metabolic errors), extrinsic factors (diet), renal cell responses and the physico-chemistry and biochemistry of urine into mechanisms of stone formation. This paper describes the specific role of time in both mechanisms. The timeline of crystal- and stone formation was deducted from literature data and was measured for two stones using radioisotope decay analysis...
December 3, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915193/metabolic-fate-and-detectability-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-2-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25b-nbome-and-2-4-chloro-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25c-nbome-in-human-and-rat-urine-by-gc-ms
#6
Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Andreas E Stoever, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are potent 5-HT2A receptor agonists that have been associated with inducing hallucinogenic effects in drug users and severe intoxications. This paper describes the identification of their metabolites in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-MS/MS, the comparison of metabolite formation in vitro and in vivo and in different species, the general involvement of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes on their metabolism steps, and their detectability by standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), or LC-HR-MS/MS...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915192/the-profiling-of-the-metabolites-of-hirsutine-in-rat-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-linear-ion-trap-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-an-improved-strategy-for-the-systematic-screening-and-identification-of-metabolites-in-multi-samples
#7
Jianwei Wang, Peng Qi, Jinjun Hou, Yao Shen, Min Yang, Qirui Bi, Yanping Deng, Xiaojian Shi, Ruihong Feng, Zijin Feng, Wanying Wu, Dean Guo
Drug metabolites identification and construction of metabolic profile are meaningful work for the drug discovery and development. The great challenge during this process is the work of the structural clarification of possible metabolites in the complicated biological matrix, which often resulting in a huge amount data sets, especially in multi-samples in vivo. Analyzing these complex data manually is time-consuming and laborious. The object of this study was to develop a practical strategy for screening and identifying of metabolites from multiple biological samples efficiently...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914999/dual-therapy-for-refractory-overactive-bladder-in-children-a-prospective-open-label-study
#8
Fannie Morin, Anne-Sophie Blais, Geneviève Nadeau, Katherine Moore, Lucie Genois, Stéphane Bolduc
PURPOSE: Mirabegron (β3-adrenoreceptor agonist) is a new molecule with a distinct mechanism of action from antimuscarinics. Combination therapy with solifenacin was recently studied in adult population. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirabegron as add-on therapy, to treat urinary incontinence in children with idiopathic OAB, refractory/intolerant to antimuscarinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective off-label study using add-on regimens of mirabegron was conducted with pediatric patients presenting no symptom improvement under intensive behavioural and medical therapies and/or significant side effects (S/E) on antimuscarinic dose escalation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914868/determination-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-urine-samples-indicates-frequent-dietary-exposure-to-aflatoxin-b1-in-the-bangladeshi-population
#9
Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Khaled Hossain, Gisela H Degen
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a hepatocarcinogen and highly toxic mycotoxin, is a contaminant of food commodities, especially in hot and humid climates that favour the growth of aflatoxin-producing fungi. As data on AFB1 contamination of food and feed in Bangladesh are scarce, we conducted an initial screening by ELISA on the occurrence of the metabolite and biomarker aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in urines from Bangladesh which indicated frequent exposure. This finding led us to conduct a follow-up study where we applied a more sensitive method (IAC clean-up and HPLC-FD analysis) to determine AFM1 concentrations in a larger set of urine samples...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914867/new-hbm-values-for-emerging-substances-inventory-of-reference-and-hbm-values-in-force-and-working-principles-of-the-german-human-biomonitoring-commission
#10
REVIEW
Petra Apel, Jürgen Angerer, Michael Wilhelm, Marike Kolossa-Gehring
The German Human Biomonitoring Commission (HBM Commission) derives health-related guidance values (Human Biomonitoring assessment values, HBM values) according to the procedures described in the HBM Commission's position papers. Since the last adaption of the methodology in 2014, the HBM Commission has established a series of new HBM values, mainly on the basis of internationally agreed TDI/RfD values, or of toxicologically well- founded points of departure observed in animal studies. The derivation of these new HBM values for HBCDD, triclosan, 2-MBT, PFOA and PFOS as well as for the metabolites of glycol ethers, of Hexamoll(®) DINCH(®), DPHP, DEHTP, NMP, NEP, and 4-MBC is specified, and the HBM values are presented together with already established HBM values for other substances...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914711/proteomic-based-research-strategy-identified-laminin-subunit-alpha-2-as-a-potential-urinary-specific-biomarker-for-the-medullary-sponge-kidney-disease
#11
Antonia Fabris, Maurizio Bruschi, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Nadia Antonucci, Andrea Petretto, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) disease, a rare kidney malformation featuring recurrent renal stones and nephrocalcinosis, continues to be diagnosed using expensive and time-consuming clinical/instrumental tests (mainly urography). Currently, no molecular diagnostic biomarkers are available. To identify such we employed a proteomic-based research strategy utilizing urine from 22 patients with MSK and 22 patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN) as controls. Notably, two patients with ICN presented cysts...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914710/higher-net-acid-excretion-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-kidney-disease-progression-in-patients-with%C3%A2-diabetes
#12
Julia J Scialla, John Asplin, Mirela Dobre, Alex R Chang, James Lash, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Radhakrishna R Kallem, L Lee Hamm, Harold I Feldman, Jing Chen, Lawrence J Appel, Cheryl A M Anderson, Myles Wolf
Higher diet-dependent nonvolatile acid load is associated with faster chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but most studies have used estimated acid load or measured only components of the gold standard, net acid excretion (NAE). Here we measured NAE as the sum of urine ammonium and titratable acidity in 24-hour urines from a random subset of 980 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. In multivariable models accounting for demographics, comorbidity and kidney function, higher NAE was significantly associated with lower serum bicarbonate (0...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914708/generation-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-mice-lacking-all-urea-transporters
#13
Tao Jiang, Yingjie Li, Anita T Layton, Weiling Wang, Yi Sun, Min Li, Hong Zhou, Baoxue Yang
Urea transporters (UT) are a family of transmembrane urea-selective channel proteins expressed in multiple tissues and play an important role in the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. UT inhibitors have diuretic activity and could be developed as novel diuretics. To determine if functional deficiency of all UTs in all tissues causes physiological abnormality, we established a novel mouse model in which all UTs were knocked out by deleting an 87 kb of DNA fragment containing most parts of Slc14a1 and Slc14a2 genes...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914704/kidney-outcomes-three-years-after-bariatric-surgery-in-severely-obese-adolescents
#14
Edward J Nehus, Jane C Khoury, Thomas H Inge, Nianzhou Xiao, Todd M Jenkins, Marva M Moxey-Mims, Mark M Mitsnefes
A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery have evidence of early kidney damage. To determine if kidney injury is reversible following bariatric surgery, we investigated renal outcomes in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery cohort, a prospective multicenter study of 242 severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Primary outcomes of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated preoperatively and up to 3 years following bariatric surgery...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914612/dexamethasone-induced-diuresis-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-rats
#15
Chao Liu, Ning Ge, Jian-Long Zhai, Jian-Xin Zhang
In heart failure (HF) patients, diuretics remain the cornerstone of therapy to relieve fluid retention. However, the resulting volume loss activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which blunts the decline in volume depletion and blood pressure. RAAS activation, in turn, compromises the diuretic decongesting effect. Although corticosteroids can induce potent diuresis in HF patients, the effects of corticosteroids on RAAS activation remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) on urine output and plasma angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in rats following water deprivation-induced dehydration, following induction of chronic HF (CHF), and following induction of CHF and volume expansion therapy...
December 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914528/food-advanced-glycation-end-products-aggravate-the-diabetic-vascular-complications-via-modulating-the-ages-rage-pathway
#16
Xing Lv, Gao-Hong Lv, Guo-Ying Dai, Hong-Mei Sun, Hui-Qin Xu
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-advanced glycation end products (AGEs) diet on diabetic vascular complications. The Streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were fed with high-AGEs diet. Diabetic characteristics, indicators of renal and cardiovascular functions, and pathohistology of pancreas, heart and renal were evaluated. AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway parameters were determined. During the experiments, the diabetic mice exhibited typical characteristics including weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, high-blood glucose, and low-serum insulin levels...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914268/anti-adhesive-antimicrobial-peptide-coating-prevents-catheter-associated-infection-in-a-mouse-urinary-infection-model
#17
Kai Yu, Joey C Y Lo, Mei Yan, Xiaoqiang Yang, Donald E Brooks, Robert E W Hancock, Dirk Lange, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent one of the most common hospital acquired infections with significant economic consequences and increased patient morbidity. CAUTIs often start with pathogen adhesion and colonization on the catheter surface followed by biofilm formation. Current strategies to prevent CAUTIs are insufficiently effective and antimicrobial coatings based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise in curbing CAUTIs. Here we report an effective surface tethering strategy to prepare AMP coatings on polyurethane (PU), a common biomedical plastic used for catheter manufacture, by using an anti-adhesive hydrophilic polymer coating...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914242/molecular-lipid-species-in-urinary-exosomes-as-potential-prostate-cancer-biomarkers
#18
Tore Skotland, Kim Ekroos, Dimple Kauhanen, Helena Simolin, Therese Seierstad, Viktor Berge, Kirsten Sandvig, Alicia Llorente
BACKGROUND: Exosomes have recently appeared as a novel source of noninvasive cancer biomarkers, since these nanovesicles contain molecules from cancer cells and can be detected in biofluids. We have here investigated the potential use of lipids in urinary exosomes as prostate cancer biomarkers. METHODS: A high-throughput mass spectrometry quantitative lipidomic analysis was performed to reveal the lipid composition of urinary exosomes in prostate cancer patients and healthy controls...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914106/effect-of-cranberry-extract-on-the-frequency-of-bacteriuria-in-dogs-with-acute-thoracolumbar-disk-herniation-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
N J Olby, S L Vaden, K Williams, E H Griffith, T Harris, C L Mariani, K R Muñana, P J Early, S R Platt, L Boozer, C Giovanella, R Longshore
BACKGROUND: Dogs with spinal cord injury are at increased risk of developing bacteriuria due to increased residual urine volume. Cranberry extract inhibits binding of E. coli to uroepithelial cells, potentially reducing risk of bacteriuria. HYPOTHESIS: Cranberry extract reduces risk of bacteriuria in dogs after acute TL-IVDH. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with acute onset TL-IVDH causing nonambulatory status. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, prospective clinical trial...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913867/comparison-of-different-concepts-for-interpretation-of-chromosomal-aberrations-in-urothelial-cells-detected-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#20
Johannes Mischinger, Lutz Philipp Guttenberg, Jörg Hennenlotter, Georgios Gakis, Stefan Aufderklamm, Steffen Rausch, Eva Neumann, Jens Bedke, Stefan Kruck, Christian Schwentner, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer
PURPOSE: Urine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a broadly used marker for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer (BC). However, it has been discussed whether the interpretation algorithm proposed by the manufacturer could be improved. Aim of the present study was to compare alternative evaluation strategies of FISH for detection of BC. METHODS: We included 1048 patients suspicious for BC, who underwent urine FISH examination before cystoscopy (diagnostic cohort)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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