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Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
N Kantaria, I Pantsulaia, I Andronikashvili, G Simonia
This investigation differentiates types of essential hypertension in a Georgian population as well as describes endogenous cardiotonic steroids in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subjects. This case control study included 185 subjects: 94 cases with stage 1 essential hypertension (JNC7) naïve to antihypertensive treatment, and 91 controls. A salt-sensitivity test was used to dichotomize case and control groups into salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subgroups. Blood and urine samples were obtained to categorize participants as consuming high and low salt diets...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
N Kantaria, I Pantsulaia, I Andronikashvili, G Simonia
It has been known that salt-sensitivity of blood pressure is defined genetically as well as can be developed secondary to either decreased renal function or by influence of other environmental factors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible mechanism for the development of salt-sensitive essential hypertension in the population of Georgia. The Case-Control study included 185 subjects, 94 cases with Essential Hypertension stage I (JNC7) without prior antihypertensive treatment, and 91 controls. Salt-sensitivity test was used to divide both case and control groups into salt-sensitive (n=112) and salt-resistant (n=73) subgroups...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Matthew Hanson, Peter Zahradka, Carla G Taylor, Michel Aliani
PURPOSE: Urine samples were obtained from a previously completed study that showed lentil consumption attenuates the increase in blood pressure that occurs over time in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The objective of the present study was to compare the metabolite profile of the urine samples from control and lentil-fed SHR in relation to the compounds present in lentils but not in other pulses. METHODS: The urine samples were from 17-week-old, male SHR fed semi-purified diet prepared with powder (30 %, w/w) from cooked whole pulses or a pulse-free control diet (n = 8/group) for 4 weeks...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Manisha Balwani, Preeti Singh, Anju Seth, Ekta Malik Debnath, Hetanshi Naik, Dana Doheny, Brenden Chen, Makiko Yasuda, Robert J Desnick
Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error of heme metabolism, typically presents in adulthood, most often in women in the reproductive age group. There are limited reports on the clinical presentation in children, and in contrast to the adults, most of the reported pediatric cases are male. While acute abdominal pain is the most common presenting symptom in children, seizures are commonly seen and may precede the diagnosis of AIP. As an example, we report a 9year old developmentally normal pre-pubertal boy who presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation followed by hyponatremia, seizures, weakness and neuropathy...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Ana S Cravo, Jim Bush, Girish Sharma, Rebecca Savioz, Claire Martin, Simon Craige, Tanvir Walele
A randomised, parallel group clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety profile of an e-vapour product (EVP; 2.0% nicotine) in smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) switching to use the EVP for 12 weeks. During the study, no clinically significant product-related findings were observed in terms of vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests and standard clinical laboratory parameters. Adverse events (AEs) reported by EVP subjects were more frequent during the first week after switching to the EVP...
October 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Drew A Torigian, Judith Green-McKenzie, Xianling Liu, Frances S Shofer, Thomas Werner, Catherine E Smith, Andrew A Strasser, Mateen C Moghbel, Ami H Parekh, Grace Choi, Marcus D Goncalves, Natalie Spaccarelli, Saied Gholami, Prithvi S Kumar, Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Clementina Mesaros, Abass Alavi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to systematically detect and quantify differential effects of chronic tobacco use in organs of the whole body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy male subjects (10 nonsmokers and 10 chronic heavy smokers) were enrolled. Subjects underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT, diagnostic unenhanced chest CT, mini-mental state examination, urine testing for oxidative stress, and serum testing...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
Melis Kant, Merve Akış, Mehmet Çalan, Tuğba Arkan, Fırat Bayraktar, Miral Dizdaroglu, Hüray İşlekel
Prediabetes is the preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with intermediate state of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia results in a state of oxidative stress, which may contribute to the production of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and long-term complications of diabetes. Novel approaches are required for prevention and treatment of diabetes. New biomarkers that can be used in risk stratification and therapy control as supplementary to current parameters are needed. These biomarkers may facilitate a more individualized and sufficient treatment of diabetes...
September 26, 2016: DNA Repair
Ziliang Wang, Dekun Li, Maohua Miao, Hong Liang, Jianping Chen, Zhijun Zhou, Chunhua Wu, Wei Yuan
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor and is found in many consumer products. Animal studies suggest that BPA may perturb pubertal development in males, although studies in humans are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between BPA exposure and pubertal onset and progression among school-aged boys in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A total of 671 boys aged 9-18 years from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school) in Shanghai were enrolled in a cross-sectional study...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Richard J Hamilton, Vadim Keyfes, Sahil S Banka
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are recreational designer drugs intended to mimic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol while surreptitiously circumventing classification by the Drug Enforcement Administration. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old black male arrived in the Emergency Department transported by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for altered mental status after complaining of chest pain associated with smoking SCs. EMS found the patient with an empty foil pack labeled "Scooby Snax Limited Edition Blueberry Potpourri...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kamila Borowczyk, Grażyna Chwatko, Paweł Kubalczyk, Hieronim Jakubowski, Jolanta Kubalska, Rafał Głowacki
A fast and simple HPLC-based assay has been developed for the simultaneous determination of homocysteine (Hcy) and methionine (Met) in plasma and urine samples, utilizing as small volume of sample as 10μL. The assay uses on-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde. The separation of Hcy and Met was achieved in 14min on a reversed phase C-18 column, followed by fluorescence detection (excitation at 348nm and emission at 438nm for Met; excitation at 370nm and emission at 480nm for Hcy). Linearity of the detector response was observed in the range of 2-60 μmol L(-1) for Met and 2-40 μmol L(-1) for Hcy...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Bilal Demir, Tulay Yilmaz, Emine Guler, Z Pinar Gumus, Huseyin Akbulut, Ebru Aldemir, Hakan Coskunol, Demet Goen Colak, Ioan Cianga, Shuhei Yamada, Suna Timur, Takeshi Endo, Yusuf Yagci
Affinity-type sensors have emerged as outstanding platforms in the detection of diagnostic protein markers, nucleic acids and drugs. Thus, these novel platforms containing antibodies could be integrated into the monitoring systems for abused drugs. Herein, we established a novel detection platform for the analysis of a common illicit drug; methamphetamine (METH). Initially, a fluorescent-labeled polypeptide (EDOT-BTDA-Pala), derived from L-alanine N-carboxyanhydride (L-Ala-NCA) via ring-opening polymerization using 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-5,6-diamine (EDOT-NH2-BTDA) as initiator, was employed as a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covering host, in order to immobilize the METH-selective antibody...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Rosy, Rajendra N Goyal
A voltammetric sensor for the determination of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); an important, sensitive and integral biomarker of oxidative stress and related pathological conditions like carcinogenesis, renal disorders, mental retardations, diabetes etc. has been fabricated. The synergistic behavior of two allotropic forms of carbon, which are electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), has been exploited for the surface modification. The resulting modified surface has been characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and voltammetric behavior...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yan Zhang, Jingjing Jiang, Min Li, Pengfei Gao, Ying Zhou, Guomei Zhang, Shaomin Shuang, Chuan Dong
Herein, a novel, high sensitive, and specific colorimetric sensor for cysteine (Cys) based on pectinase protected gold nanoparticles (P@AuNPs) has been demonstrated for the first time. The P@AuNPs were synthesized by "MW-assisted heat method" and were characterized by UV-vis, TEM, FT-IR and zeta potential techniques. Cys could cause the aggregation of P@AuNPs due to formation of the strong covalent Au-S bond and electrostatic binding. As the Cys concentration increased, the color of the solutions gradually changed from wine-red to blue as well as the large absorption band shifted from 523 to 650nm upon P@AuNPs aggregation...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Jiamian Wang, Jie Song, Xiuyun Wang, Shuo Wu, Yanqiu Zhao, Pinchen Luo, Changgong Meng
A label-free ratiometric fluorescence aptasensor has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of cocaine in complex biofluids. The fluorescent aptasensor is composed of a non-labeled GC-38 cocaine aptamer which serves as a basic sensing unit and two fluorophores, 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine (ATMND) and SYBR Green I (SGI) which serves as a signal reporter and a build-in reference, respectively. The detection principle is based on a specific cocaine mediated ATMND displacement reaction and the corresponding change in the fluorescence ratio of ATMND to SGI...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Ademar Wong, Tiago Almeida Silva, Fernando Campanhã Vicentini, Orlando Fatibello-Filho
New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work by exploring the interesting properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ionic liquids (ILs). An electrochemical sensor based on the carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with GO and IL was developed for the sensitive detection of ofloxacin using square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry (SWAdASV). GO sheets were obtained from the acid treatment of graphene and characterized by scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the electrochemical behavior of the modified GO-IL/CPE was explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Huifang Zhang, Sheng Hu, Dandan Song, Hui Xu
In this paper, a novel polydopamine modified polystyrene/graphene electrospun nanofiber membrane (PS/G@PDA) was fabricated on the surface of filter paper and used for thin film microextraction (TFME) for the first time. Benefiting from the hydrophilic polydopamine (PDA) coating and the porous fibrous structure, the PS/G@PDA membrane exhibited large surface area, high extraction efficiency, rapid extraction equilibrium, special selectivity and excellent biocompatibility. A thin film microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and applied for the analysis of six aldehyde metabolites in human urine samples...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Alison D Gernand, Rina Rani Paul, Barkat Ullah, Muhammad A Taher, Frank R Witter, Lee Wu, Alain B Labrique, Keith P West, Parul Christian
BACKGROUND: The best method of gestational age assessment is by ultrasound in the first trimester; however, this method is impractical in large field trials in rural areas. Our objective was to assess the validity of gestational age estimated from prospectively collected date of last menstrual period (LMP) using crown-rump length (CRL) measured in early pregnancy by ultrasound. METHODS: As part of a large, cluster-randomized, controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, we collected dates of LMP by recall and as marked on a calendar every 5 weeks in women likely to become pregnant...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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